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 0. Choosing a Finish (corrosion, compatibility)
  1. Preparing the part (mech. prepchem. pretreatmasking & racking)
    2. Metallic Finishing (stainless & titaniumanodizing & light metalselectroplatingelectroless platingPVD & vacuum processesgalvanizingbluingother inorganic processes)
      3. Organic Finishing (CED, electrocoatpowder coatinglacquers, clearcoatspainting, printing, adhesives)
        4. Post-treatments (chemical post-treatsbaking, soldering, dryingstripping & reworks)
          5. Supporting Issues (analysis, lab, QA/QCwater & wastesafety, emissionsplant/process engrg.specs, books, statslingometallurgyprecious metal recovery)

            6. NON-industrial (hobbyists, DIY, around homeresearch, thesisK-12 scienceArtists' Corner)
              7. NOT Metal Finishing (off topic but interesting)

   Read any thread & add your Q/A or Post a Question or RFQ of your own


0. CORROSION, COMPATIBILITY, CHOOSING A FINISH . . .

31503-2i Galvanic Corrosion between nickel & aluminum open Q. - November 26

• Want black bolts with no oil on them - November 21

• Black finishes for bolts and hardware Q&A - November 17

• Better corrosion resistance: zinc plating or zinc phosphating? - October 29

• Copper weathervane staining aluminum church steeple open Q. - October 26

• SPCC vs. SGCC vs. SECC steel for computer cases open Q. - October 20

• Galvanic Corrosion between Galvanized Steel and Aluminum - October 19

• Galvanize vs. Galvanneal vs. E-coat vs. Powder open Q. - September 30

• Powder Coating vs. Liquid Paint for Outdoor Plater - September 22

• Coating or Finish for ADC12 for Sliding Wear Resistance open Q. - September 20

• 202 SS or 304 SS rooftop HVAC equipment - September 6

• Copper vs Stainless steel tubing for vacuum equipment open Q. - August 20

See more threads in this topic



1. PREPARATION . . .

1a. MECHANICAL PREP [GRINDING, POLISHING, VIBRATORY FINISHING, BUFFING, HONING]

• Surface finishes N1 thru N12 and their equivalents in Ra - November 27

• Polishing chromoly chandeleir - October 30

• Grinding HVOF coatings open Q. - August 14

• Grinding hard Chrome with grinding oil vs water miscible open Q. - July 18

• Formula for polishing and buffing compounds - July 16

• Very High Bond tape doesn't stick to mirror polished stainless steel - June 21

• Is there any Roughness Standard under N1 / Ra 0.025 ? open Q. - May 24

• What VDI Finish is required for light pipes? open Q. - May 12

• How to dull a stainless steel finish - May 9

• Need to do Deburring of Titanium RFQ San Luis Obispo CA - April 27

• Problems with stainless steel cut wire media in magnetic tumbler Thanks! Resolved :-) - April 13

See more threads in this topic


1b. PRETREATMENTS [CLEANING, PICKLING, ETCHING, PHOSPHATIZING, ACTIVATION]

34052-5i Manganese Phosphate coating is uneven, non uniform open Q. - November 26

• Remove rust with muriatic acid (HCl / hydrochloric acid) open Q. - November 23

• Coating Weight Specs. How to increase/decrease zinc phosphate coating weight open Q. - November 15

• Manganese phosphate coating: issues and answers open Q. - November 8

• History of Parco-lubrite, zinc phosphate, and manganese phosphate coatings open Q. - November 1

• Etching of Tungsten Problems & Solutions Q&A - October 31

• Need Pickle Inhibitors, Rodine and alternatives - October 26

• Bright dip process, copper parts brightening open Q. - September 14

• Descaling of CR and HR Mig welding in preparation for plating open Q. - September 5

• Chemical to clean weld discoloration from carbon steel? open Q. - September 5

• Temperature of Surface Activation for Phosphating? open Q. - - August 16

• Oversize bore developed during phosphating open Q. - August 6

See more threads in this topic


1c. MASKING, RACKING, TAPING, PLUGGING, PHOTOSENSITIVE MASKS

adv. maskcoat banner 

• How to selectively patina copper (darken it) - November 14

• Masking material / method for electroless nickel plating open Q. - July 25

• Etching problems with PCB tin resist open Q. - July 18

• How to mask glass bangles for PVD coating open Q. - June 18

See more threads in this topic



2. METALLIC & INORGANIC FINISHING . . .

2a. STAINLESS STEEL & TITANIUM PROCESSING

61345-2i Haziness or Cloudiness on Type III Anodized Titanium - December 2

• Anodizing titanium black in color - December 2

• Passivating long small dia., 316L SS tubing - December 1

• Aesthetic thermal browning of stainless steel open Q. - November 28

• Stainless Steel Discoloration when Heat Treating open Q. - November 26

49030-2i Electrochemical De-burring/Grinding of Micro Surgical Knife - November 21

electropolishing problem 55467-4i Electropolishing defect in small area open Q. - November 17

• Anodizing titanium to green color -- electrolytic pre-etch open Q. - November 14

• Medical Implant Boil Test - September 19

• Ratio of phosphoric & sulfuric acid for electropolishing open Q. - September 14

• Hydrofluoric acid vs. ammonium-bifluoride in cleaning & pickling - September 5

• Passivating a part with selective tungsten carbide coating on it open Q. - August 26

• Chemical/Electro polishing of stainless steel - August 21

See more threads in this topic



2b. ANODIZING AND LIGHT METAL TREATMENTS (Aluminum, Magnesium)

• Chemical conversion coating: Can old 2024 test panels be used to check coating weights? open Q. - December 4

56407-1i Stains in Electrocolouring of aluminum - December 1

• Pitting and black spots during Anodizing - November 27

• Chromic acid anodizing wasn't sealed. What now? open Q. - November 23

46468-6i Problem anodizing 7075 (7xxx) aluminum open Q. - November 22

52667-1i Iridite 14-2 pH Wipe Test open Q. - November 18

• Can duplex sealing enhance black dye stability? - November 15

• Need Chromating on Aluminium Castings for SST of 400 hours RFQ Pune, India - November 8

• Anodised aluminium temperature resistance - November 3

• Three-in-one aluminum pretreatment process? - October 27

• Type III hard anodize parts burning at the bottom of rack open Q. - October 22

• Need Screws for Anodizing Racking RFQ Bay Area CA - October 22

• Process flow for silver plating on aluminium - October 15

• Certification of Sulfuric Acid Anodizing voltage open Q. - October 14

• White spots on 2000/7000 series aluminum only after sealing - October 11

See more threads in this topic


  

2c. ELECTROPLATING and ELECTROFORMING

• Conductive Black Coatings: black zinc 2nd Request open Q. - November 17

• Platinised titanium anode turning black? open Q. - November 23

16507-1i Delamination problems in nickel plating - November 23

• Our nickel plating is white and milky - November 21

• Want plant for Plating zinc diecast RFQ India - November 18

• Need highly Conductive Zinc-Nickel Plating after Chromating open Q. - November 17

• How to make platinum pen plating solution? open Q. - November 15

61497-1i Nickel Anode Disintegration open Q. - November 15

• Tin Cobalt plating problems open Q. - November 11

32077-5i Delayed black spots (peeling?) in zinc plating open Q. - November 10

• Unwanted chrome plating build-up on sharp edges - November 9

41922-3i Nickel Plating defect: white patches - November 9

See more threads in this topic


2d. ELECTROLESS PLATING, PLATING ON PLASTICS, IMMERSION PLATING, CHROME-LOOK SPRAYS, LIQUID METAL COATINGS

• Can citric acid passivate a stainless tank used for electroless nickel plating? - October 26

• Palladium activation & Plating on Plastic - October 1

• Heat treatment of Electroless Nickel Plating open Q. - September 23

• Electroless gold plating (autocatalytic) open Q. - September 18

• Composite electroless nickel-PTFE plating open Q. - September 13

• Electroless Nickel Plating of Aluminum without Zincate - September 9

• Barrel plating on plastics/ABS - September 5

• A method for electroless brass plating? - September 3

• Need help with electroless/immersion tin plating open Q. - August 21

• Electroless nickel-boron plating open Q. - August 9

See more threads in this topic



2e. PVD, CVD, ION IMPLANTATION, VACUUM PROCESSES

• Need base coats and top coats for vacuum metallizing RFQ South Africa - November 20

• How to make glass in colors? open Q. - November 15

• How to get Black PVD finish open Q. - September 2

7846-4i PVD coatings: color control - July 22

• Masking in PVD process open Q. - March 25

• Need to patch up the leakage in vacuum chamber open Q. - March 22

50847-1i Diamond Like Carbon (DLC) Coating Coming Off After Steam Autoclave - March 16

• Pinholes in base coat for vacuum metallizing on ABS (February 7)



2f. GALVANIZING, ALUMINIZING, HOT TIN DIPPING

56867-11i Black/Gray Staining on Batch HDG - November 15

• Required Frequency of Zinc Dross Removal - November 1

• Temporarily weld/repair Galvanizing Kettle - September 21

• How to detect whether powder coating is on GI vs CRCA? - September 20

• Galvanizing flux bath has low pH & high iron - August 31

41367-1i Zinc consumption control in hot dip galvanizing - August 31

• How to reduce bottom dross in hot dip galvanizing line? open Q. - August 31

7666-1ext Difference between G60U and G60UL? - August 20

• Hot dip galvanizing: what is reasonable dross & ash material loss? spanish open Q. - August 19

• How to reduce Galvalume dross generation open Q. - August 12

See more threads in this topic



2g. BLACK OXIDE, BLUING, COLORING, PATINAS, NITRIDING

• Black Oxide Coating Thickness - November 18

• Which oil BLACK OXIDE finish? open Q. - October 2

• Black oxide is salmon colored. Is copper the problem? - September 19

• Cold blackening on SS turns blue over time open Q. - September 6

• Mid temperature blackening smut issue open Q. - June 13

61453-1i Rust on black oxide parts open Q. - June 12

• Black oxide problems on 4340 steel open Q. - May 13

• Steam Homo Treatment vs Black Oxide Treatment - April 6

• Black oxiding of hardened steel is brown open Q. - March 3



2h. OTHER INORGANIC FINISHING: Mechanical Plating, QPQ, Metal Spray, Zinc-rich Dip-Spin Coatings, Sherardizing, etc.



3. ORGANIC FINISHING [PAINT, POWDER COATING] . . .

3a. ELECTROPAINT PRIMING, AUTOPHORETIC COATINGS

• Low pH Problem & Dropping Anolyte Level in CED Bath - December 1

61499-1i Excessive foam formation in UF1 dip tank open Q. - November 23

• How to perform Acid MEQ of CED Bath manually? open Q. - November 3

45618-1i E-coating over Zinc or Zinc Cobalt Plating -- Problems & Solutions - September 27

• Water spots & water or paint flow marks after curing - July 16

32574-9i Chalky, ashy CED (cathodic electrodeposition) coating - July 12

• Need CED coating service in Chennai RFQ Chennai India - June 16

• Random adhesion failure in Electrodeposition coating open Q. - April 15



3b. POWDER COATING

• Sublimation heat transfer paper for powder coating? open Q. - November 15

50530-2i Powder coating burns during cutting & slotting of profiles - September 18

• Blisters/ Peeling of Powder Coating on Zinc Plating open Q. - June 23

• Powder Coating Galvanized Steel open Q. - May 17

1618-1i Necessity for primer with powder coatings? open Q. - April 19

• How to prevent corrosion of dully powder coated CRCA panels from acid fumes? - March 29

• Powder coat adhesion problem on zinc plate - February 20

• Powder coating on cast iron calipers open Q. (February 3)



3c. LACQUERS, CLEAR COATS, ELECTROPHORETIC TINTING, ANTI-TARNISH

• Clear coating silicon bronze open Q. - September 27

• How to make long lasting Dye Gold Plating on Imitation Jewelry open Q. - September 5

• Clearcoat for polished brass & copper bathtubs open Q. - June 27

45328-1i Water spot problem in CED open Q. - April 4

• Need electrophoretic lacquer on alligator clips RFQ Akron OH (February 7)



3d. PAINTING, PRINTING, ADHESIVES AND OTHER ORGANIC COATINGS

• Q&A on MIL-P-23377 primer open Q. - October 16

• Scratch marks are appearing in ABS Parts after painting open Q. - October 2

35114-1i Can You Paint a Car with House Paint? - September 16

• PVC Insulation Coating Blackens Copper Wire & Cable open Q. - August 21

• Help, paint adhesion problem on HDPE open Q. - August 20

• Repairing damaged PVDF Coating open Q. - July 29

• How to make wrinkle paint open Q. - July 20

• Sublimation coating formula for ceramic mugs - July 16

• Need custom tins for liquor company RFQ Jacksonville FL - July 2

31579-1i Eliminate Pin Holes on Painted Wheels open Q. - June 27

See more threads in this topic



4. POST-TREATMENTS

4a. CHEMICAL POST-TREATMENTS [CHROMATE CONVERSION COATINGS, RUST PREVENTATIVES, PATINAS, COLORIZING]

• Help with dye over zinc plating - December 2

• Yellow/gold Iridite leached to clear - October 12

• Post-dip to improve color of imitation gold plating? open Q. - September 17

• Answer to why Black Chromate turns green - July 15

• Is Zinc Plating with Chromate Conversion Coating RoHS compliant? open Q. - July 9

• Chromate conversion on cadmium not adhering open Q. - March 23

• Generic solution for chromating brass - March 22

• Bright Dipping of Brass: some shop problems open Q. - March 20



4b. BAKING AND NON-CHEMICAL POST-TREATMENTS [HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT AND DE-EMBRITTLEMENT, ANNEALING, WHISKERS, SOLDERING, REFLOWING]

• Hydrogen Embrittlement and the Lawrence Gauge - November 16

• Chrome plating and Hydrogen Embrittlement Relief - September 9

• How to improve the solderability of tin electroplating? open Q. - July 16



4c. STRIPPING, REWORKS, ETC.

• Stripping Tin / tinplate from Steel open Q. - November 18

• Can sulfuric acid be used to remove nickel plating from aluminum? open Q. - October 26

• What to use as anodize remover/stripper open Q. - October 14

• How to strip chromate from silver plated finish - October 14

11955-4i Can't strip chrome from copper gravure cylinder open Q. - October 3

• Removing rhodium plating electrolytically - September 8

11499-1i Removing TiN (Titanium Nitride) coatings - August 19

• How to remove conversion coating used as maskant when anodizing? - August 6

• Cleaning Tin Stain from Nickel-plated Aluminum open Q. - July 29

• Chemical to remove nickel plating from silver or brass jewelry? - May 12

See more threads in this topic



5. SUPPORTING ISSUES

5a. ANALYSIS, LAB TECHNIQUE, Q.A., SALT SPRAY TESTING

• MIL-DTL-5541 Chromate Conductivity Testing - November 27

• ASTM B117 Salt Fog Test Chamber Operational Q&As, Problems: Salt Spray Woes open Q. - November 26

• Analyze tin metal left in electroless tin solution open Q. - November 2

• Test if Alodine 1200 clear was actually done - October 17

• Determine % Nitric Acid. Titration? - September 29

• Analyze for iron content in hydrochloric acid open Q. - August 17

• How to Analyze Resin Impregnation of Aluminum open Q. - August 14

• Distilled water good enough for analysis? - August 14

• Simple test for presence of clear chromate - July 27

• Soak Cleaner / Degreaser: Alkalinity test & oil content - July 27

• Thickness measurement of gold & EN on copper open Q. - June 7

• Analyze Chrome Plating Bath; Determine Sulfates open Q. - June 6

See more threads in this topic



5b. WASTE & WASTEWATER TREATMENT, POLLUTION CONTROL

• DM System Problem: Poor OBR, short SBA life open Q. - November 20

• TDS vs PPM vs. µS? - October 14

• Trivalent Chromium vs. Hexavalent -- what are the differences? - August 31

• Recycling of chrome sludge open Q. - August 14

• Ferrous Chloride vs. Ferric Chloride for reducing H2S levels open Q. - August 6

61445-1i Defects on test panel left in the water - June 2

• Can Trivalent Chromium degrade into Hexavalent Chromium? - May 3

• Dangers of drinking deionized water open Q. - April 19

• Methods for pH measurement in D.I. water - April 15



5c. SAFETY ISSUES, EMISSIONS, TOXICITY, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

• Danger in Cast aluminum cookware? open Q. - December 5

11353-3i Yellow zinc hex nuts in arts and crafts projects - November 28

• Safety of hibachi barbecue with yellow zinc screws and damper open Q. - September 22

• Permit requirements for powdercoating - September 13

• PTFE/Teflon Environmental Concerns - September 6

• Boric Acid as Eye Wash open Q. - August 31

• Mixed bleach with acid and inhaled it - August 14

• Safety of Galvanized Steel in home-made DIY smokehouse - July 16

• Mercury Poisoning from thermometers open Q. - May 31

• Metallic taste when wearing copper bracelet open Q. - May 24

• Is chrome plated drain cover poisoning my cat? - May 15

• Chromate poisoning from concrete work - April 10

See more threads in this topic



5d. PLANT & PROCESS ENGINEERING, CONSTRUCTION

• 2% Sulphuric Acid in 316SS tank is turning green & smutty during Aluminium pickling - November 15

• Best way to remove lining from Chrome tank - October 14

• Need Anode Baskets for Silver Plating RFQ Watertown TN - September 7

• Materials of construction for pump for zinc phosphate - July 18

• Looking for small custom titanium anode baskets RFQ Guatamala - June 7

• Sludge buildup in phosphating piping - June 3

• Heating/cooling coil material for chrome plating - May 20

• Sodium hypochlorite (bleach) piping problems - May 19

• Maximum safe watt density for zinc plating solution heating - May 10

See more threads in this topic



5e. QUESTIONS ABOUT SOFTWARE, SPECS, BOOKS, EDUCATION, INDUSTRY STATS, ETC.

• MIL-DTL-5541 Class 1A vs. Class 3 - October 8

• Phosphatizing standards -- MIL-DTL-16232 - August 9

• Is MIL-PRF-23377 equivalent to BMS10-11? open Q. - August 4

• Meaning of plating spec abbreviation MFzn8S open Q. - June 12

• How to Make Artificial Sweat and Conduct Testing? open Q. - June 2

• Swedish Standard St2 / St3 open Q. - May 2

• MIL-C-5541: Will It Work On Copper - April 13

• Cadmium Plating spec QQ-P-416 and clear chromate - March 23

• Galvanic Corrosion Test for Titanium Anodize (AMS 2487) open Q. (February 16)

• Looking for "Theory and Practice of Pulse Plating" (February 15)

• Zirconium Coating Daimler Standard open Q. (February 6)



5f. W...W...W...WORD OF THE WEEK

• Is there such thing as sterling silver plating? open Q. - August 30

• How Did Kitchen Zinc become Sink? open Q. - June 26

• Definition of "passivated" in regards to metal finishing, plating, and stainless steel - March 13



5g. MOSTLY METALLURGY; Heat Treatment

• How to decarbonize the surface of high carbon steel open Q. - September 20

• Does forging create mill scale? open Q. - September 8

• Hardening EN8 / EN9 parts open Q. - August 10

• Hardening EN8 / EN9 parts. Q&A's, Problems & Solutions open Q. - April 1

• 316L Stainless is too spring-y open Q. - March 4

• Silver brazing flies out of gap between copper surface and nickel plated surface open Q. (February 9)

• Pinholes / blowholes in cast aluminum components open Q. (February 1)



5h. PRECIOUS METAL RECOVERY

43983-7i Is this ore/rock Platinum, Palladium & Rhodium? open Q. - November 23

27814-3i Why is broken catalytic converter honeycomb worthless as scrap? open Q. - November 10

• Refining of silver chloride to silver metal open Q. - July 28

• Refining of Palladium and making its salt open Q. - July 16

• How to precipitate gold from HAuCl4 solution open Q. - July 12

• Best and Easiest way to refine gold dust open Q. - April 21

• Extracting Silver From Photographic Fixer open Q. - April 18

• Recovery from AP waste solution open Q. - March 8

• Strip and recover silver from silver plated tableware open Q. - March 8

• Gold recovery with zinc - February 21



6. NON-INDUSTRIAL ISSUES

Hobbyists, DIY, Around Home

• Changing a chrome shower head to black chrome - December 2

10881-1i Dishwasher is making our Emsonware mugs ugly - December 1

12107-2i Tilex stained my bathtub, can it be removed? - November 27

• Removing brass paint from a gold plated chandelier - November 23

23897-8i How to identify old lamps? open Q. - November 21

16032-3i Cleaning/restoring vintage tin humpback trunk - November 21

• Blue Quarter? Why did it turn blue? open Q. - November 20

• Cleaning gold that has been burned in a fire - November 20

37205-19 Sterling silver vs. silver plated -- How to tell? - November 20

• Steel plating of copper etchings/engravings - November 18

42140-3i What screw material for aluminum caravan? - November 14

12044-5i Removing remaining chrome from cast and stamped steel motorcycle parts? open Q. - November 11

• Want gold colored finish for a sword - November 11

• Removing dye from anodized aluminum; changing the color - November 11

61496-1i Repair enamel coated steel tea kettle? - November 2

• Painting or plating magnesium alloy wheels - October 31

• Cleaning damaged Eagle Alloy aluminum rims - October 29

26176-9i Steelcase Tanker Desk Restoration Tips open Q. - October 29

See more threads in this topic



6b. RESEARCH, THESIS TOPICS, UNIVERSITY & POST-GRAD STUDENTS

• Electrodeposition of titanium remains a bust :-( - October 28

• Procedure for electropolishing stainless steel - October 26

• Silver paste on PZT blisters after firing open Q. - October 12

Copper Plating on Sputtered Gold Electroplating Copper onto PVD/Sputtered Gold Substrate - September 8

61452-1i Recovery of Metallic Magnesium from Magnesium Citrate. Is It Possible? - June 13

• Electrolytic Passivation of Nickel Plating - June 7

• Electroplating on 3D Printed & Stereolithography (SLA) models open Q. - June 6

• White Bronze Plating, an alternative to nickel? - May 30

• Acid Zinc Plating Brightener Q&A open Q. - May 14

• Electroplating Copper Chromium Alloy Deposit? - May 13

See more threads in this topic



6c. K-12 Science Projects, Grammar & High School Student Questions

• Copper sulphate reaction with a nail or steel wool - November 11

• Rusting in distilled water vs. saltwater - October 3

• Why can't we store electricity in water? - June 14

• How many mL of water must be added to 10 grams of NaOH to make a 0.50 molar solution? Thanks! Resolved :-) - May 23



6d. The Artists' Corner

53936-1i Long ridges on copper electroform - October 17

C. Curtis metal sculpture How to clean/repair C. Curtis metal sculpture open Q. - September 7

61479-1i Can't restore bright finish to bare aluminum piece - September 1

41408-8i Painting cast iron fountains / restoring rusty fountains - August 9

• Archival painting on brass and copper open Q. - July 29

red spots when bronze casting Dark Reddish Spots when Bronze Casting - June 7

61446-1i What do black spots on aluminum sculpture tell art student? - May 25

61430-1i Strange reaction of copper BB on a bronze sculpture - May 2

47701-1i Protecting Metal Birds in the Tropics - April 23



7. DRIFTED OFF FINISHING, BUT INTERESTING :-)

29370-31i Identifying rings and hallmarks: script K? open Q. - November 27

• How did copper protect ships against WWII attacks? open Q. - November 27

• How to remove plastic film from fiberglass door? open Q. - October 17

• Copper Sulphate as Swimming Pool Algae Remedy? open Q. - October 14

• Looking for a Magnet That Attracts Gold open Q. - October 9

61489-1i "Living locket" -- any info available? Lock of hair keepsake - September 29

• How to clean conch shells open Q. - September 19

• Taking antique brass bed apart open Q. - September 18

• Crowsfoot with torque wrench. What's the math? - September 16

• How to Restore & Refinish National Cash Registers Thanks! Resolved :-) - September 9

• 3-D Printing of shelf support inserts for Geneva kitchen cabinets open Q. - September 6

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