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Technical Categories (this page):
 Process: 0. Corrosion. Compatibility, Choosing a Finish
 Preparation: 1a. Mechanical Prep 1b. Chemical Pretreatments 1c. Masking & Racking
 Inorganic Finishing: 2a. Stainless & Titanium 2b. Anodizing & Light Metals 2c. Electroplating & Electroforming
2d. Electroless Plating 2e. PVD, Vacuum Processes 2f. Galvanizing, Hot Dipping
2g. Black Oxide, Bluing, Coloring 2h. Other Inorganic Finishing Processes
 Organic Finishing: 3a. CED, Electrocoat 3b. Powder Coating 3c. Lacquers, Clearcoats
3d. Painting, Printing, Adhesives
 Post-treatments: 4a. Chemical Post-treatments 4b. Baking & Drying 4c. Stripping, Reworks, etc.
 Supporting Issues: 5a. Analysis, Lab, QA/QC 5b. Water & Wastewater 5c. Safety, Emissions, Toxicity
5d. Plant & Process Engineering 5e. Specs, Books, Stats 5f. World Wide Word Of The Week
5g. REACH, RoHS, E-O-L, etc. 5h. Mostly metallurgy 5i. Precious Metal Recovery
 Non-industrial: 6a. Artists, Hobbyists, DIY 6b. Research, Thesis work 6c. K-12 Science, Elementary to High School
 Not Metal Finishing: 7. Off Topic, but Interesting
RFPs/RFQs
Need finishing services:
Want "Battleworn Nickel" on AR-15 parts
[Hagerstown, MD 7/13 - open to all]
Need shotgun blued
[Wooster OH 7/10 - open to all]
Need door handles nickel plated
[Scotsdale AZ 6/16 - open to all]
Need stainless kitchen hood refinished
[Lavalette NJ 5/31 - open to all]
Coater for Automotive Industry Die Cast Parts
[Belleville ON 5/21 - open to all]
Need coater to do Surtec 650 or Iridite NCP
[NC 5/21 - open to all]
Need 1000s of lbs of wheel nuts Teflon coated
[China or Taiwan 6/26 - open to all]
Need kitchen table refinished
[Watford (near London) 5/21 - open to all]
worldmap
Finishing shop needs products & services:
Seeking Anodizing Consultant
[GA 5/30 - open to all]
Seeking NADCAP AC7108 Consultant
[CA 4/27 - open to all]
Need PCB Chemicals
[Mumbai 3/24 - open to all]

0. CORROSION, COMPATIBILITY, CHOOSING A FINISH . . .

Chrome vs. Powder Coating of Motorcycle rims (July 24)

Need scratch resistant, conductive, black coating on copper strip (July 5) open Q.

Inexpensive In-Process Rust Protection/Plating (June 17)

Does Plastlina/modeling clay accelerate corrosion of aluminum? (June 3) open Q.

Microwave Oven Interior Reflective Materials (May 27) open Q.

Inexpensive black electroplated finish? (May 18) open Q.

Best solution to prevent tarnish on silver plated small accessories? (May 16)

34271-6i What are the finishes on this antique clock? (April 30)

Choosing Stainless Steel vs. Galvanized vs. Zinc Plated Fasteners (April 28) open Q.

Zinc-nickel Plating vs. Zinc Flake Dip-Spin Coating (April 21) open Q.

Coating for low electrical resistance, but high corrosion resistance and wear resistance (April 11)

61229i Need conductive material that will bond to stainless steel (March 28)

Plate warps and needs to be stronger and polished (March 23) open Q.

finishing wrought iron How to finish wrought iron railings (March 19)

Repairing titanium shafts by plating or hardcoating (March 8)

Corrosion resistant coating for C45 Material (March 3)

How to protect Beryllium Copper from corrosion by Ammonia (March 1) open Q.

Cr-Mo-V rotor Does bronze corrode Cr-Mo-V steel? (February 17) open Q.

Stainless Steel or Galvanized fasteners for Aluminum Siding (February 17) open Q.

How to avoid rust (February 9)

Which substitute for hard chromium plating? (February 2) open Q.

PTFE thin film coating of 316L Stainless steel parts exposed to sulfuric acid (January 27) open Q.

gold plating on zari thread Alternatives to gold plating for Zari thread (January 24) open Q.

scintillator Building a scintillator. How to get a bright/reflective surface? (January 13)


1. PREPARATION . . .

1a. MECHANICAL PREP [GRINDING, POLISHING, VIBRATORY FINISHING, BUFFING, HONING]

RMS vs Ra (July 9) open Q.

Maximum groove depth in nickel plating with diamond cutting (July 5) open Q.

61258i How to polish aluminum steering wheels (June 4)

Black colorant/dye for liquid buffing compound (May 21) open Q.

What is difference between Ramax & Ra (May 3) open Q.

How important is variable speed for a tumbler? (April 8)

Formula for polishing and buffing compounds (March 16)

How to Mirror Finish Alumina Ceramics (March 13)

Need formula to make solid & liquid polishing compound for metal polishing (February 26) open Q.

Looking for linear grinding/finishing tool practical for non-production use open Q. (January 16)

Ra vs. Rz Ra vs. Rz: Ra keeps growing, Rz stays the same? (January 2)

1b. PRETREATMENTS [CLEANING, PICKLING, ETCHING, PHOSPHATIZING, ACTIVATION]

Problems and solutions in zinc phosphating (June 16) open Q.

Electrochemical etching of Fe Ni Cr AISI steels for "sandblasted" effect (June 14)

Manganese phosphate: why does spec demand same source for blasting? (June 8)

Zinc Phosphate coating problems (June 4)open Q.

Cleaning copper discoloration from baking (March 30)

How to etch silver without affecting aluminum? (March 5)

phosphating without oiling Want good salt spray hours from phosphating without oil (March 1)

rack marks in plating Rack marks in zinc phosphating open Q. (February 4)

Dip vs. Spray Phosphating (January 11)

1c. MASKING, RACKING, TAPING, PLUGGING, PHOTOSENSITIVE MASKS

galvanized and rusted metal art White lines along masked edges when selectively stripping zinc galvanized steel (March 8) open Q.

masking for silver plating 61191i2 Masking for Silver Plating Inside Hollow Aluminum Cylinders (January 24)


2. INORGANIC FINISHING PROCESSES . . .

2a. STAINLESS STEEL & TITANIUM PROCESSING

Electropolishing small 4xx / 400 series stainless steel parts (July 23) open Q.

Stainless steel laser etch and passivating (July 23)

Electropolish, Passivate, or Chemical Polish 4140 & 4340 Steel? (July 20)

Oxalate Conversion Coating for Stainless Steel d

45849-1i Electropolishing of stainless steel problem: "frosting" (June 8) open Q.

Coloring stainless steel (May 25) open Q.

16927i Coloring round type 304 stainless steel wire permanently (May 20)

Electroless copper vs. Wood's Nickel strike for stainless steel (May 15) open Q.

AMS 2700 Type II Passivation of Stainless Steel (May 14)

5422i Electropolishing of stainless steel -- Q&A, Problems & solutions (April 24)

Hydrofluoric / Nitric acid etching/pickling of P.H. stainless steel (April 23)

How to recognize passivation frosting? (April 8) open Q.

Passivation leaves yellow or brown spots on 303 stainless (March 19)

Amps, Volts, Temp. & Time required for electropolishing? (March 12)

Ferritic stainless steel surface finishing (February 24)

Citric vs. Nitric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel (February 11)

Electropolish, Passivate, or Chemical Polish 4140 & 4340 Steel? (February 10)

Rinsing after Stainless Steel Passivation (February 4)

electropolishing stainless steel Acids for electropolishing stainless steel (February 3)

Problems with passivation and salt spray testing of 15-5 PH stainless steel (February 1)

Will grit size affect passivation of stainless steel? open Q. (January 29)

2b. ANODIZING AND LIGHT METAL TREATMENTS (Aluminum, Magnesium)

Burning problem in Hard Anodizing of Aluminum (July 28)

Metallic Contaminants in Sulfuric Acid Anodizing Bath (July 26)

Special light & glasses to reveal whether aluminum is anodized (July 24) open Q.

Electrical resistance of Class 3 chromate conversion coating (July 23) open Q.

Alodine is not properly coating some aluminum alloys (July 22) open Q.

De-smutting/De-Oxidizing of aluminum (July 21)

Acid vs. Alkaline Etch before Chromic Acid Anodizing vipInquirer often helps others, so especially deserves our help (July 19)

Anodized aluminum is inadvertently scrubbing N2O gas (July 13) open Q.

Minimum anodizing thickness for good dark black? (July 13) open Q.

Horizontal anodizing of aluminum sheets (July 10)

Aluminum Anodizing flakes off when heated to 125 °C (July 7) open Q.

Black spots in anodized aluminum profile (July 2) open Q.

Anodized surface is powdery (July 2)

Chem-film colors: are gold and yellow the same? (June 28) open Q.

15288i Stains occur in anodizing only if bright dipped (June 26)

Can Cast Aluminum be Anodized? (June 22) open Q.

Understanding differences in MIL-C-5541 Type 1 and 2, and Class 1A and 3 (June 19) open Q.

Current/Voltage for Aluminum Anodizing (June 19)

Room Temperature Hardcoat Anodizing. Additives for Type 2-1/2 (June 9)

Caustic Soda Etch Tank Suddenly Causing Intergranular Attack (June 8) open Q.

White powder stains when electrocolouring anodized aluminum (June 6) open Q.

Blisters when plating copper onto aluminum (June 6) open Q.

Can sealant surfactants be removed? (June 6)

How durable is the finish on sandblasted aluminum? (June 3) open Q.

Dyed Anodizing Color Matching Q&A, Problems & Solutions (June 2) open Q.

Anode to Cathode Ratio for Electrocoloring of Anodizing (May 30) open Q.

39479i Sulfuric Anodized 2024 Al turning Pink open Q. (May 28)

How to calculate anodizing time for different load sizes (March 24)

61252i Red Rust on Nickel Plating over Aluminum? (May 23)

41531i Black anodize fades in trichlorethylene vapor degreaser (May 23)

61234-1i Dip process for brightening aluminum cookware (May 20)

Is touching up anodized with Alodine/Iridite/Chem-film/Chromate allowed? (May 18) open Q.

Aluminum cathodes for anodizing tanks (May 11)

15018-2i Hard Coat Anodize is Chipping and Flaking (May 10)

Purple type 2 anodizing trouble (May 5)

Sealing Aluminum to prevent oxidation? (May 5)

Anodized aluminum galling situation (May 4) open Q.

61239i Corrosion? on anodized & gold dyed alloy 2024 parts (April 29)

Cause of white spots on dyed 2024 aluminum (April 26) open Q.

MIL-DTL-5541 Type I vs. Type II (TCP) issue (April 23)

26113i Sandblasting and Anodizing Leaves Bright Spot (April 20) open Q.

14229i Brown discoloration after clear anodizing (April 18) open Q.

61225i Pitting in Aluminum Threads after Alodine (April 16)

38488i Problem clear anodizing MIC-6 material (April 16)

What is the Alcoa Alumilite 226 process and what shops offer it? (April 15) open Q.

Electropolishing of aluminum: concentration and chemical make up (April 13)

Electropolishing of Aluminum vs Bright-dip (April 13)

Amps & volts jump around as chromic acid anodizing hits 40 volts (April 12)

Severe erosion anodizing 7075 aluminum (April 4) open Q.

40035i Etching turned Aluminum Black (March 28)

61224i Okay to anodize small loads and largely empty racks? (March 27)

25040i Aluminum bright dip problems (March 19)

44324i2 Beadblasting aluminum plus brite dipping is causing pitting (March 15) open Q.

40796i Problems Black Anodizing 5052 Aluminum (March 15)

Pulse anodizing rectifier settings? (March 14) open Q.

Anodizing Racks: what material of construction? (March 9)

Sudden drop in Alodine concentration (March 5)

Anodizing Coefficient of Friction? (March 2) open Q.

58771i2 Spotting on aluminum parts with chromate finish (March 1) open Q.

White corrosion on anodized job after salt spray test (February 25)

61215i Numerous Type II Aluminum Anodizing Defects: White Spots, Missing Color, Ink Stains (February 24) open Q.

Anodized Part Absorbs Grease into Oxide Layer Near Edges (February 23) open Q.

Problems with Color of Hardcoat Anodize (February 23)

How to etch and color anodized aluminum (February 18) open Q.

61201i Anodizing seal issue on bead blasted areas (February 17)

Micropitting issue chromate conversion coating of Aluminum (February 15)

2758i How to eliminate anodizing appearance variations (February 9)

Anodizing Color Fades in Autoclave (February 5)

Water stain prevention for aluminum (February 5)

61197i Anodizing Appearance Problem on Silkscreened Panels open Q. (January 27)

Aluminum piping underground. How to do corrosion protection? (January 11)

4408i Dissolved Aluminum in Anodizing bath -- How Much to Have, How to Analyze/Titrate, How to Correct/Adjust It (January 10)

61025i High Dielectric Anodizing of Aluminum (January 6)

19266i Galvanic potential of aluminum after conversion coating (January 4)

2c. ELECTROPLATING and ELECTROFORMING

Titanium-Cadmium Plating Q&As (July 27)

Unplated area inside blind holes is rusting (July 19) open Q.

Alkaline Zinc Plating Q&A's, Problem: White Patches After Chromating (July 19) open Q.

Cadmium Plating Is Peeling from Nickel Plating (July 18) open Q.

Potassium Chloride Shortage for Zinc Plating Is there an alternative? (July 18) open Q.

Tin plating anode problems (July 16) open Q.

Tin plating discolors (turns yellow) (July 16) open Q.

Zinc-Iron Plating with Trivalent Chromate fails 240-hour salt spray (July 15) open Q.

Zinc plating failing 48-hour salt spray? (July 12)

44771i2 Acid Copper Plating Problems (July 10)

Bleed-out from seams after zinc plating (July 9) open Q.

34107i Zinc-plating appearance problems (July 5)

Conductivity of Zinc-Nickel Plating & Chromating (July 5) open Q.

Troubles with rose gold plating (July 4) open Q.

Required thickness of tin plating for copper drinking water tank (June 30) open Q.

Fingerprint stains & corrosion, on chromated zinc plated steel surfaces (June 28) open Q.

Parts w/ yellow chromate losing color (June 28) open Q.

Optimizing nickel sulfamate for high temperature electroforms (June 28) open Q.

Nickel plating / striking of stainless steel (June 27)

Soluble anodes for silver brush plating? (June 26) open Q.

zinc plating Zinc plating defects (Quality of metal finishing) (June 25) open Q.

How to do anodes in acid tin plating (June 23) open Q.

Zinc chloride keeps rising in zinc plating bath (June 17) open Q.

40243i Plating both outside AND inside of a tube (June 14)

58336i Cadmium Cyanide Plating Bath Maintenance & Analysis (June 11)

How to tack diamond to workpiece? (June 10) open Q.

Black spots on parts after received by customer: fretting corrosion? (June 6) open Q.

4618-1i Problem in grinding Hard Chrome plating (June 5)

55225i Alkaline zinc plating problem: Black dots/spots that grow with time open Q. (June 3)

Chrome Plating Problems on Gravure Printing Cylinders/Rolls (June 2)

55757i Pits, Stain marks on Nickel Plating (June 12)

Hard chrome plating: Temperature (May 30) open Q.

Bright vs. dull cadmium plating (May 26) open Q.

Tin Plating Problem: doesn't take in random areas (May 15) open Q.

Silver plating on aluminum blisters after baking (May 12) open Q.

54543i Silver plating on copper wire is not shiny and white (May 11)

Converting rhodium dip plating solution for use in pen plating (May 6) open Q.

Baking electrophoretic lacquer makes copper-nickel plating peel off aluminum (May 6)

Very low tin plating thickness in an hour (May 2)

Suitability of Electroless Nickel for very low service temperature? (April 29) open Q.

Copper Pyrophosphate Delaminating from Strike (April 29)

1871i Hard Chrome plating -- pitting in horizontally plated shaft (April 27) open Q.

Chrome Plating Steel in a Bath Normally Used for Plating Copper (April 22) open Q.

White Patches in Trivalent Chrome Plating (April 22)

41922i Nickel plating white patches and dullness (April 21)

Black spots in zinc plating (April 16)

Current density required for chrome plating (April 16)

Hard Chrome Fails Salt Spray Test if it's Ground (April 15) open Q.

Substitute/Alternate/Replacement for Rhodium Plating (April 14) open Q.

Ingredients for chrome (April 12)

Hard chrome plating problem: dull gray plating (April 8)

61231i Tin Plated Copper parts black smear/residue (April 8) open Q.

Cadmium plating problem: pits, even on Hull Cell panels (April 7)

10282i Marks in tin plated copper bus bar (April 6) open Q.

Converting zinc plating bath to zinc-nickel (March 29) open Q.

55155i Cyanide bleedout in Silver Plating of Brass Castings (March 27) open Q.

Zinc plating turns black in weld area (March 26)

Problem holding Zinc concentration in alkaline Zinc plating bath (March 26)

61226i Acid zinc plating is dark grey and black (March 25)

Electroplating with Brass (Electrodeposition of Brass) (March 24)

Installing a black chrome plating plant (March 16) open Q.

Plating chrome on a nickel substrate (March 12)

Peel off problem from semi bright nickel (March 9)

Help repairing chrome cylinder rods (March 8)

49751i White bronze plating problems (March 1) open Q.

Zn blue passivation turns yellowish (March 1) open Q.

3000i Marks and hazy spots after gold plating jewelry (February 26) open Q.

Electroplating of iron onto bismuth shot (February 26) open Q.

35342i White patches in Chrome Plating (February 23) open Q.

44804i Purplish brown discoloration of gold plating (February 23) open Q.

Restoring gold Iridite color to diecast parts (February 21) open Q.

34023i Haze on Ni-Cr plating surface (February 20)

Economical iron electroplating; How to make up ferrous sulfate solution (February 19) open Q.

44143i Chrome plated hydraulic cylinder rods have pits (February 15)

Nickel plating is coming out black (February 15)

Plating of Rare-earth Neodymium Magnets (February 12)open Q. vipInquirer often helps others, so especially deserves help

Alkaline Zinc Nickel Plating of Hardened Steels open Q. (February 9)

Q&A: Tin plated parts turn yellowish (February 4)

What types of plating can be done in a barrel? open Q. (January 30)

52579i Zinc electroplating with yellow passivation is dull open Q. (January 30)

My brass plating is nickel color instead of yellow open Q. (January 29)

Zinc-Nickel Plating is 'silver' color in Black Passivation bath open Q. (January 29)

58478i Tin-Silver Electroplating over Copper Pillar Bump open Q. (January 20)

11191i Manufacturing Process of Nickel Sulphate and Nickel Chloride (January 20)

44964i Black Nickel Bath Formula for Barrel Plating (January 18)

Emissivity value for Cadmium plated steel and Zinc Plated Steel open Q. (January 16)

Can lack of ZnCl2 additions cause chloride zinc roughness? open Q. (January 12)

Hard Chrome Plating Additives? HEEF Advantages? MSA? (January 12)

How thick is the chromate on zinc-nickel plating? open Q. (January 11)

How to do brass plating on stainless steel (January 11)

How much voltage and amperage for barrel acid zinc plating? open Q. (January 11)

9737i Need to touch up Cadmium plate (January 6)

2d. ELECTROLESS PLATING, PLATING ON PLASTICS, IMMERSION PLATING, CHROME-LOOK SPRAYS, LIQUID METAL COATINGS

Can Electroless Nickel Plating be Machined? (July 18) open Q.

Formula for electroless nickel plating solution (July 2) open Q.

Sandblast before Electroless Nickel plating (June 25) open Q.

Plating of ABS Plastics; palladium and electroless nickel issues (June 14)

No adhesion of Electroless Gold onto Sulphamate Nickel Plating (June 4) open Q.

Poor Adhesion of Electroless nickel on Sulfamate Nickel (May 15) open Q.

Factors affecting Electroless Nickel deposit rate (May 9) open Q.

How to determine plating defect vs. plastic substrate defect (April 24) open Q.

"Dot Skip" Problem in Plating of ABS Plastic (April 21)

Decomposition/Plate-out of Electroless Nickel Plating Bath (April 5)

What is the wetting agent for silvering of vinyl LP records? (March 30) open Q.

Thermal cycle Test on ABS (March 15) open Q.

39992i Chrome plating peels off of electroless nickel (March 6)

Plating Ultem 2300 and Composite Plastics (March 6) open Q.

Palladium activation for EN Problems & Solutions (February 22) open Q.

Problem doing EN on stainless with only non-magnetic plating (February 10)

Silver plating with silver nitrate open Q. (February 9)

Nickel Plating with Boron Nitride Particles (January 22)

Black Stain in blind & threaded holes of electroless nickel plating (January 15)

Mid Electroless nickel on Brass against an 6000 series Aluminium? open Q. (January 13)

2e. PVD, CVD, ION IMPLANTATION, VACUUM PROCESSES

Vacuum Cad plating adhesion problem on 13-8 stainless (July 17) open Q.

PVD Setup for Surgical/Medical Tools (May 16)

Can my jewelry line be vacuum silver plated? (May 16)

How to get Jet Black PVD finish (March 5)

2f. GALVANIZING, ALUMINIZING, HOT TIN DIPPING

61293i Chrome-free galvanized pipe gets black spots (July 20) open Q.

Chemical to Remove slag/dross of zinc from hot dip galvanizing (July 16) open Q.

Excessive generation of dross in zinc kettle startup (July 9) open Q.

61283i Finish on zinc coated steel coil for prefabricated housing (July 2) open Q.

Pimples on hot dip galvanizing (July 2)

25997i Prevention and removal of white rust on galvanizing (June 25) open Q.

39461i Black spot problem on hot dip galvanized mesh (June 23)

Does hot dip galvanizing weaken steel? (June 23)

46006i Rough & lumpy low quality galvanizing (June 23)

Maintaining low contact resistance on zinc coated chassis (June 15)

Welding of hot dip galvanised kettle (June 11) open Q.

Increase existing GI coating without re-galvanizing (June 3) open Q.

How to reduce galvalume and galvanizing dross generation (May 14) open Q.

Can Galvanized Steel Be Painted and with Reliably Good Adhesion? (May 11)

Wiping system for continuous wire galvanizing? open Q. (December 19)

12327i Sulfuric Acid Solution Recovery Q&A (April 10) open Q.

How Can I Reduce and Remove Zinc Dross (April 6) open Q.

Galvanising - Reduce & Recover Zinc Ash and Dross (March 18) open Q.

Alternatives to hot dip galvanizing for a small shop (March 12)

Titanium and Lead in hot dip galvanising (March 3) open Q.

How do we tolerance and gauge galvanized fasteners? open Q. (February 11)

Is galvanized steel appropriate for water/glycol mix? open Q. (February 10)

What degreasing & flux for HDG of lighting poles? (January 26)

2g. BLACK OXIDE, BLUING, COLORING, PATINATING, NITRIDING

Testing the quality of blackening coating (July 16)

Black oxide solution with copper contamination (June 4) open Q.

My caustic bluing solutions gets weak (March 10) 2nd Request open Q.

How do you use wax coating at end of Black oxide process open Q. (February 8)

How to make black golf putter heads? (January 30)

Does black oxide add hardness? (January 11)

Best Alternative to Black Oxide Finishing open Q. (January 5)

2h. OTHER INORGANIC FINISHING: Mechanical Plating, QPQ, Metal Spray, Zinc-rich Dip-Spin Coatings, Sherardizing, etc.

Dacromet coating questions (July 23) open Q.

Depletion Gilding, and Tarnish Prevention in low karat metals (May 24) open Q.

Cost Estimating for S442 Zinc-rich Dip-spin Coatings (February 9)


3. ORGANIC FINISHING PROCESSES . . .

3a. ELECTROPAINT PRIMING, AUTOPHORETIC COATINGS

Pin holes in CED e-coating (July 4) open Q.

Misc. problems in CED (cathodic electrodeposition) coating (July 2)

CED System Issues: Recovering paint, Ultrafiltration problems (June 18)

CED Paint conductivity is dropping/rising (June 18)

Electrocoating: Higher or Lower Solvent for Lower DFT? (May 31) open Q.

Which pumps & membranes are best for CED bath? (April 13) open Q.

Defects in CED Coating (April 12)

How to Increase DFT Paint Thickness in Cathodic Electrodeposition (CED) system? open Q. (March 28)

Sizing an e-coating rectifier (March 9) open Q.

11694i Book or notes for PT CED (February 2)

3b. POWDER COATING

Alternatives to powder coating (July 27) open Q.

Mixing powder coating colors to get a new color (July 9) open Q.

Touching up powder coating (July 8) open Q.

How to Powder Coat Plastics (Nylon, ABS, Polycarbonate, Composites) (June 18) open Q.

High heat resistance powder coating (April 22) open Q.

The best pre-treatment process for Aluminum alloys to be Powder Coated (March 4) open Q.

Aluminum pretreatment for powder coating (March 3) open Q.

Brake caliper coating Q&A: Paint over anodizing & electrocoating? (February 21)

Surface Treatments For Aluminum Concrete Forms (January 29)

Powder coating reclaim -- does anybody take recycled waste powder? (January 15)

Aqua Blasting before Powder Coating open Q. (January 8)

3c. LACQUERS, CLEAR COATS, ELECTROPHORETIC TINTING, ANTI-TARNISH

Coatings for metal spectacle frames (July 7) open Q.

Cathodic Electrophoretic Lacquer -- How to get matte black CED (May 21) open Q.

Preserving bright copper using benzotriazole solution (March 14) open Q.

28801-1i Applying Colors to Nickel Plating (February 26) RFQ

9711i Clear coating for for exterior steel open Q. (January 22)

3d. PAINTING, PRINTING, ADHESIVES AND OTHER ORGANIC COATINGS

15909i Training on plastisol chemistry and application? open Q. (July 7)

Aluminium Bitumen Paint (June 17) open Q.

Ceramic coating formulation (June 16) open Q.

Sublimation Coating Introduction, FAQs and Q&A

Do we need to clean paintlok ductwork before dryfall painting? (March 4) open Q.

Paints for power transformers (February 19) open Q.

Epoxy bleed-out problem on matrix leadframe open Q. (February 8)

Poor adhesion of paint to aluminum open Q. (January 27)


4. POST-TREATMENTS

4a. CHEMICAL POST-TREATMENTS [CHROMATE CONVERSION COATINGS, RUST PREVENTATIVES, PATINAS, COLORIZING]

20303i White colored spots on chromated zinc plating (July 23)

Prepping gravure cylinders for storage (June 16) open Q.

How to Passivate Copper (March 22) open Q.

Formula for Blue Chromate (Passivation) for Zinc Plating (March 4) open Q.

Chromate conversion on cadmium not adhering (February 11)

4b. BAKING AND NON-CHEMICAL POST-TREATMENTS [HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT AND DE-EMBRITTLEMENT, ANNEALING, WHISKERS, SOLDERING, REFLOWING]

Soldering issue when using a Silver-bearing Soldering Alloy (July 9) open Q.

Soldering Electroless Nickel plated components (June 11)

Why Pre-Bake before cadmium plating? (April 29) open Q.

Should we be baking case hardened parts for Hydrogen Embrittlement? (March 24)

Baked zinc plating vs. zinc without bake (February 12)

4c. STRIPPING, REWORKS, ETC.

Stripping aluminum with caustic soda (July 27) open Q.

Removal of tin plating from copper (July 14) open Q.

Stripping Nickel off Stainless Steel Substrates (June 25)

Stripping Cadmium plating and choosing a method (June 18)

Strip paint from aluminum without stripping chromate conversion coating (May 4) open Q.

Hard chrome appears to be immersion depositing during operation (April 28) open Q.

Restoring fire-blackened cast brass generator brush-holders (March 11) open Q.


5. SUPPORTING ISSUES

5a. ANALYSIS, LAB TECHNIQUE, Q.A., SALT SPRAY TESTING

Gravimetric analysis of gold plating bath (July 24)

How to test hard chrome without copper sulphate (July 19) open Q.

Guidelines & best practices for purchasing a salt spray chamber (July 13) open Q.

Dubpernell test method for chromium plating (July 10) open Q.

Determination of sulfuric acid in chromium bath (July 5) open Q.

Correlation between accelerated weathering & natural weathering (July 1) open Q.

Scribe marks on galvanized samples (June 15)

Gage R&R for an XRF plating thickness tester (June 10) open Q.

Analysis of nitric-hydrofluoric aluminum etching mixture (May 12) open Q.

Titrimetric procedure for trivalent and hexavalent chromate analysis (April 22)

Salt spray / salt fog pH variation (May 12) open Q.

Adhesion Tape Testing of Plating (May 2) open Q.

Measure saccharin & butynediol concentration in Nickel sulfamate electroforming bath (April 23)

Looking for a titration method for ferric chloride (April 22) open Q.

Analysis of Rocheltex (cyanide copper) plating solutions (April 22)

Wood's Nickel Strike Bath Analysis & Maintenance (April 19)

Analysis of HNO3 & HF in titanium etch (April 18) open Q.

Interpretation of EDX spectrum result (April 17) open Q.

Adhesion test for chromate conversion on aluminium (April 10) open Q.

Specific gravity of water plus acid mixture? (April 5)

Thickness measurement of plating plus paint (March 9) open Q.

How to Analyze Total Solids in Rinse Water? (March 7) open Q.

Q&As on Operation of ASTM B117 Salt Fog Test Chambers: The Salt Spray Woes open Q. (February 11)

Chrome plating thickness determination open Q. (February 9)

Test for cadmium plating open Q. (January 30)

Lab sink set-up? How to deal with titration waste? open Q. (January 26)

Spot check for testing for Sn on Al substrate? (January 26)

18375i Measuring cadmium plating thickness magnetically open Q. (January 18)

60442i Copper vs. stainless "Stress Tabs" for Electroless Nickel open Q. (January 16)

Salt Spray vs. Humidity Test for Passivated Stainless Steel? open Q. (January 16)

How to calibrate a pH meter for 0.65 and 1.3 pH range (January 10)

5b. WASTE & WASTEWATER TREATMENT, POLLUTION CONTROL

Chromium in my Anodizing Waste? (July 18)

Ion Exchange / DM plant calculations (July 13) open Q.

Wastewater treatment issues: Cyanide destruction questions (June 14) open Q.

Recycling of sodium hydroxide from aluminum etching (May 5) open Q.

Wastewater: big spike in Carbon Disulfide open Q. (February 15)

34242i Biological/Algae Growth in Tin Plating Rinse Tanks (February 11)

Waste Water Treatment of Silica top coats (January 24)

Wastewater treatment issue: Turbidity problems open Q. (January 19)

5c. SAFETY ISSUES, EMISSIONS, TOXICITY, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

Sick from welding galvanized steel (June 14) open Q.

Risks of chlorine in degreasing tanks in Pretreatment line in paint shop (June 3)

Galvanized chicken wire in popcorn maker (April 17)

Cyanide, its uses and its dangers (April 12)

57138i Safety of heating chrome to 400 °C (April 8)

Will heated copper pipe emit cyanide gas or other toxins? (March 13)

Is it safe to Parkerize cast iron cookware? (March 12)

47195i Toxic Lead and chrome in coffee makers and espresso machines? open Q. (February 20)

Plating Tank Disposal -- What Are the Rules (February 18) open Q.

Cadmium and chromate toxicity/safety from aircraft bolts open Q. (February 7)

Rhodium allergy? open Q. (February 4)

11826i Cause of black mark on skin open Q. (January 21)

5d. PLANT & PROCESS ENGINEERING, CONSTRUCTION

Hard anodizing chiller sizing for 5-gallon tank (July 29)

Nickel Sulfamate Plating ventilation & safety issues (July 23)

Tank material for hard chrome plating (July 9) RFQ

What kind of nuts & bolts to use when building a galvanizing plant (July 5) open Q.

Copper Bus Bar Sizing for DC low-voltage high-amperage (June 11) open Q.

Selection of wire for wiring/racking parts (May 23) open Q.

Rock hard scale problem in aluminum processing (May 20) open Q.

12273-1i Aluminum bright dip set-up requirements, material of construction (May 14) open Q.

Does anodizing need explosion-proof electrics due to hydrogen evolution (May 5) open Q.

What happens if Nitric & Sulphuric acids are mixed? (April 30) open Q.

Choosing a plastic for nickel plating line installation (April 20)

Problems in PVC & PVDF piping systems for sodium hypochlorite (bleach) (April 14) open Q.

RO water causing rust in 316SS spray nozzles (March 25) open Q.

Iridium Coated Titanium Anodes: Sources, Anticipated Life, Applications (February 25)

Flow meters to be used in Tin Electroplating line (February 9)

Looking to purchase a small zinc electroplating system (January 29)

Cleaning/leaching a plating tank (January 19)

7378i Corroded Titanium Anode Baskets in Plating Tank (January 14)

5e. QUESTIONS ABOUT SOFTWARE, SPECS, BOOKS, EDUCATION, INDUSTRY STATS, ETC.

Industry specs for powder coating thickness (July 29) open Q.

Silver Plating is Blistering. Interpreting AMS 2411 Requirements (July 21)

NADCAP & NADCAP Audits (July 20) open Q.

Meanings of plating spec abbreviations: MFCu (July 9) open Q.

ASTM B-449 and other specs for Chromating Aluminum Q&A's (March 27) open Q.

Testing adhesion of electroless nickel plating (March 27) open Q.

Black oxide over cad plated NAS6604 fasteners? (March 12) open Q.

Overview table of plating and its properties (February 21) open Q.

Looking for a breakdown of spec.: STD3947, Fe/Zn-Fe8c4 open Q. (February 4)

Is Nickel Strike allowed before Cadmium plating heat treated bearing steel? (January 14)

18596i Where to find Dr. Alec Watson's paper on Nickel Sulphamate plating (January 12)

Anodized Aluminum Coating Weight Testing ASTM B137 open Q. (January 8)

5f. W...W...W...WORD OF THE WEEK

What is Continuous Gold Plating (July 2) open Q.

61278i Naming a Finish from its Looks (June 25) open Q.

What is Chemical Brightening Process Standard (June 13) open Q.

Zintec vs. zinc electroplated CRCA steel (June 11)

Finishing Related Basic English Terminology (May 15)

61245i KTL shielding spot technical term (May 12) open Q.

What do "gZn" and "tZn" mean? (April 8) open Q.

5g. REACH, RoHS, EOL Directives; and Replacements for Cd, Pb, Cr+6, Nitric Acid & Phosphate Replacements

How do the pre-plate processes affect RoHS compliance? (June 25)

5h. MOSTLY METALLURGY; Heat Treatment

How to separate copper from silver (July 13) open Q.

Hardening EN8 & EN9 parts (June 21) open Q.

Powdered metals (Copper) in Los Angeles, CA (March 15) RFQ

Electroformed Nickel Bellows Annealing Process (February 23) open Q.

Can Powder Coating Affect Heat Treatment or Weaken Aluminum? open Q. (January 12)

5i. PRECIOUS METAL RECOVERY

34676i Best and Easiest way to refine gold dust to get 99.9% purity (July 10) open Q.

43983i Does this look like PGM content particularly Rhodium? (July 9) open Q.

Recycler asks about extracting silver with steel nails and salt? (July 7) open Q.

Problems in recovering gold from soil (June 6) open Q.

33616i Purifying 'smelted computer parts' by re-smelting (June 4) open Q.

Cleaning gold that has been burned 2nd Requestopen Q. (April 24)

Refining of Palladium and making its salt (February 19) open Q.

32894i Melt old gold to make new jewelry open Q. (January 22)


6. CONSUMER, RESEARCH, & STUDENT ISSUES

6a. ARTISTS, HOBBYISTS, CAR BUFFS, HOME OWNERS, ETC.

Aluminum motorcycle polishing -- rims, wheels, swingarm, frame (July 29)

Need springs for Antique baby carriage (July 29)

Is 0.05µ gold plating "good quality"? open Q. (July 29)

Repair discolored copper awnings [Chicago] (July 27) RFQ

50888i Damaged the finish on copper table -- HELP! (July 26) open Q.

Restore gold plate/wash on sterling silver cup (July 26)

What to to paint burners on propane stove with? (July 26)

Stumbled onto great metallizing method for electroplating/electroforming (July 24)

23897i How to identify if old lamp is brass, copper, bronze, or cast iron? (July 21) open Q.

Why black line on face from gold jewelry? (July 18) open Q.

61290i Require Iridescent Passivation Solution (July 18) RFQ

Problems & solutions in copper electroforming (July 12)

Bronze plating of a 1920's funeral fan (July 9) open Q. RFQ

Restoring old copper washing basin (July 8) open Q.

Want silver plating instructions (July 7) open Q.

Q&As about Gold Plated Flatware (July 5) open Q.

61282i Seeking finishing suggestions on vintage receiver restoration (July 2) open Q.

Need Gillespie Antique Restorer (June 28) open Q.

18957i Aluminum threads stuck, cold welded (June 27)

Paint not sticking to Ospho (June 26) open Q.

How can I coat for sublimation printing on a low budget? (June 22) open Q.

Galvanized stock tanks as swimming pools (June 22) open Q.

Chrome plating of Ford F250 grill (June 21) open Q.

4913i Do It Yourself Nickel Plating (June 15)

Seeking Iridescent Paint or Powder Coating (June 6) open Q.

Neutralizer for acid copper plating? (June 4)

Amperage requirements for plating (June 3)

19047i Wagner Ware (May 31) open Q.

Nickel Plating Brighteners: Everything to Know open Q. (May 29)

Should I cold-galvanize, powder coat, or do both on an anchor mount (May 23) open Q.

cast iron stove parts Cast Iron Cook Stoves: Where to find parts and how to restore (May 23) open Q.

Chrome plated 1950s dinette tables and chairs -- restoring & protecting (May 14)

Blue/green/verdigris patinas for zinc Q&A (May 6)

Base for bathroom faucets is corroded and needs painting (April 30) open Q.

Change my white gold ring to yellow gold (April 26)

How to tell hard anodizing from regular? (April 26) open Q.

Plating the inside of a gas tank (April 25) open Q.

46670i Acrylic Tub Damaged by Drain Cleaner (April 22)

34821i Gold Plating of Fancy Bathroom Fixtures (April 22) open Q.

30103i Making a dark black watch dial (April 20) open Q.

Home nickel plating with vinegar and salt (April 17)

Can nickel plating fill pit and scratches (April 14)

Design Project: Recycling Copper through Electroforming/Plating (April 10) open Q.

39401i Remove copper-nickel cladding from copper core coins? (April 9)

44569i F.B. Rogers Item -- What Is It? (April 8)

How to turn copper aesthetically green (April 7)

36471i Tea Service: Sterling or Silverplate? (April 1)

yellow brass turned pink Help, my yellow brass turned pink (March 26)

Clear coating of Silver for Anti-tarnish (March 25) open Q.

34112i Steel vs. aluminum patio furniture: corrosion resistance? (March 24) open Q.

Artistic painting with anodizing (March 18) open Q.

Gluing to Polypropylene? (March 10) open Q.

Galvanic Reaction between stainless sink and zinc washers (March 8)

Green fingers from gold rings (March 7)

Iron Plating (Electrodeposition of Iron onto other materials) (March 6)

Need relining/re-tinning of copper pots & pans -- or tell me how to (March 5)

Remove rust with muriatic acid (HCl / hydrochloric acid) (March 5)

patina on copper electroforms Mystery patina on copper electroforms (March 5)

zinc electroplating for science project Zinc electroplating for hobbyists and school projects open Q. (March 4)

tinting headlights How to tint headlight metalizing? (March 3) open Q.

How to make Pewter Shiny? (February 26)

Need Dupont Lucite Acrylic Lacquer paint (February 25)

barber chair replating Replating of barber chairs (February 23)

Silver Plating turning pink (February 23) open Q.

What chemical will heat water to melt ice? (February 22) open Q.

Removal of clearcoat on copper (February 15)

making nickel acetate Trying to make Nickel Acetate D-I-Y (February 14)

Restore/repair black porcelain sink finish (February 8)

removing paint from deep corners Paint removal in corners of wood door (February 1)

Copper Plating from an Ammonia Solution (January 31)

Preparing acid copper brightener (January 30)

zincating of aluminum Zincate formulas for plating on aluminum open Q. (January 30)

how to rust nickel plating Can I do 'rusting process' on nickel plated items? open Q. (January 27)

copper tarnish problems Removing tarnish on brass & copper open Q. (January 27)`

cast iron stoves Restoring rusty cast iron wood stove, painting or polishing it (January 23)

gold colored pewter How to fix pewter that turned gold color open Q. (January 20)

relining a bottle cooler Can I rubber line a bottle cooler? (January 20)

Lacquering / clear coating a Brass Bed (January 18)

diy anodizing Home Anodizing (January 18)

Boiling water seal for home anodizing? open Q. (January 18)

High strength fastener Q&A's, Issues & Answers open Q. (January 16)

Paint/powder coat Aluminum Wheelchair Q&A's (January 14)

Stripping a faucet down to raw brass open Q. (January 13)

cleaning jere sculptures How to clean Birds in Flight metal sculpture open Q. (January 13)

Pre-coating for sublimation transfers onto ceramic (January 11)

How to electroplate Aluminum onto Aluminum (January 10)

Yellow Chromate Adhesion Problem (January 6)

Rash from Ring? Fixed by Boiling in Vinegar & Peroxide! (January 5)

fixing copper sinks Restoring the dark brown finish to copper sinks (January 4)

How to Blue / Blacken Brass open Q. (January 3)

6b. RESEARCH, THESIS TOPICS, UNIVERSITY & POST-GRAD STUDENTS

Teflon coating of stainless steel (July 26)

How to electrodeposit PbO2 (lead dioxide) (July 25) open Q.

History of iron electroplating (July 19)

When to replace magnesium electropolishing solution, or how to analyze? open Q. (July 7)

How can electroplating cathode current have efficiency less than or more than 100%? (May 21)

Can't understand difference between hard chrome and decorative (April 21)

High strength bolt testing (April 20) open Q.

How to make Zinc Chloride (February 21) open Q.

Electroforming of Copper Foil open Q. (January 10)

Teflon coating of stainless steel open Q. (January 2)

6c. K-12 SCIENCE PROJECTS, GRAMMAR & HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT QUESTIONS

Building a really cheap electric arc furnace (July 12) open Q.

precipitate in copper plating Science Project: White Precipitate in Copper Plating? (February 22) open Q.

Science project on the effect of SALT & WATER on steel wool (February 4)


7. DRIFTED OFF FINISHING, BUT INTERESTING TO SOME OF US :-)

Hazmat transportation requirements & exclusions (July 21)

Drawn platinum wire as a hinge pin on bracelets & earrings (July 15) open Q.

32144i Markings indicating real gold on jewelry (July 12) open Q.

Identifying rings: Marking system for rings (July 7) open Q.

How to Fix mercury damage to gold jewelry (June 21)

Fiction stories involving plating (June 18)

18884i Hoyt Metal Ingot. What type of metal do I have? (June 16)

11377i Taking antique brass bed apart (June 11) open Q.

Accidentally Swallowing Sodium Hypochlorite during root canal (June 7)

Zinc oxide production by French process (June 6)

How to do bottle cap tables and bartops with pourable epoxy (May 21) open Q.

61249i Corrosion/calcification of ladders, boilers, and brains (May 18) open Q. vipInquirer often helps others, so especially deserves our help

FB Rogers trademarks/insignia on Vases, Crumb Catchers, etc. (May 18)

33143i Stiffel lamps: How to repair Q&A's (May 11) open Q.

32413i Need sweet spirits of nitre (May 6)

Hydrolysis and HHO hydrogen energy for cars (April 16)

7137i Cleaning Dirilyte Gold-tone Flatware (April 16)

Silver extraction from waste hypo/fixer solution (April 16) open Q.

Ceramic Tile Cleaning with muriatic acid (April 12)

Freezer section of my fridge oozes orange goo (April 12)

Why is Panchlok statue made of 51 grams of each metal? (April 4) open Q.

hanson-van winkle-munning Hanson Van-Winkle Munning (H-VW-M) memories & memorabilia (April 4)

Antique icebox Q&A's, Problems & Solutions (March 30)

8792i What is 'Kelite'? The Kelite Bldg. in Los Angeles (March 27) open Q.

Maple Syrup Boiling / Evaporator Pans (February 25) open Q.

frozen zipper Fix frozen zipper stuck from salt spray or corrosion (January 12)

Mill Scale Uses and Applications open Q. (January 5)



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