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The finishing.com Hotline Public Forum

Categories:
 Process: 0. Corrosion. Compatibility, Choosing a Finish
 Preparation: 1a. Mechanical Prep 1b. Chemical Pretreatments 1c. Masking & Racking
 Inorganic Finishing: 2a. Stainless & Titanium 2b. Anodizing & Light Metals 2c. Electroplating & Electroforming
2d. Electroless Plating 2e. PVD, Vacuum Processes 2f. Galvanizing, Hot Dipping
2g. Black Oxide, Bluing, Coloring 2h. Other Inorganic Finishing Processes
 Organic Finishing: 3a. CED, Electrocoat 3b. Powder Coating 3c. Lacquers, Clearcoats
3d. Painting, Printing, Adhesives
 Post-treatments: 4a. Chemical Post-treatments 4b. Baking & Drying 4c. Stripping, Reworks, etc.
 Supporting Issues: 5a. Analysis, Lab, QA/QC 5b. Water & Wastewater 5c. Safety, Emissions, Toxicity
5d. Plant & Process Engineering 5e. Specs, Books, Stats 5f. World Wide Word Of The Week
5g. Mostly metallurgy 5h. Precious Metal Recovery
 Non-industrial: 6a. Artists, Hobbyists, DIY 6b. Research, Thesis work 6c. K-12 Science, Elementary to High School
 Not Metal Finishing: 7. Off Topic, but Interesting

Post a Question or RFQ

For 2 Weeks from date first posted, RFQs are reserved for Supporting Advertisers and are colored Red
Then RFQs become Open To All and are colored Green

0. CORROSION, COMPATIBILITY, CHOOSING A FINISH . . .

Acid resistant coating for aluminum (September 9) open Q.

61313-1i Powder Coating tiny blades for fishing lures open Q. (August 25)

Chrome vs. Powder Coating of Motorcycle rims (July 24)

Need scratch resistant, conductive, black coating on copper strip (July 5) open Q.

Inexpensive In-Process Rust Protection/Plating (June 17)

Does Plastlina/modeling clay accelerate corrosion of aluminum? (June 3) open Q.

Microwave Oven Interior Reflective Materials (May 27) open Q.

Inexpensive black electroplated finish? (May 18) open Q.

Best solution to prevent tarnish on silver plated small accessories? (May 16)

Need Matte Finish on Silver Bullion RFQ Detroit MI (May 14)

34271-6i What are the finishes on this antique clock? (April 30)

Choosing Stainless Steel vs. Galvanized vs. Zinc Plated Fasteners (April 28) open Q.

Zinc-nickel Plating vs. Zinc Flake Dip-Spin Coating (April 21) open Q.

Coating for low electrical resistance, but high corrosion resistance and wear resistance (April 11)


1. PREPARATION . . .

1a. MECHANICAL PREP [GRINDING, POLISHING, VIBRATORY FINISHING, BUFFING, HONING]

Need mirror finish on Socket & Philips screws (August 29) open Q.

Polishing copper and brass (August 25) open Q.

What media will allow tumble finishing in 30 minutes? (August 15)

Sand blasting standards: Swedish SA 1, SA 2, SA 2.5, SA 3 vs. NACE & SSPC (August 1)

RMS vs Ra (July 9) open Q.

Maximum groove depth in nickel plating with diamond cutting (July 5) open Q.

61258i How to polish aluminum steering wheels (June 4)

Black colorant/dye for liquid buffing compound (May 21) open Q.

What is difference between Ramax & Ra (May 3) open Q.

1b. PRETREATMENTS [CLEANING, PICKLING, ETCHING, PHOSPHATIZING, ACTIVATION]

Black Oxide vs Phosphate (September 18)

Powdered metal parts rusting after pickling process (September 16) open Q.

Chemical & Electropolishing of Brass RFQ Thane India (September 15)

How to make titanium-based surface activator for phosphating (September 14) open Q.

Electroplating without acid pickling (September 14)

Degreasing copper cylinders for chrome plating (August 21) open Q.

Problems and solutions in zinc phosphating (June 16) open Q.

Electrochemical etching of Fe Ni Cr AISI steels for "sandblasted" effect (June 14)

Manganese phosphate: why does spec demand same source for blasting? (June 8)

Zinc Phosphate coating problems (June 4)open Q.

1c. MASKING, RACKING, TAPING, PLUGGING, PHOTOSENSITIVE MASKS

Need masking help for anodizing (September 25)

galvanized and rusted metal art White lines along masked edges when selectively stripping zinc galvanized steel (March 8) open Q.

masking for silver plating 61191i2 Masking for Silver Plating Inside Hollow Aluminum Cylinders (January 24)


2. INORGANIC FINISHING PROCESSES . . .

2a. STAINLESS STEEL & TITANIUM PROCESSING

Electrochemical Weld Cleaning on 316L Stainless Steel (September 24) open Q.

Anodizing titanium with trisodium phosphate (TSP) (September 24) open Q.

Passivation of 303SS with Nitric Acid Q&A, Problems & Solutions (September 20)

2629i Problems electropolishing stainless castings (August 30)

AMS2488 Type II on Titanium: maximum touch-up area? (August 29) open Q.

Electropolishing small 4xx / 400 series stainless steel parts (August 15) open Q.

5422-5i Electropolishing of stainless steel -- Q&A, Problems & solutions (August 13)

Stainless steel laser etch and passivating (August 9)

Electropolish, Passivate, or Chemical Polish 4140 & 4340 Steel? (July 30) open Q.

56202i Stainless steel passivation color inconsistent (July 30)

Oxalate Conversion Coating for Stainless Steel d

45849-1i Electropolishing of stainless steel problem: "frosting" (June 8) open Q.

Coloring stainless steel (May 25) open Q.

16927i Coloring round type 304 stainless steel wire permanently (May 20)

Electroless copper vs. Wood's Nickel strike for stainless steel (May 15) open Q.

AMS 2700 Type II Passivation of Stainless Steel (May 14)

5422i Electropolishing of stainless steel -- Q&A, Problems & solutions (April 24)

Hydrofluoric / Nitric acid etching/pickling of P.H. stainless steel (April 23)

How to recognize passivation frosting? (April 8) open Q.

2b. ANODIZING AND LIGHT METAL TREATMENTS (Aluminum, Magnesium)
Notice: MIL-A-8625 is now MIL-PRF-8625

Silver Plating on Aluminum: Blister / Bubble Problems (September 25) open Q.

Alodine, Iridite, Chem-film not sticking / rubbing off (September 25)

Dyed Anodizing Color Matching Q&A, Problems & Solutions (September 24)

Only one of the parts on the rack Hard Anodizes (September 24) open Q.

Cracking problem in anodizing (September 22) open Q.

Nitric acid drag-in to dye/seal tank (September 20) open Q.

37711-2i Lines appear on aluminium profiles (September 19)

What hardness/abrasion resistance from anodizing? (September 16) open Q.

Most practical method to use PTFE to coat hard anodized aluminum parts? (September 15)

Mixing two different part sizes in the anodizing bath (September 13)

Sulfuric Acid Anodize: Cl, F, Sulfide Limits (September 9)

61312i White powder on anodized finish (September 7)

Chemical conversion coating on top of anodizing (September 6) open Q.

1495-1i Zincating on Aluminum: Problems with 6000 series (September 6) open Q.

58771i2 White corrosion spots/pits on chromated aluminum after 1-2 months (September 6)

61311i Anodizing 0.003" 5052 aluminum? RFQ Palmdale CA (September 6)

How to Chromate Conversion Coat ADC12 Aluminum (September 5) open Q.

44778-5i Hard Anodize Type 6061 Aluminum: stains (August 29)

53350-1i Film on anodized parts: is black dye tank contaminated? (August 25) open Q.

61299i White dots on an anodised finish (August 23) open Q.

Thermal conductivity of conversion coatings on aluminum (August 20)

61302-3i Anodizing is splotchy grey, not black (August 16)

Anodising rectifier and power requirements (August 10) open Q.

Can RoHS Yellow Chromate Survive 168 Hour Salt Spray? (August 9)

Problems with Color of Hardcoat Anodize (August 7)

How to anodize 6061 T6 aluminum and what do I need? (August 7) open Q.

Iridite 17P and RoHS compliant alternates? (August 5) open Q.

How to eliminate anodizing appearance variations (August 5)

Anodizing on 7000/7XXX aluminum is chipping at edges (August 5)

Burning problem in Hard Anodizing of Aluminum (August 4)

Electrical resistance of Class 3 chromate conversion coating (August 4)

61295i Can't get proper black color on hardcoat anodizing (August 3)

Nickel Plating on Aluminum Adhesion Problem (July 30) open Q.

Metallic Contaminants in Sulfuric Acid Anodizing Bath (July 26)

Special light & glasses to reveal whether aluminum is anodized (July 24) open Q.

Alodine is not properly coating some aluminum alloys (July 22) open Q.

De-smutting/De-Oxidizing of aluminum (July 21)

Acid vs. Alkaline Etch before Chromic Acid Anodizing vipInquirer often helps others, so especially deserves our help (July 19)

Anodized aluminum is inadvertently scrubbing N2O gas (July 13) open Q.

Minimum anodizing thickness for good dark black? (July 13) open Q.

Horizontal anodizing of aluminum sheets (July 10)

Aluminum Anodizing flakes off when heated to 125 °C (July 7) open Q.

Black spots in anodized aluminum profile (July 2) open Q.

Anodized surface is powdery (July 2)

Chem-film colors: are gold and yellow the same? (June 28) open Q.

15288i Stains occur in anodizing only if bright dipped (June 26)

Do pre-anodizing processes affect RoHS compliance? (June 25)

Can Cast Aluminum be Anodized? (June 22) open Q.

Current/Voltage for Aluminum Anodizing (June 19)

Room Temperature Hardcoat Anodizing. Additives for Type 2-1/2 (June 9)

Caustic Soda Etch Tank Suddenly Causing Intergranular Attack (June 8) open Q.

White powder stains when electrocolouring anodized aluminum (June 6) open Q.

Blisters when plating copper onto aluminum (June 6) open Q.

Can sealant surfactants be removed? (June 6)

How durable is the finish on sandblasted aluminum? (June 3) open Q.

Anode to Cathode Ratio for Electrocoloring of Anodizing (May 30) open Q.

39479i Sulfuric Anodized 2024 Al turning Pink open Q. (May 28)

2c. ELECTROPLATING and ELECTROFORMING

44771i2 Acid Copper Plating Problems (September 25)

Differences between chloride (acid) and alkaline zinc plating (September 25)

Will rose gold gilding wear off to show yellow gold plating? (September 24) open Q.

HCl causes parts to blister (September 24) open Q.

Nickel plating plus rhodium as substitute for silver plating (September 23) open Q.

28851-5i Very early rusting of zinc-nickel plated screws (September 23) open Q.

Need tin plating on 100 aluminum chain saw pistons RFQ WA Australia (September 21)

Cyanide copper solutions temperature and anodes (September 19)

Need Decorative Nickel Plating for Microphone Bodies RFQ Nashville TN (September 19)

4925-1i Hard chrome plating troubleshooting (September 18) open Q.

Hard Chrome Plating on Hydraulic Cylinders Scratched by Seals (September 18) open Q.

Need Plating onto Tungsten Powder RFQ Cohasset MA (September 15)

Need brass plating on aluminum frames RFQ Overland Park KS (September 14)

Nickel striking of stainless steel (September 9) open Q.

Black spots on brass and copper plating (September 6) open Q.

55350-1i Hexavalent chromate is okay, trivalent gets white rust and black spots in 96 hours (September 4) open Q.

54204i Soft chrome under hard chrome plating for salt spray resistance (August 30)

61306-1i Zinc plating problem (August 29)

Silver plating over aluminum for PIM (Passive Intermodulation) avoidance (August 19)

33774-2i Vermeil jewelry is tarnishing (August 12)

Zn blue passivation turns yellowish (August 12)

Tin Plating Problem (August 12)

How to plate copper wire with lead (August 7) open Q.

Electroforming onto silicone forms RFQ Woodland CA (August 6)

Hard Chrome plating of zinc die castings (August 5) open Q.

Chrome Plating Problems on Gravure Printing Cylinders/Rolls (August 5)

Problem of white spots after Zinc Plating (August 4)

How to "Distress" Chrome Plating RFQ Cambridge UK (August 2)

Reducing chloride concentration in acid copper bath (July 30) open Q.

Titanium-Cadmium Plating Q&As (July 27)

Unplated area inside blind holes is rusting (July 19) open Q.

Alkaline Zinc Plating Q&A's, Problem: White Patches After Chromating (July 19) open Q.

Cadmium Plating Is Peeling from Nickel Plating (July 18) open Q.

Potassium Chloride Shortage for Zinc Plating Is there an alternative? (July 18) open Q.

Tin plating anode problems (July 16) open Q.

Tin plating discolors (turns yellow) (July 16) open Q.

Zinc-Iron Plating with Trivalent Chromate fails 240-hour salt spray (July 15) open Q.

Zinc plating failing 48-hour salt spray? (July 12)

Bleed-out from seams after zinc plating (July 9) open Q.

34107i Zinc-plating appearance problems (July 5)

Conductivity of Zinc-Nickel Plating & Chromating (July 5) open Q.

Troubles with rose gold plating (July 4) open Q.

Required thickness of tin plating for copper drinking water tank (June 30) open Q.

Fingerprint stains & corrosion, on chromated zinc plated steel surfaces (June 28) open Q.

Parts w/ yellow chromate losing color (June 28) open Q.

Optimizing nickel sulfamate for high temperature electroforms (June 28) open Q.

Soluble anodes for silver brush plating? (June 26) open Q.

zinc plating Zinc plating defects (Quality of metal finishing) (June 25) open Q.

How to do anodes in acid tin plating (June 23) open Q.

Zinc chloride keeps rising in zinc plating bath (June 17) open Q.

40243i Plating both outside AND inside of a tube (June 14)

58336i Cadmium Cyanide Plating Bath Maintenance & Analysis (June 11)

How to tack diamond to workpiece? (June 10) open Q.

Black spots on parts after received by customer: fretting corrosion? (June 6) open Q.

4618-1i Problem in grinding Hard Chrome plating (June 5)

55225i Alkaline zinc plating problem: Black dots/spots that grow with time open Q. (June 3)

55757i Pits, Stain marks on Nickel Plating (June 12)

Hard chrome plating: Temperature (May 30) open Q.

Bright vs. dull cadmium plating (May 26) open Q.

Silver plating on aluminum blisters after baking (May 12) open Q.

54543i Silver plating on copper wire is not shiny and white (May 11)

Converting rhodium dip plating solution for use in pen plating (May 6) open Q.

Baking electrophoretic lacquer makes copper-nickel plating peel off aluminum (May 6)

Very low tin plating thickness in an hour (May 2)

Suitability of Electroless Nickel for very low service temperature? (April 29) open Q.

Copper Pyrophosphate Delaminating from Strike (April 29)

1871i Hard Chrome plating -- pitting in horizontally plated shaft (April 27) open Q.

Seeking NADCAP AC7108 Consultant RFQ Paso Robles CA (April 27)

Chrome Plating Steel in a Bath Normally Used for Plating Copper (April 22) open Q.

White Patches in Trivalent Chrome Plating (April 22)

41922i Nickel plating white patches and dullness (April 21)

Black spots in zinc plating (April 16)

Current density required for chrome plating (April 16)

Substitute/Alternate/Replacement for Rhodium Plating (April 14) open Q.

Ingredients for chrome (April 12)

Hard chrome plating problem: dull gray plating (April 8)

61231i Tin Plated Copper parts black smear/residue (April 8) open Q.

Cadmium plating problem: pits, even on Hull Cell panels (April 7)

10282i Marks in tin plated copper bus bar (April 6) open Q.

2d. ELECTROLESS PLATING, PLATING ON PLASTICS, IMMERSION PLATING, CHROME-LOOK SPRAYS, LIQUID METAL COATINGS

Electroless nickel to prevent high temperature oxidation of copper (September 18) open Q.

Screen printing onto Electroless nickel Plating (September 11) open Q.

Factors affecting Electroless Nickel deposit rate (September 6)

How to determine plating defect vs. plastic substrate defect (August 28)

Palladium activation for EN Problems & Solutions RFQ Mumbai India (August 17)

Can Electroless Nickel Plating be Machined? (July 18) open Q.

Formula for electroless nickel plating solution (July 2) open Q.

Sandblast before Electroless Nickel plating (June 25) open Q.

Plating of ABS Plastics; palladium and electroless nickel issues (June 14)

No adhesion of Electroless Gold onto Sulphamate Nickel Plating (June 4) open Q.

Poor Adhesion of Electroless nickel on Sulfamate Nickel (May 15) open Q.

"Dot Skip" Problem in Plating of ABS Plastic (April 21)

Decomposition/Plate-out of Electroless Nickel Plating Bath (April 5)

2e. PVD, CVD, ION IMPLANTATION, VACUUM PROCESSES

PVD coatings: color control Q&A's (September 18) open Q.

Coating & Finishing of Titanium for Biomedical (August 21) open Q.

PVD gold color control and matching Q&A's, Problems & Solutions (August 14)

Vacuum Cad plating adhesion problem on 13-8 stainless (July 17) open Q.

Can my jewelry line be vacuum silver plated? (May 16)

2f. GALVANIZING, ALUMINIZING, HOT TIN DIPPING

61324-1i White patches on new hot dip galvanized poles (September 23)

61316-1i Hot-Dip Tinning Problem: Crystals in molten tin tank (September 13) open Q.

61293i Chrome-free galvanized pipe gets black spots (August 23)

44978i Galvanizing kettle furnace and burner design (August 21)

39461i Black spot problem on hot dip galvanized mesh (August 18)

Chemical to Remove slag/dross of zinc from hot dip galvanizing (August 10)

Excessive generation of dross in zinc kettle startup (August 10)

Is yellowish/green dichromate appearance on galvanizing a process defect? (August 10)

61296i Get zinc out of 5000 lb mold after cooling (August 10)

61283i Finish on zinc coated steel coil for prefabricated housing (July 2) open Q.

Pimples on hot dip galvanizing (July 2)

25997i Prevention and removal of white rust on galvanizing (June 25) open Q.

Does hot dip galvanizing weaken steel? (June 23)

46006i Rough & lumpy low quality galvanizing (June 23)

Maintaining low contact resistance on zinc coated chassis (June 15)

Welding of hot dip galvanised kettle (June 11) open Q.

Increase existing GI coating without re-galvanizing (June 3) open Q.

How to reduce galvalume and galvanizing dross generation (May 14) open Q.

Can Galvanized Steel Be Painted and with Reliably Good Adhesion? (May 11)

Wiping system for continuous wire galvanizing? open Q. (December 19)

12327i Sulfuric Acid Solution Recovery Q&A (April 10) open Q.

How Can I Reduce and Remove Zinc Dross (April 6) open Q.

2g. BLACK OXIDE, BLUING, COLORING, PATINATING, NITRIDING

Black oxidation layer went off after shooting test (August 5) open Q.

Testing the quality of blackening coating (July 16)

Black oxide solution with copper contamination (June 4) open Q.

2h. OTHER INORGANIC FINISHING: Mechanical Plating, QPQ, Metal Spray, Zinc-rich Dip-Spin Coatings, Sherardizing, etc.

Dacromet coating questions (July 23) open Q.

Depletion Gilding, and Tarnish Prevention in low karat metals (May 24) open Q.


3. ORGANIC FINISHING PROCESSES . . .

3a. ELECTROPAINT PRIMING, AUTOPHORETIC COATINGS

Function of anode cell in CED (cathodic electrodeposition) coating? (September 6) open Q.

Foaming in phosphate tank causes CED defects (August 10)

Emissivity of e-coating vs. powder coating (August 8)

Pin holes in CED e-coating (July 4) open Q.

CED System Issues: Recovering paint, Ultrafiltration problems (June 18)

CED Paint conductivity is dropping/rising (June 18)

Electrocoating: Higher or Lower Solvent for Lower DFT? (May 31) open Q.

Which pumps & membranes are best for CED bath? (April 13) open Q.

Defects in CED Coating (April 12)

3b. POWDER COATING

2368i Powder coating on zinc die-castings (August 16) open Q.

Touching up powder coating (August 10)

Mixing powder coating colors to get a new color (August 10)

Alternatives to powder coating (July 27) open Q.

How to Powder Coat Plastics (Nylon, ABS, Polycarbonate, Composites) (June 18) open Q.

Blast, prime, powder coat my aluminum railing RFQ Selbyville DE (May 9)

High heat resistance powder coating (April 22) open Q.

3c. LACQUERS, CLEAR COATS, ELECTROPHORETIC TINTING, ANTI-TARNISH

Coatings for metal spectacle frames (August 30)

Need Coater for Automotive Industry Die Cast Parts RFQ Belleville ON (May 21)

Cathodic Electrophoretic Lacquer -- How to get matte black CED (May 21) open Q.

3d. PAINTING, PRINTING, ADHESIVES AND OTHER ORGANIC COATINGS

Fire and vandal-resistant coatings for rolling stock (September 20) open Q.

Seeking Rainbow Coating on Fish Hooks (September 15) open Q.

Candy apple coating for brushed steel (August 26) open Q.

15909i Training on plastisol chemistry and application? open Q. (July 7)

Need PTFE (teflon) coating of thousand of pounds of wheelnuts RFQ China or Taiwan (June 25)

Aluminium Bitumen Paint (June 17) open Q.

Ceramic coating formulation (June 16) open Q.

Sublimation Coating Introduction, FAQs and Q&A


4. POST-TREATMENTS

4a. CHEMICAL POST-TREATMENTS [CHROMATE CONVERSION COATINGS, RUST PREVENTATIVES, PATINAS, COLORIZING]

Conductivity of olive drab chromate on cadmium (September 22) open Q.

20303i White colored spots on chromated zinc plating (July 23)

Prepping gravure cylinders for storage (June 16) open Q.

4b. BAKING AND NON-CHEMICAL POST-TREATMENTS [HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT AND DE-EMBRITTLEMENT, ANNEALING, WHISKERS, SOLDERING, REFLOWING]

Standards for Hydrogen Embrittlement Relief after Zinc-Nickel Plating (September 6) open Q.

Soldering issue when using a Silver-bearing Soldering Alloy (July 9) open Q.

Soldering Electroless Nickel plated components (June 11)

Why Pre-Bake before cadmium plating? (April 29) open Q.

4c. STRIPPING, REWORKS, ETC.

Stripping Silver Plating from brass (musical instruments, etc.) (September 25)

Stripping the glass from a glass-to-metal seal (August 9) open Q.

Stripping aluminum with caustic soda (July 27) open Q.

Removal of tin plating from copper (July 14) open Q.

Stripping Nickel off Stainless Steel Substrates (June 25)

Stripping Cadmium plating and choosing a method (June 18)

Strip paint from aluminum without stripping chromate conversion coating (May 4) open Q.

Hard chrome appears to be immersion depositing during operation (April 28) open Q.


5. SUPPORTING ISSUES

5a. ANALYSIS, LAB TECHNIQUE, Q.A., SALT SPRAY TESTING

Procedure for chromic acid and sulphate determination (September 24) open Q.

Converting Baumé to Concentration (September 9)

Soak Cleaner / Degreaser: Alkalinity test & oil content (September 2) open Q.

Gravimetric analysis of gold plating bath (August 29)

Electrical Resistance Testing of MIL DTL-5541 Chromate (August 26) open Q.

Salt Spray Test -- ASTM B117 Operational Problems (August 25) open Q.

4408i How to Analyze/Titrate a Hardcoat Anodizing Tank (August 20) open Q.

Caustic Etch Analysis -- aluminium anodizing (August 14)

Converting percent by volume to oz/gal (August 9)

How to test hard chrome without copper sulphate (July 19) open Q.

Guidelines & best practices for purchasing a salt spray chamber (July 13) open Q.

Dubpernell test method for chromium plating (July 10) open Q.

Determination of sulfuric acid in chromium bath (July 5) open Q.

Correlation between accelerated weathering & natural weathering (July 1) open Q.

Scribe marks on galvanized samples (June 15)

Gage R&R for an XRF plating thickness tester (June 10) open Q.

Analysis of nitric-hydrofluoric aluminum etching mixture (May 12) open Q.

Titrimetric procedure for trivalent and hexavalent chromate analysis (April 22)

Salt spray / salt fog pH variation (May 12) open Q.

Adhesion Tape Testing of Plating (May 2) open Q.

Measure saccharin & butynediol concentration in Nickel sulfamate electroforming bath (April 23)

Looking for a titration method for ferric chloride (April 22) open Q.

Analysis of Rocheltex (cyanide copper) plating solutions (April 22)

Wood's Nickel Strike Bath Analysis & Maintenance (April 19)

Analysis of HNO3 & HF in titanium etch (April 18) open Q.

Interpretation of EDX spectrum result (April 17) open Q.

Adhesion test for chromate conversion on aluminium (April 10) open Q.

Specific gravity of water plus acid mixture? (April 5)

5b. WASTE & WASTEWATER TREATMENT, POLLUTION CONTROL

Wastewater Treatment: Sulphate Removal from Anodizing Wastewater (September 24) open Q.

Floating Sludge Problem in Wastewater Treatment (September 24) open Q.

Wastewater Flow Meter Needed (August 2) open Q.

Chromium in my Anodizing Waste? (July 18)

Ion Exchange / DM plant calculations (July 13) open Q.

Wastewater treatment issues: Cyanide destruction questions (June 14) open Q.

Recycling of sodium hydroxide from aluminum etching (May 5) open Q.

5c. SAFETY ISSUES, EMISSIONS, TOXICITY, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

Danger from galvanized planting boxes? (September 18) open Q.

What happens when one inhales sulfamic acid dust? (September 13) open Q.

Stainless pot left on the burner; are the fumes dangerous? (September 7)

How poisonous is Potassium gold cyanide? (September 4) open Q.

Does drinking milk really help with metal fume fever? (August 29) open Q.

How toxic is chrome plating on my faucet (August 2)

Risks of chlorine in degreasing tanks in Pretreatment line in paint shop (June 3)

Cyanide, its uses and its dangers (April 12)

57138i Safety of heating chrome to 400 °C (April 8)

5d. PLANT & PROCESS ENGINEERING, CONSTRUCTION

M.O.C. for nitric-sulfuric tank for stripping silver (August 19) open Q.

Chrome plating mist /fume control (August 12) open Q.

Hard anodizing chiller sizing for 5-gallon tank (July 30)

Nickel Sulfamate Plating ventilation & safety issues (July 23)

Tank material for hard chrome plating (July 9)

What kind of nuts & bolts to use when building a galvanizing plant (July 5) open Q.

Copper Bus Bar Sizing for DC low-voltage high-amperage (June 11) open Q.

Selection of wire for wiring/racking parts (May 23) open Q.

Rock hard scale problem in aluminum processing (May 20) open Q.

12273-1i Aluminum bright dip set-up requirements, material of construction (May 14) open Q.

Does anodizing need explosion-proof electrics due to hydrogen evolution (May 5) open Q.

What happens if Nitric & Sulphuric acids are mixed? (April 30) open Q.

Choosing a plastic for nickel plating line installation (April 20)

Problems in PVC & PVDF piping systems for sodium hypochlorite (bleach) (April 14) open Q.

RO water causing rust in 316SS spray nozzles (March 25) open Q.

5e. QUESTIONS ABOUT SOFTWARE, SPECS, BOOKS, EDUCATION, INDUSTRY STATS, ETC.

Good Reference Books for Electroplating (September 21)

Meanings of plating spec abbreviation: MFZnIII (August 31) open Q.

Penetrant inspection per ASTM E-1417 (August 29) open Q.

Is touching up anodized with Alodine/Iridite/Chem-film/Chromate allowed? (August 18)

Industry specs for powder coating thickness (July 29) open Q.

Silver Plating is Blistering. Interpreting AMS 2411 Requirements (July 21)

NADCAP & NADCAP Audits (July 20) open Q.

5f. W...W...W...WORD OF THE WEEK

What is Continuous Gold Plating (July 2) open Q.

61278i Naming a Finish from its Looks (June 25) open Q.

What is Chemical Brightening Process Standard (June 13) open Q.

Zintec vs. zinc electroplated CRCA steel (June 11)

Finishing Related Basic English Terminology (May 15)

61245i KTL shielding spot technical term (May 12) open Q.

What do "gZn" and "tZn" mean? (April 8) open Q.

5g. MOSTLY METALLURGY; Heat Treatment

How to anneal mild steel (September 18) open Q.

Cast Aluminum Cookware: What Alloy is Best? (August 26) open Q.

Post treatment of steel after quenching process (August 14) open Q.

Inconel 718 turns black during pickling only if heat treated (August 5) open Q.

How to separate copper from silver (July 13) open Q.

Hardening EN8 & EN9 parts (June 21) open Q.

5h. PRECIOUS METAL RECOVERY

Want to sell a 4-pound chunk of 20% iridium (September 22) open Q.

Cleaning gold that has been burned (August 29)

Recycler asks about extracting silver with steel nails and salt? (August 29)

34676i Best and Easiest way to refine gold dust to get 99.9% purity (August 29)

43983i Does this look like PGM content particularly Rhodium? (August 29)

Problems in recovering gold from soil (August 28)

Separation of Gold metal from Immersion Gold Solution (August 23) open Q.

How much gold in a pound of computer memory sticks (August 12) open Q.

33616i Purifying 'smelted computer parts' by re-smelting (June 4) open Q.


6. CONSUMER, RESEARCH, & STUDENT ISSUES

6a. ARTISTS, HOBBYISTS, CAR BUFFS, HOME OWNERS, ETC.

Chromating carburetors/diecastings (September 21)

Scratched and Dull Surface on Stainless Steel Refrigerator Door (September 20) open Q.

Painting cast iron fountains / restoring rusty fountains (September 20) open Q.

Anodizing of Aluminum Screws and Threads (September 19)

RIT dye for dyeing? (September 16) open Q.

33689-1i Rusted sheet metal HVAC ducting (September 15) open Q.

Painting copper gutters (September 15) open Q.

How to darken aluminum (September 14)

How to remove stove polish so wood stove can be painted? (September 14) open Q.

Electroforming a complex shape in thick copper (September 9)

Why Noxon Brass and Silver Polish Disappeared (September 8)

Copper remains on welding clamps despite muriatic acid bath (September 6) open Q.

1298-2i Nickel plating musical instrument valves (September 5) open Q.

How to strip Powder Coating from steel? (September 4)

Help, my yellow brass turned pink (September 3)

39638-1i Desperately Need Gillespie Antique Restorer (September 2)

61318-1i Looking to refinish my 1950s Chambers cooktop RFQ Louisville MS (September 1)

Strip newer paint on Geneva Metal Kitchen Cabinets to reveal original (August 31) open Q.

New silver plated euphonium changed color almost immediately open Q. (August 30)

Stainless steel flatware with mirror finish scratches too easily (August 30) open Q.

15303-3i Thai mid-century bronze flatware (August 26) open Q.

Home anodizing-Truths from the experts? (August 26) open Q.

Ruined my brass cabinet handles with vinegar (August 25) open Q.

Melting old gold to make new jewelry (August 25) open Q.

Paint not sticking to Ospho (August 23)

Dark brown or dark copper patina for Nickel/Iron weld (August 20) open Q.

How to Remove Varnish from Brass (August 19) open Q.

11972-4i Recipe for red patina on brass & copper (August 15) open Q.

Determine & control copper concentration in acid copper plating (August 14) open Q.

Restoring the yellow dichromate finish on automobile carburetors (August 13)

Help with unwanted rainbow hues in clearcoat (August 12)

Need to make a silver ring look gold without using gold (August 10) open Q.

Fastener systems for aluminum pool cages (August 9) open Q.

Want to remove the paint from my new refrigerator (August 8) open Q.

Help with a knife blade turned black (August 8) open Q.

30442-4i How to paint this metal mailbox? (August 7) open Q.

61303i Protecting metal tools from corrosion (August 7)

Aluminum motorcycle polishing -- rims, wheels, swingarm, frame (July 29)

Need springs for Antique baby carriage (July 29)

Is 0.05µ gold plating "good quality"? open Q. (July 29)

Repair discolored copper awnings RFQ Chicago IL (July 27)

50888i Damaged the finish on copper table -- HELP! (July 26) open Q.

Restore gold plate/wash on sterling silver cup (July 26)

What to to paint burners on propane stove with? (July 26)

Stumbled onto great metallizing method for electroplating/electroforming (July 24)

23897i How to identify if old lamp is brass, copper, bronze, or cast iron? (July 21) open Q.

Why black line on face from gold jewelry? (July 18) open Q.

61290i Require Iridescent Passivation Solution RFQ Perth Australia (July 18)

61288i Want "Battleworn Nickel" on AR-15 parts RFQ Hagerstown MD (July 13)

Problems & solutions in copper electroforming (July 12)

Bronze plating of a 1920's funeral fan RFQ Folsom CA (July 9)

Need shotgun barrel blued RFQ Wooster OH (July 9)

Restoring old copper washing basin (July 8) open Q.

Want silver plating instructions (July 7) open Q.

Q&As about Gold Plated Flatware (July 5) open Q.

61282i Seeking finishing suggestions on vintage receiver restoration (July 2) open Q.

18957i Aluminum threads stuck, cold welded (June 27)

How can I coat for sublimation printing on a low budget? (June 22) open Q.

Galvanized stock tanks as swimming pools (June 22) open Q.

Chrome plating of Ford F250 grill (June 21) open Q.

Need door handles brushed-nickel plated RFQ Scottsdale AZ (June 15)

4913i Do It Yourself Nickel Plating (June 15)

Neutralizer for acid copper plating? (June 4)

Amperage requirements for plating (June 3)

19047i Wagner Ware (May 31) open Q.

61261i Need my stainless kitchen hood refinished RFQ Lavalette NJ (May 31)

Nickel Plating Brighteners: Everything to Know open Q. (May 29)

Should I cold-galvanize, powder coat, or do both on an anchor mount (May 23) open Q.

cast iron stove parts Cast Iron Cook Stoves: Where to find parts and how to restore (May 23) open Q.

Need kitchen table resurfaced RFQ Watford Hertfordshire (May 21)

Chrome plated 1950s dinette tables and chairs -- restoring & protecting (May 14)

Blue/green/verdigris patinas for zinc Q&A (May 6)

Base for bathroom faucets is corroded and needs painting (April 30) open Q.

Change my white gold ring to yellow gold (April 26)

How to tell hard anodizing from regular? (April 26) open Q.

Plating the inside of a gas tank (April 25) open Q.

46670i Acrylic Tub Damaged by Drain Cleaner (April 22)

34821i Gold Plating of Fancy Bathroom Fixtures (April 22) open Q.

30103i Making a dark black watch dial (April 20) open Q.

Home nickel plating with vinegar and salt (April 17)

Can nickel plating fill pit and scratches (April 14)

Design Project: Recycling Copper through Electroforming/Plating (April 10) open Q.

39401i Remove copper-nickel cladding from copper core coins? (April 9)

44569i F.B. Rogers Item -- What Is It? (April 8)

How to turn copper aesthetically green (April 7)

36471i Tea Service: Sterling or Silverplate? (April 1)

6b. RESEARCH, THESIS TOPICS, UNIVERSITY & POST-GRAD STUDENTS

Was cyanide ever used in hard chrome plating? open Q. (September 22)

How to electrodeposit PbO2 (lead dioxide) (September 10)

61317-1i Anodized aluminum has microscopic black dots on its surface (August 30) open Q.

Manganese electroplating (Electrodeposition of Manganese) (August 14) open Q.

Plating onto Carbon Fiber: applications, methods, Q&As (July 30) open Q.

Producing hardened concrete nails (July 30) open Q.

Teflon coating of stainless steel (July 29)

History of iron electroplating (July 19)

When to replace magnesium electropolishing solution, or how to analyze? open Q. (July 7)

How can electroplating cathode current have efficiency less than or more than 100%? (May 21)

Can't understand difference between hard chrome and decorative (April 21)

High strength bolt testing (April 20) open Q.

6c. K-12 SCIENCE PROJECTS, GRAMMAR & HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT QUESTIONS

What chemical heats up when mixed with water and is safe to drink? (July 30)

Building a really cheap electric arc furnace (July 12) open Q.


7. DRIFTED OFF FINISHING, BUT INTERESTING TO SOME OF US :-)

24359-29i Repair of barber chairs (September 25) open Q.

Identifying rings: Marking system for rings (September 22) open Q.

hanson-van winkle-munning Hanson Van-Winkle Munning (H-VW-M) memories & memorabilia (September 14)

Sedgwick Residential Elevators Parts and Maintenance RFQ Granite City Illinois (August 19)

7137i Cleaning Dirilyte Gold-tone Flatware (August 15)

Accidentally Swallowing Sodium Hypochlorite during root canal (July 30)

Hazmat transportation requirements & exclusions (July 21)

Drawn platinum wire as a hinge pin on bracelets & earrings (July 15) open Q.

32144i Markings indicating real gold on jewelry (July 12) open Q.

How to Fix mercury damage to gold jewelry (June 21)

Fiction stories involving plating (June 18)

18884i Hoyt Metal Ingot. What type of metal do I have? (June 16)

11377i Taking antique brass bed apart (June 11) open Q.

Zinc oxide production by French process (June 6)

How to do bottle cap tables and bartops with pourable epoxy (May 21) open Q.

61249i Corrosion/calcification of ladders, boilers, and brains (May 18) open Q. vipInquirer often helps others, so especially deserves our help

FB Rogers trademarks/insignia on Vases, Crumb Catchers, etc. (May 18)

33143i Stiffel lamps: How to repair Q&A's (May 11) open Q.

32413i Need sweet spirits of nitre (May 6)

Hydrolysis and HHO hydrogen energy for cars (April 16)

Silver extraction from waste hypo/fixer solution (April 16) open Q.

Ceramic Tile Cleaning with muriatic acid (April 12)

Freezer section of my fridge oozes orange goo (April 12)

Why is Panchlok statue made of 51 grams of each metal? (April 4) open Q.



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