Archives of the finishing.com Hotline
Topics/Threads 7000 to 7999
The finishing.com Hotline includes more than 60,000 Shop Problems, Q&A's and RFQs about metal finishing. This page is an archive of a thousand of those discussions. You may prefer to start at our Home page, view the most recent threads, or search the site.
7000. Need state of art micro deburring method for SS416 parts
7001. Will electropolishing help remove silver from our handling dies?
7002. Specialty finishes for structural stainless steel cable
7007. Tin plating over aluminum in barrel?
7010. Needs product to prevent/stop rust on car
7012. Problem with Tarnishing of Silver plated buttons
7013. Jewelry Plating - Help Needed
7014. Plating tank heaters
7016. Repair reflective surface of large mirror
7017. Zinc coating corrosion prevention
7020. Lowering the average surface roughness of hardcoated aluminum casting
7021. Seeking expert witness in chrome plating lawsuit
7022. Way to strip plated silver off copper
7023. Passivation time limits for pre-bond treatment of stainless
7024. UBAC Bright Acid Copper High Speed
7025. Need info about Kanigen process
7030. Want info about Electropainting of car bodies
7031. Want to import copper and brass waste products
7032. Need color chart book for RAL standard system
7035. Want my plastic dirt bike parts vacuum metallized
7036. Refinishing painted or anodized mountain bike components
7037. Wipe on silver replating
7040. Removing salt stains from chrome rims
7041. Etching aluminum to reveal microstructure
7042. Which Electroplating Solution is best?
7043. Electroplating for high school students
7046. What is inhibited HCl? Which inhibitor to use?
7047. Non HF Ti Etch?
7049. Rotating Hard Chrome Plating
7050. Gold plating on top of Chrome layer
7051. Iron contaminated Cobalt Hardened Gold Plating Bath
7054. Contaminants in Tin/Lead Solder
7056. Want to buy a chroming machine
7057. Need product to remove copper oxidation
7058. Tarnishing coins for science project
7059. Electroless copper plating on silicon microstructures
7060. Want to know 'k' value of aluminum alloy
7061. Information on resurfacing 440C wear surfaces
7063. Recovery of copper from electroplating and etching
7064. Cleaning evaporators
7067. Stop corrosion of aluminum air cylinder
7068. Anodization of titanium for biocompatibility
7070. Nickel plating failing 96 hour salt spray test
7071. Want galvanic activity chart
7072. Info requested on Muriatic acid
7073. How to rust an Altoids' tin
7074. Power supply for aluminum anodizing at home -- welder, PC supply?
7075. How to color the nickel/silver hardware on our custom fly rods
7076. Corrosion of Spanish solar cells by iode/iodine solution
7077. Information on black nickel plating
7078. Plating on Tellurium Copper
7079. Galvanizing Ductile Iron Castings
7085. Abrasion test [hardness test] for SNpB plating
7086. Pitch Diameter increase of zinc plated threaded parts
7089. Etchants for Cu-Ag alloys
7090. D2 Tool Steel To Make A Sword Blade
7091. Should I paint Aluminium Patio Cover
7092. Paint process for anodized aluminium
7093. Chemical formula for copper plating
7096. Hot Dip v. Electroplating v. Phosphating for Indian Valve Manufacturer
7097. Can our dies for paper & plastic tubes be built of titanium instead of stainless?
7099. Help ... yet MORE dead hypothetical fish!
7100. Stainless Steel polishing method for precision seals
7102. Hydrogen embrittlement of 4340 steel
7103. Electroless Nickel Plating Anodic Protection Problem
7106. Removing nylon coating from steel
7108. Immersion UT procedures
7109. Want modulus of elasticity for aluminum alloy
7110. Copper Finishing "Cobratech" Dip
7111. Copper Sheet Coloring
7112. Cutting and deburring stainless steel capillary tube
7117. Corrosion of SS316 in a Saudi Arabian seawater RO desalination plant
7120. Stainless steel chemical etching
7122. Aluminum Extrusion surface refinishing?
7124. Nickel Buildup In Bright Nickel Solutions
7127. Seeking Electroless Nickel Plating Kits
7131. Poisoning a society with cyanide and not knowing
7132. How to make plastic plating tanks
7133. Messy air diaphragm pumps
7134. Mil-Spec for Coating Thickness for Anodize
7135. Fluorine Resin KH-21 & ZMC3
7136. Stainless steel that is magnetic?
7137. Cleaning gold-tone flatware
7138. Can I weld zinc plated and chromated hinges?
7141. Trying to Find Twinkle Copper Cleaner
7143. Seeking chemicals for anodizing
7144. Tests for concentration aluminium in liquids
7146. Metal recovery from electroplating sludge
7147. Seeking tin-oxide coated soda-lime glass
7149. Simple gold plating
7151. What tools and machinery needed to polish aluminum?
7152. Magnesium coating/finishing/plating--what is out there?
7153. Understanding the Methods & Parameters for Anodizing Architectural Aluminum
7155. Throwing power of cyanide zinc plating solution
7161. Olive drab passivation problem
7162. Chemical formula of chromating solutions
7164. Is galvanized steel poisonous?
7165. Helping luster on old wood furniture
7166. Black Chrome Plating aluminum auto wheels?
7167. How to get copper from copper sulphate
7168. Copper plating industry wastewater capacities and copper concentrations
7169. Surface Finish In ECM
7173. Powder Coating complicated piece, how to?
7177. Value of concentrated metals obtained from electroplating wastes
7178. Mirror resilvering
7179. Wants brochure about nickel plating
7180. Turning Brass dark
7181. Cleaning pennies
7184. Hard Chrome process/facilities
7186. Restoring smooth finish to stainless steel nameplates
7187. Polishing intricate carbide punches
7191. Degreasing of aluminum foil
7192. Measurement of EN for R&R study
7193. Chem Film does not appear to coat holes made after plating
7194. Relieving parts: how long, how hot?
7196. Recovering silver from photographic fixer
7201. White Alimite - what is it?
7202. Eliminating old musty smell
7203. Gas log fireplace adaptor
7205. Help with starting a chrome plating business
7209. Testing jewelry as science project
7210. Seeking hollow poly balls
7213. Corrosion of SS316 anodes in Silver Cyanide leaching solution
7219. Zinc/Cobalt alloy plating to pass thermal test
7221. Using a pen plating system to bond gold-plated parts
7225. Coating for Glass Fibre composite Phenolic resin molded component
7227. How to strip anodizing before repolishing
7228. Propane gas fire logs won't stay lit
7229. How to refinish brass lamps
7232. Material or finish which is a flexible heat conductor?
7233. Procedure for cleaning Titanium Alloy before welding
7234. Maskant for EN, prior to anodizing
7235. Zinc plated barrels
7238. Seeking shop to chrome plate plastic, a.k.a. vacuum deposit?
7239. Bonding Steel To EDPM Rubber
7240. Streaky brass patina problem
7243. Require formulation of non chromate passivation
7244. Dissolve powder coating, solvent for powder coating
7245. Reducing COD in waste water
7246. Concerned aluminum polisher
7247. Barrel Plating Problems
7250. Use of Sodium Hydroxide - University Student
7253. What is alkaline blackening of steel?
7254. Alloy baseball bats
7259. Can Iron Phosphate be applied over Cast Iron?
7260. Sulphamate nickel grain refiner
7261. Gold electroplating for jewelry
7263. Help refinishing old fishing chair
7264. "Chroming" plastic miniature figures
7265. Refinishing of rusted silver cad hardware
7266. Magnesium+hydrochloric acid reactions
7268. Silkscreen on Powdercoating adhesion problem
7269. Masking during the Anodizing process
7270. Electroless Nickel plugs
7271. A-level work on effect of CuSO4 on the reaction of H2O2 and yeast
7272. Black Oxide Masking
7274. Anode Calculation for Chrome Plate Process
7275. Hard Chromium Plating on Nitrided Steels
7279. Build up pitted brass on sax before silver plating
7281. Material with very low coefficient of friction
7283. Picking a coating for a Ni surface
7284. Metal coating to cut cold PVC insulation
7287. DESPERATE NEED FOR 'NOXON' SILVER CLEANER
7288. How best to make my aluminum Porsche wheels black?
7289. Cleaning of very old French clock with Ormolu finish
7290. Dangers of heating zinc for science project
7295. Plating a non-conductive coating onto zinc die-castings
7297. Electrically Conductive Aluminum Anodizing
7299. Galvanizer is suffering excess dross
7300. Primer Compatibility to Hot Dip Galvanized Surface
7301. Want published refs. to E-Nickel salt spray performance
7302. Oxygen injection boiler water treatment
7304. Electroforming research for rapid prototyping
7306. Better control of set times for fiberglass mats
7307. Polishing polycarbonate with gaseous mixture
7308. Mystery blue titanium coating
7310. Coating to increase heat dissipation from stainless steel surface
7313. Stainless Steel Brush Finish Specifications
7315. Copper Residue in FeCl3 etchant
7316. Air Knifing Rinse Quality Impact On Iron Phosphatized HRS / CRS
7317. No oxidation inox 304/316 warranty certification
7318. How to achieve high-quality champagne colour anodizing
7319. Safer alternative to HF acid for aluminum brightening?
7321. Troubleshooting ideas for a variety of finishing processes
7326. Quality Policy/Surface Defect Catalog
7330. Is copper a problem in boiler feedwater?
7333. Aluminum prep prior to chrome plating
7334. Need product to shine brass cartridge cases in tumbler
7336. Looking for a way to bronze baby shoes too old for electroplating
7337. Stainless steel protection
7338. Please explain zinc dichromate plating
7339. Importance of hard gold in plating PWBs
7340. Lemon Juice/Science Fair Help
7341. Need plastic center caps for four wheels chromed cheap
7342. Evolution of the aluminum baseball bat
7343. Oxidation rate of copper and other metals
7345. Science class wants to know advantage of low current in Electroplating
7346. Question on Chrome Plating
7347. Which juice cleans pennies best
7349. Dry-Lube Coating Materials and Techniques
7350. Dull stainless steel after electropolishing....but I want it shiny!
7351. How to reduce nickel ion concentration in nickel bath
7352. Seeking sprayable iridescent paint
7353. Seeking high temperature semi-gloss paint for tractor mufflers
7355. Teflon Post Plate Treatment
7357. Small dichromate equip. possible?
7358. Help with plating tank height requirements
7359. How to paint plastic
7360. Explain the process of chromate conversion coating
7361. Painting metal school desks and plastic school chairs
7365. Seeking Slurry Hone [or comparable] process
7368. How to use steel pickling inhibitor?
7369. Sulfuric Anodizing Cathodes [lead vs. aluminum]
7371. Cause of yellow discoloration in anodized finish
7372. Relationship of Sn/Pb Plating Thickness with Current
7375. Polyacrylic Acid, cleaning, phosphating, metal pretreatment
7376. Hazards of laser cutting galvanized steel
7377. Support of anodizing tanks and grating
7378. Corroded Ti anode baskets in nickel sulfamate plating
7379. Information on chrome seal per PS 11501
7382. LOSS OF SILVER DURING ELECTROLYSIS
7383. Cleaning and Preservative products
7385. US10B Hardware Finish
7386. Need dry alternative to phosphate & oil
7388. Fine Polishing on rare metals [Tantalum] which method?
7390. Metal Polisher and Platers needed TERRIBLY
7394. Surface Preparation of Moly for Ni Plating
7395. Can Zinc be painted?
7397. Removing scratches from lacquer furniture
7398. Stripping chrome
7403. Biology of Copper Sulphate
7404. Electropolish Processing Vessel with Agitator
7407. Nickel in Steel
7410. Hydrogen Evolution in Electrolysis
7411. Material Properties for Aluminum Alloys
7412. Possible Coating[s] for aluminium to seal against Teflon o-ring
7418. Problems in Aluminum Brightener
7419. Nickel stress test
7420. Nickel vs. chromic acid plating
7423. Rustoleum paint not sticking to Ospho
7428. Sealing Question On Mil-A-8625 Type Three Class Two Anodizing
7429. Penetration And Growth Ratio on Aluminum Oxiding
7432. Cold Seal Adhesives
7437. Chrome Automotive Bumper Repair
7441. Hard Chrome Plating Aluminum
7445. Need Material Safety Data Sheet
7446. Remove rust on chrome?
7447. Why does silver tarnish?
7448. Cyanide Problems
7449. Electroplating on Polypropylene
7450. "Bubbles" in Chrome Plating on Plastic
7453. AuSn Eutecticum
7454. Streak & splotch trouble with hard anodize
7456. Rusty Penny
7457. Plating Problem
7458. Black and White Corrosion on Zinc Plating
7459. Real World Salt Spray Performance?
7460. Sherardizing vs Galvanizing
7463. Galvanic Corrosion between Gold Circuit Board and Aluminum
7464. Composition of Electroplating Wastewater
7465. Reducing sludging of Iron Phosphate Bath
7468. Seeking special electric Polishing/Buffing Tool
7469. Surface Finish standards & conversions
7475. Help with Delayed Blistering of Bright Tin Parts
7478. Chromic Acid
7482. Plating Bath for Platinum
7485. Silver Plating Brass
7493. FPL vs PAD
7500. Could electrowinning remove metals from electropolishing solution?
7501. Corrosion on Studs
7503. Removing Tarnish from Copper, Brass or Bronze
7505. Information needed on aluminum finishing tools & techniques
7511. White spotting problem on Black Chromate Process
7516. Seeking 32 microinch finish on CDA 110 Copper plates in volume
7518. How to etch 302 Stainless Steel to promote rubber adhesion
7519. Rugo Surface Finish and Hardness Scale Equivalents
7520. Establishing a Buffing Standard
7526. Chemical Polish Problem
7530. Want chroming spray for my rims
7531. Chemistry project on chlorine & gold
7533. PTFE Type Paint for Masking
7537. Seeking Powder Coating Suppliers
7543. Did I remove enough rust?
7544. Jones Reagent
7545. Seeking Cross Hole Chamfer inside Tubing
7546. Conductive Coating for Glass
7547. Scratches in black refrigerator
7550. Woodgrain Finish on Powder coating
7557. Conductive Coating
7560. EQUIVALENT SURFACE FINISH N5 N6 N7 N8 N9
7561. 300 vs 400 Passivation
7563. Electropolishing inside of Copper Tips
7564. Ti Anodizing Color Spectrum vs Oxide Thickness
7566. Measuring Anodic Coating Thickness
7567. Is Nikasil successful for Diesel Cylinders?
7574. How can I monitor the plating thickness of a part while it is being plated?
7575. Coated aluminum tubing to replace copper tubing
7576. How do I remedy suspected El Ni on eEl Ni galling?
7580. Plating the inside of 4130 tubing for rust prevention
7581. IR Absorbing Paint
7582. Conversion of Surface Finish
7583. How to choose a salt spray chamber?
7584. Conversion from baumé to S.G.
7585. Passivation Testing
7587. Cast iron grade for outside sculptures
7589. Cleaning Mirrored Brass Elevator
7605. Black Oxide vs Phosphate
7608. Oxalic Acid Anodizing of Aluminum
7609. Preserving magnesium metallic finish with clear coating--is this possible?
7613. High conductivity copper film
7614. Nickel Contamination in Methane Sulfonic Acid (MSA) Tin Baths
7615. Electroless or Immersion lead-tin plating process
7616. Color coding stainless steel
7617. Brush Plating Regulations
7618. Nitric and Sulphuric acid dilemma!
7619. Oven built for electrostatic painting
7620. Search for Particulate Silver Suspension or Better Idea
7624. Mechanical or Chemical Removal of Oxide Layers off a Ni-Fe Alloy
7625. Seeking shops that run Alodine 5200
7627. Iridite on Copper?
7630. Military Specifications
7635. Info Request
7637. Rust on Camper Steel Tubing Frame
7638. I need to know how to "age" the look of new chrome.
7640. Corrosion resistant light absorber [Selenium Atmosphere]
7642. Cleaning nickel clad finish
7644. How to do off-white anodic process
7647. Black chromium solution and anodes
7649. Need Thum Cell Voltage
7650. Nikisil plating inquiry
7652. Microsection vs XRF method for plating specification
7653. Hexchrome, COD vs BOD testing
7654. Chlorine resistant masking material/film
7656. Japan Finished chandelier, what is it?
7658. Bore Improvement in Long Hypodermic Needle Tubing
7663. Small [75 liter] Barrel Silver Bath
7666. Hot Dipped Galvanized G90 vs G60
7668. ELECTROPHORETIC LACQUER
7669. Corrosion in aluminium alloys 3003 and 3103
7671. Need Aged Look on Galvanized Roof
7672. Rit dye effective for anodizing?
7673. Making materials stick to Polyethylene
7675. Nickel-free plating operations with chrome or chrome-like finish
7677. Painting crankbaits
7680. Corrosion resistance of 2024 v.s.7075
7686. Antique Stickley Hand-Hammered Copper Bowl Cleaning and Repatination
7687. Can Blue Copper Sulphate harm an animals paws ..claws...or feet?
7691. Finishing Stainless Steel After Welding
7692. Splotches on hypotubes
7696. Alumilite 205 finish
7699. How to tint lacquer for aluminum articles
7704. Titanium or lead coating for plastic
7706. Request Information on Electropolishing
7711. Should paraffin based cutting oil cause our plating source problems?
7712. Crack on Small Galvannealing Samples
7713. Black Stained Zinc
7714. Electroless Stripping Chrome/Nickel
7715. Cyanide Free Gold Strip Bath
7716. Choosing the best environmental test
7717. Removal of Cadmium from Ammonium Nitrate Stripper
7718. Who makes porous plastic pipe?
7719. Polishing Complex Parts
7723. Van der horst bath for depositing Fe
7725. Seeking Sprayable Stainless Steel
7726. How to produce a verdi gris finish
7727. Tin Oxide removal
7728. Health effects of cutting galvanized pipe
7730. Brightening a dull copper platter
7731. Non-commercial black patina for zinc
7732. Muriatic acid has rusted pewter and brass fireplace
7734. SEEKING QUOTE REQUEST: ISOPROPHOLIC ALCOHOL
7735. Plastic sealant
7736. Uranyl Nitrate Drying
7738. Electroless composite coating
7739. Lacquering brass?
7741. History of Galvanizing
7743. Corrosion protection of iron
7744. Bluing/Black Oxide/Zinc Phosphate
7745. Copper Etching process on leadframe [Sodium Chloride as Oxidizer]
7748. Dimension change in re-finishing black anodize
7750. Needed - White Gold Bath plating bath
7751. Viable process needed to plate Magnesium alloy.
7752. Plating of Kovar parts
7757. Galvanized steel roof and paint adherence problem
7762. Polyaniline coating
7763. Dry Grinding D 2
7766. Water proof nonconductive even finish
7767. Beer can printing mandrels
7768. Sulfuric/peroxide pickle
7770. Anodising problems? Mar. 19)
7771. Nickel plate turns black after exposed to water
7774. BRASS LACQUER REMOVAL AND SHINNING PREP
7775. Etching Stainless Steel
7776. Passivated vs Pickled Mar. 1)
7777. Bright Finish on Titanium
7778. Hard Coating Aluminum
7779. "Accurate blackening process for stator stack"
7781. Salt Spray
7782. HELP ME -- OLD BRASS BED
7783. Here is help for zinc electroplating
7784. Etching Stainless Steel Mesh
7789. Lacquer removal
7790. Etching Process
7792. Plating from waste photographic chemicals
7794. Zero Discharge and Energy Efficient Plating and Cleaning Shop
7795. Pharmaceutical tablet to be coated with metal?
7796. Joint Bath for Type II and Type III Al Anodizing
7798. Non-residue polishing - a possibility?
7800. Hydrochloric acids
7801. Science Fair Project
7802. Excess aluminum in sulfuric anodize solution...
7807. Tin plated copper screws okay for the long term?
7808. Hard Chromium plating of Titanium
7809. Electroless copper soldering problems
7810. Recovering heat from ovens for use in heating water
7813. Looking for scratch resistant lacquer or other finish
7814. Demineralized water on concrete
7815. Painting kitchen cabinets
7816. Surface Finish Relationships
7818. SEEKING HYDROFLUORIC ACID
7821. Removal of Trivalent chrome
7822. Melonizing Process
7823. Silver plating of glass Christmas tree decorations
7824. What makes a penny rust?
7825. Preparation Information
7826. Titanium Polishing
7829. Hardness Testers
7830. Reducing Chrome 3 levels
7835. Chemically coloring my copper
7836. Citric Acid v/s Metal - What's the reaction?
7838. Project on NaCl
7839. Copper sulfate solubility in water or Isopropanol
7841. Dielectric layer over Au
7842. Hand finishing and Burnishing Training Course
7843. Anodizing Questions
7845. Electroless nickel formulation required
7846. PVD color coating
7848. Seeking Simple dip coating for brass
7849. Exterior Paint Substitutes
7850. Metallic powder painting
7852. MIL/Fed Specification information requested
7854. What will make a penny rust?
7858. How to dissolve clay materials?
7860. King Midas Brass Cleaner
7862. Stainless steel acid cleaner required
7863. Zinc plating on 12L14 carbon Steel (Blistering)
7866. Where can I find blue chromate dye?
7867. Alloys Plating
7868. French Polish formula for furniture refinishing.
7873. Zinc anodized electroplated vs hot dip galvanized
7874. Seeking advice on brushing equipment addition to cleaning line.
7877. NAVSEA corrosion requirement against Iridited AL and Zinc-plated Carbon Steel
7878. Seeking "Time Saver" Belt Sander
7880. What or how to fill weld pits prior to chroming
7882. Acid resistant coating for aluminum
7884. Delayed plating blisters on zinc castings
7885. Differences between clear zinc and yellow zinc.
7886. Mass plating of small components
7888. Hot zinc galvanizing versus electroplated zinc
7889. Quenching 316L S.S. in Nitrogen?
7890. Objective method to grade reflectivity of aluminum alloys
7891. Material selection for corrosion prevention in cyanide solutions
7892. HOME GUN BLUEING-SELENIUM DIOXIDE
7894. Chrome removal from brass
7896. Pitting corrosion in domestic hot water heaters in Greece
7897. Galvanic compatibility of aluminum and copper
7898. Brushable masking material for titanium anodizing -AMS2488 type 2
7899. Dimension Change after Hard Coat
7900. Coating Problem In Chrome
7903. Standards for Chrome Plating?
7905. Need conductive paths on polymer
7906. Regenerating phosphoric acid
7908. Nitriding books and articles
7909. What is Plasma Polishing?
7911. Removing chrome plating from aluminum rims
7912. Rhodium Plating Jewelry
7914. Want galvanizing line for nails
7917. Leaded steel- Nickel chrome plate
7919. Anti-oxidation / Anti electrolysis
7920. When to use stellite/colomony and HVOF tungsten carbides?
7921. Stainless Steel Contamination during welding
7924. Acid stains off stainless bulk tank
7926. Anodizing titanium to green color Q&A's
7929. PTFE / CERAMIC COATING
7931. Seeking to powder coat chopper motorcycle
7932. Chromate coating for 200 hrs salt spray.
7933. Gold stripping on titanium substrate
7934. SEEKING AUTOMOTIVE PAINT SPRAY SYSTEM
7937. Nickel plated parts
7939. Aluminum alloy wheels
7940. Badly tarnished brass
7941. Heavy brass oxidation
7942. Aluminium foil for AA1235 and 8011
7943. Gold potassium cyanide
7944. Polishing atvs and street bikes
7946. Allowable Chloride and sulphate levels
7947. Optimum Nickel Sulfamate Strike parameters
7948. Hard Coating
7949. Phosphating concerns with acid pickling
7950. Non-Stable Black Color
7953. Seeking Corrosion resistant finish needed for 1050 steel laminations
7954. Nylon treatment
7957. Where to buy Liver of Sulfur
7958. Electropolishing Ti-6Al-4V round-bar fatigue specimens
7959. Anodising aluminum, a molecular level
7960. Gas Ovens okay for Powder Coating
7964. Do copper braze joints present an adhesion problem for alkaline zinc?
7966. pH measurement
7968. Cold Enamel paint for ceramic-like finish
7970. Need Used Robotic Equipment
7971. Alternative pre-treatment process desired.
7972. Electropolishing solution purification
7973. Bleach attack 6061 T6 chromate conversion coating
7974. Anodizing 7175 Aluminum
7975. Dry off temperature after pre treatment?.....
7976. Boron removal
7978. NON-WIPE COPPER BLACKENING SYSTEM
7979. Silver Plating Safely
7982. Magnetic Steel equivalent to ASTM 1015
7984. Hydrochloric acid resistant ferrous material for processing.
7985. Manager needs help! with RF conductive finishes
7986. Dye lightening for anodized parts
7990. Seeking e-coat supply vendor
7991. How can I remove PVC
7992. Sludge from pretreatment process in aluminum car body
7993. Treatment of Waste Solutions
7994. Polishing aluminum automobile wheels
7996. How and Why does Copper Oxidize