Updated Wednesday, August 15 at 4:45 PM New York City time.

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Current Topics:

Category
 Process: 0. Corrosion. Compatibility, Choosing a Finish
 Preparation: 1a. Mechanical Prep 1b. Chemical Pretreatments 1c. Masking & Racking
 Inorganic Finishing: 2a. Anodizing & Light Metals 2b. Electroplating & Electroforming 2c. Electroless Plating
2d. PVD, CVD, Vacuum Processes 2e. Galvanizing, Hot Dipping 2f. Black Oxide, Bluing, Coloring
2g. Other Inorganic Finishing Processes
 Organic Finishing: 3a. Electropainting, Autophoretic 3b. Powder Coating 3c. Lacquers, Clearcoats
3d. Painting, Printing, Adhesives, Organic Coatings
 Post-treatments: 4a. Chemical Post-treatments 4b. Baking & Non-chemical Post-treatments 4c. Stripping, Reworks, etc.
 Supporting Issues: 5a. Analysis, Lab Technique, QA/QC 5b. Water, Wastewater, Pollution 5c. Safety, Emissions, Toxicity
5d. Plant & Process Engineering 5e. Software, Specs, Books, Stats 5f. World Wide Word Of The Week
5g. REACH, RoHS, E-O-L, etc. 5h. Mostly metallurgy 5i. Precious Metal Recovery
 Non-industrial: 6a. Hobbyists, Enthusiasts, Artists 6b. Research, Thesis work 6c. K-12 Science Projects, Elementary to High School
 Not Metal Finishing: 7. Off Topic, but Interesting

0. CORROSION, COMPATIBILITY, CHOOSING A FINISH . . .

22849. Coating the inside of a stainless nut to prevent galling camera (August 14) vip
51622. Stainless railings stained by concrete open Q. (August 12)
60819. Aluminum Pool Track Bonding (August 11)
48391. Compatibility of aluminum and galvanized steel open Q. (August 6)
60810. Corrosion of SAPH440 steel packed in VCI bags open Q. (July 31)
60806. Rebar suffering black rust or iron sulfide? camera (July 26)
27702. Silver corrosion from zinc based additives in lubricants (ZDDP) open Q. (July 25)
23629. Plating Methods Cost Comparison (July 22)
35528. Substituting bright zinc plating for cadmium on studbolts (July 16)
43730. Electrolysis between stainless steel and steel (July 6)
60781. Roller Ski Finishing Questions camera (June 27)
31020. Galling problems camera (June 12)
19766. Galvanic Action between Galvanized and Stainless Steel? open Q. (June 8)
00376. Mechanical polishing vs. electropolishing of stainless steel camera (June 6)
37526. Want gold colored finishes without use of gold (May 31)
27167. Fasteners to repair aluminum boat open Q. (May 28)
57029. Recommended corrosion protection finish for 4340 steel open Q. (May 23)
60764. What Shiny Coating to Use for 3-D Printed Aluminum Casting? open Q. (May 21)
06474. Chrome vs. Electroless Nickel Plating for CPVC Extrusion Die (May 14)
23685. Rose gold plated and lacquered zipper sliders are tarnishing open Q. (May 11)
60744. Removing rust and restoring yellow chromate color (April 27)
47731. Rust on 304SS in Water Treatment Plant (April 19)
28470. Treatment for Concrete Release on Steel Forms open Q. (April 18)
02310. Conductive Coatings for Brass and Copper (April 10)
03354. How to avoid corrosion in SS316 material in presence of chlorine gas (April 3)
03606. Corrosion resistant coating for 1018 Steel motorcycle parts (April 3)
25010. Galvanized boat lift corrosion camera (April 2)


1. PREPARATION . . .

    1a. MECHANICAL PREP
    [GRINDING, POLISHING, VIBRATORY FINISHING, BUFFING, HONING]

05629. Vibratory polishing of gold open Q. (August 8)
28824. Grinding HVOF coatings (July 26)
12866. Mill finish vs. 180-grit finish (July 14)
45662. Shot Blasting vs 7-Tank Phosphating -- Which is better? (June 23)
12526. What sandblasting standard should be used for interior of petroleum storage tank? open Q. (June 3)
03599. Brass sheets surface defects after polishing open Q. (May 20)
44314. Polishing of Fountain pen nibs open Q. (May 3)
44536. Fire safety of Shot-blasting machines (April 13)

    1b. PRETREATMENTS
    [PICKLING, PASSIVATION, PHOSPHATIZING, CLEANING, ELECTROPOLISHING, ACTIVATION]

13109. Electropolishing a brazed stainless 304L/copper 101 part in same bath? open Q. (August 8)
39277. HCl pickling process (August 1)
34052. Black manganese phosphating coating has black and gray dots camera open Q. (July 26)
11047. Electropolishing S.G. drops in summer open Q. (July 25)
27078. Stainless Steel 304 Electropolishing issues camera open Q. (July 23)
10166. Pickling codes for A312 Stainless Steel (July 22)
60796. 304 Stainless Passivation for Powdered Medical Food Storage (July 20)
01655. Chemical polishing of stainless steel open Q. (July 19)
20720. Zinc phosphating problem: very low pH in activation bath open Q. (July 18)
28409. Etching a pattern in large stainless sheet sheet open Q. (July 13)
15480. Maximum temperatures for phosphate coatings (July 13)
37610. Zirconium oxide following phosphoric acid pickling open Q. (July 10)
12132. Passivating welded stainless steel (July 10)
47682. Easiness of descaling stints open Q. (July 4)
40321. Iron phosphate formula to aid powder coating adhesion open Q. (July 3)
00479. Passivation of carbon steel open Q. (June 30)
00628. Passivating type 416 & 416Se stainless steel (June 28)
19391. Oxalate Coated Stainless Steel Fasteners open Q. (June 27)
47017. Procedure to remove burn marks from stainless steel (June 25)
60775. Cleaning Aluminized tubes to ISO 16232 (June 18)
53891. Electropolishing stainless steel pipe (June 10)
19203. Prevent stainless pots from rusting in weld area (June 4)
07112. Electrodeburring type 304 Stainless Steel open Q. (June 3)
60761. Bronze infiltrated 420 SS printed item needs de-rusting/de-scaling (May 25)
05089. Removal of Heat Treat Scale from Stainless Steel open Q. (May 23)
60757. Sharpen multiple stainless tips sitting on a plate (May 23)
18495. Electropolished stainless steel cable corrodes after long storage (May 14)
50566. Titanium chemistry in HF and HNO3 chemical milling (May 10)
58242. Pretreatment for powder coating (May 7)
13862. What Limit to Use for Iron Content in HCl Pickling (April 9)
20075. Can phosphatized iron casting last several years? (April 5)
46618. Is Citric acid for SST passivation 40CFR433? (April 4)

    1c. MASKING, RACKING, TAPING, PLUGGING, PHOTOSENSITIVE MASKS

58316. Liquid masking for anodizing (June 27)
60780. Permanent masking for plastic plating open Q. (June 27)


2. INORGANIC FINISHING PROCESSES . . .

    2a. ANODIZING AND LIGHT METAL TREATMENTS (Aluminum, Magnesium, Titanium)

06903. Continuity Testing for Chromic Acid Anodizing open Q. (August 11)
60812. Inside of hollow anodized aluminum profile has white dots camera open Q. (August 8)
24066. Importance of nickel acetate in anodize sealing (August 6)
60816. Titanium grade for fasteners for aluminum anodizing open Q. (August 6)
06733. Concentration of phos/nitric acid in bright dip for aluminum? open Q. (August 6)
48150. Problems with Color of Hardcoat Anodize camera open Q. (August 1)
50478. Powdery issue on Al-2024 with sulphuric acid anodized and dichromate seal camera (August 1)
10002. Cleaning fingerprints from conversion coated aluminum open Q. (July 31)
23085. Streaking problems in anodizing extrusions camera (July 27)
00937. Anodizing titanium alloys in gold and other colors open Q. (July 25)
28128. MIL-A-8625 Type II, chromate sealed parts have white patches camera (July 19)
40099. Hard anodizing color problem open Q. (July 11)
57550. Anodize is peeling during tape test (June 25)
01263. Interference color anodizing of aluminum and two-step (electrolytic) coloring open Q. (June 24)
00685. Surface roughness and polishing of PEO / Microarc Oxidation Finish open Q. (June 24)
06326. Post anodize operations for glossy finish (June 24)
21510. Bright dipping aluminum on titanium rack seems to galvanically electropolish it open Q. (June 13) vip
44433. "Close Looping" an Aluminum De-Ox System (June 6)
44947. Calculate/measure current density in anodizing? open Q. (May 30)
45728. Alodine 1200S Problems (May 30)
18494. Black anodizing problem: some parts purple but thickness verified (May 28)
34413. Anodizing anode to cathode ratio open Q. (May 23)
33933. Conversion coating removal harmful to anodized parts? open Q. (May 22)
06559. Alodine 600 is getting contaminated with sulfate (May 6)
01574. Aluminum anodizing: Constant current vs. controlling the voltage (May 3)
26660. Anodizing Automotive Brightwork Q&A's (May 3)
32622. Want our cadmium plated yellow chromated machine screws black chromated (May 2)
26113. Effect on surface finish of flash anodize open Q. (April 27)
52350. We believe we are successfully hardcoating at 65-70 ASF open Q. (April 26)
43451. Color variations in Chem film MIL-DTL-5541 (April 25)
36066. Aluminum Composite Panel Q&A's (April 23)
09494. Electroless nickel and hard anodizing on same part open Q. (April 20)
06930. Milky grey aluminum etch bath - can it be fixed? (April 18)
41023. Cloudy finish on Chemical bright anodized profiles open Q. (April 15)
45421. Black spots in anodized aluminum (April 10)
01217. Dyeing after dichromate seal (April 9)
60727. Chromate Conversion Coating Post Packaging (April 9)
22139. Satin Anodized Aluminum camera (April 7)
03651. Chromic Acid Anodize with Stainless Racks? (April 6)
01081. Why does Alloy 2024 Burn in Hard Anodizing? open Q. (April 4)

    2b. ELECTROPLATING and ELECTROFORMING

44753. Pitting in sulfate nickel bath for diamond plating only when new camera open Q. (August 14)
13089. Best plating for filling porosity (August 13)
56395. Does tin plating need undercoating with copper/nickel? open Q. (August 10)
23909. Problems in zinc plating of cast iron open Q. (August 9)
41922. Nickel Plating defect: white patches camera open Q. (August 8)
38047. Horizontal hard chrome plating open Q. (August 6)
35619. Nickel bath has white precipitate open Q. (August 5)
32077. Black spots in zinc plating camera (August 1)
25173. Want rough zinc plating so powder coating adheres (August 1)
37456. White Spots after Zinc Electroplating (July 21)
40095. Problems in acid zinc plating camera open Q. (July 29)
43916. Black spots on antique brass plating (July 26)
28863. Roughness in cyanide copper plating open Q. (July 25)
06561. Chrome hardness varies across the part open Q. (July 25)
04676. Rhodium plating with Vintage Finishing open Q. (July 25)
60804. Reel-to-Reel Cleaning of Copper Coil before Plating open Q. (July 25)
38936. Rusting of Cu-Ni-Sn plated steel camera open Q. (July 23)
11706. White precipitate on anode rods & anode bags in Nickel Sulfate solution (July 23)
10870. Platinized titanium anodes for electroplating (July 23)
07458. Corrosion on a zinc plated item camera (July 21)
05106. Tin plated parts are turning black (July 21)
20963. How to barrel silver plate nichrome open Q. (July 21)
38212. Cyanide zinc electroplating problems (July 21)
49424. Tin plating over copper is blistering (July 21)
12175. Seeking Touch Up Pen for Zinc Plating and Chromate open Q. (July 19)
11579. Coefficient of friction of yellow vs clear chromate (July 16)
56140. Adding Chemicals in HEEF-25 Hard Chrome Plating (July 13)
54564. Rotagravure copper plating is too soft open Q. (July 7)
open Q. (July 7)
32321. Yellow Passivation for Spokes & Nipples (July 7)
00005. Gold Plating of Microwave Guide open Q. (July 2)
47424. Bubbles in lacquer on plated Zinc Die Castings camera (July 18)
05188. Tin Anode in Hull Cell Turned Brown open Q. (June 30)
33245. Passivation of dark trivalent chromium plating (June 27)
05974. Chrome spotting on leaded brass open Q. (June 13)
26622. White rust on zinc plated parts (June 13)
60774. Low temperature limit for zinc plated parts (June 13)
16734. Chloride contamination of acid tin plating bath (June 12)
60765. Plating on silicon steel fails salt spray test quickly (June 11)
29347. Chrome plating shock absorber shafts Q&As, Problems & Solutions camera (June 11)
28003. Copper & silver plating blisters only on bus bar tabs open Q. (June 1)
01871. Hard chrome cylinder pistons rusted & pitted in a few weeks camera (May 26)
56318. Wood's Nickel Strike ASF open Q. (May 23)
36223. Reactivating nickel plating open Q. (May 23)
20186. Improve Hard Chrome Plating Corrosion Resistance camera open Q. (May 22)
04996. Root cause for Hard Chromium plating defects open Q. (May 21)
09676. Problems with tin plating over brass (May 18)
40492. Satin nickel plating peels off open Q. (May 18)
01006. Non cyanide copper plating Q&As / Problems & Solutions (May 12)
48074. Hard chrome plating problems: blackness in LCD (May 9)
30879. Plating thickness variation in hard chrome plating open Q. (May 9)
04925. Unable to get proper thickness levels in bright chrome plating (May 9)
07274. Anode Calculation for Chrome Plating Process open Q. (May 1)
02456. Opening a mini nickel plating industry (April 27)
31034. Can we improve our tin plating Salt Spray results? open Q. (April 26)
31850. Plating S.S. without a Wood's Nickel Strike open Q. (April 24)
00476. Alkaline non-cyanide zinc plating vs. acid zinc (April 19)
00706. Starting Nickel/Chrome plating. Is it worth it? (April 19)
28746. Trivalent Cr vs. Hexavalent Cr, difference please (April 19)
22644. Upper limit on plating speed with extreme agitation open Q. (April 18)
41906. Dummying Nickel Contamination from Copper Cyanide Bath (April 17)
25024. Electrodeposition of Titanium (April 15)
44771. Acid Copper Plating Problems (April 15)
29188. Plating of Internal Threads (April 11)
46258. Is clear zinc chromate discoloration permissible? (April 10)
60693. Microcrack density control in hard chrome plating open Q. (April 10) vip
50922. Platinized titanium anodes for hard chrome plating? (April 9)
22092. Black Ruthenium or Alternatives for Jewelry Plating open Q. (April 9)
53532. Rack marks on alkaline zinc bath / Pre-cleaning hot rolled steel open Q. (April 4)
00907. Zinc plating porous sintered metal parts (April 4)
01114. What voltage for white bronze plating? (April 4)
04846. Acid zinc plating of zinc diecastings open Q. (April 3)

    2c. ELECTROLESS PLATING, PLATING ON PLASTICS, IMMERSION PLATING

60811. Electroplating Plastic (ABS) Threads: Tolerances open Q. (July 29)
59721. Electroless nickel buildup in small holes open Q. (July 26)
47083. Chrome Plating of ABS Plastic -- Delayed Cracking camera open Q. (July 11)
38067. Electroless nickel on aluminum step-by-step please (June 29)
20662. Electroless plating of diamonds onto tools (June 28)
60779. Electroless nickel plating of monel open Q. (June 25)
05519. Chrome plating of ABS plastic problem: warpage open Q. (May 9)
18471. Gold plating directly on ABS or PU foam? open Q. (May 7)
39230. Heat treating electroless nickel plating on aluminum open Q. (April 28)
16897. Problems doing Electroless nickel plating on stainless steel (April 17)
20973. Problems & Solutions in ENIG (Electroless nickel / immersion gold) (April 2)

    2d. PVD, CVD, ION IMPLANTATION, VACUUM PROCESSES

06125. Bright PVD Gold Is Okay; Matte Gold Won't Adhere (July 31)
07846. PVD coatings: color control problem with TiN (July 31)
34053. Titanium nitride targets cycle off and on (June 24)
16927. Coloring stainless steel -- electrolytic vs. PVD (June 13)
60771. High Temperature PVD Coatings open Q. (June 4)
28527. Base coats and top coats for vacuum metallizing open Q. (June 1)
49660. Brass plating on stainless steel? (May 22)

    2e. GALVANIZING, ALUMINIZING, HOT TIN DIPPING

56573. Galvanizing Pot Temperature -- Ideal zinc temperature for galvanizing? open Q. (August 15)
57163. White shadow mark on hot dip galvanised material camera (August 15)
60822. Accessory for hanging parts for galvanizing? camera (August 15)
34789. Difference between pre-galvanized and hot-dip galvanized steel? (August 6)
43365. Galvanizing flux Q&A's (July 27)
60808. GALVALUME Coated Sheet Steel in animal confinement applications open Q. (July 26)
22164. Galvanized tiles for rooftop deck open Q. (July 19)
08715. How does galvanized steel get its look? open Q. (July 2)
54709. Trivalent vs. silane galvanizing quenches (June 13)
38915. Peeling problem in galvanizing of steel open Q. (May 31)
44978. Galvanizing kettle furnace and burner design (May 30)
24862. Zinc-phosphate pretreatment of galvanized steel (May 14)
60749. Galvalume Coils Have Non-adherent Bleeding Chromate Stains open Q. (May 10)
25997. Prevention of white rust on galvanizing (May 5)
34714. Controlling hot dip galvanized steel production for dullness or shine (May 5)
41209. Flux filtering machine? (May 5)
54149. How Can I Reduce and Remove Zinc Dross (May 4)
45651. How to stop hot dip galvanizing flaking open Q. (May 2)
29835. Galvanizing 101: pre-galv vs. hot-dipped galvanized video open Q. (April 15)
42394. Furnace dew point for NOF galvanizing line open Q. (April 5)

    2f. BLACK OXIDE, BLUING, COLORING, PATINATING, NITRIDING

39187. Black oxide failing oxalic acid test (August 1)
21437. Rainbow Stainless Steel (June 30)
23742. What is the difference between Black Phosphate and Auto Blackening? (June 30)
48674. Is blackodizing banned as hazardous in Pune? (June 25)
28779. Is zinc phosphate an alternative to QPQ (May 28)
07605. Replace powder coating with black oxide (May 7)
01754. Blackening stainless steel in the field open Q. (May 2)
03278. Thickness of black oxide coatings open Q. (April 23)
60737. Stellite-6 Gets White Patches when Nitriding open Q. (April 19)
47183. Manganese phosphating on gun barrels is too light and thin (April 6)


    2g. OTHER INORGANIC FINISHING: Mechanical Plating, QPQ, Metal Spray, Zinc-rich Dip-Spin Coatings, Sherardizing, etc.

24154. Welding of Tungsten carbide coating open Q. (July 23)
08591. Chromating a zinc-alloy thermal diffusion coating open Q. (July 17)
60730. Are bullets (projectiles) ever mechanically plated? open Q. (April 10) vip


3. ORGANIC FINISHING PROCESSES . . .

    3a. ELECTROPAINT PRIMING, AUTOPHORETIC COATINGS

46042. How to clean choked membrane? open Q. (July 20)
57561. Pin holes in CED e-coating open Q. (July 13)
51966. Electrodeposition/e-coating (CED) issues & problems (July 13)
11694. Can e-coat be used on optics or does it outgas open Q. (June 13)
23047. How to reduce paint thickness in Cathodic Electro Deposition (CED) system? open Q. (April 25)
32574. Small dots like popping in body c zone open Q. (April 11)

    3b. POWDER COATING

60820. Powder Coating Problem: Grinding & Sanding Marks show through open Q. (August 13)
48524. Powder Coating fails impact test open Q. (August 6)
45155. Powdercoating stainless steel Q&A's open Q. (July 25)
60795. Discoloration of Gray polyester powder coating over aluminum open Q. (July 11)
15733. Food-safe pretreatment of aluminum before powder coating open Q. (July 4)
21611. Pretreating and Powder Coating Cast Iron (July 3)
18298. Problems in powder coating (June 3)
04729. Powder coating chips off aluminum during pemming operation open Q. (May 14)
37147. Powder coating reclaim -- does anybody take recycled waste powder? open Q. (May 10)
44458. Powder coating in golden yellow open Q. (May 7)
36338. Yellow powder coating turning orange (May 5)
55323. Cissing problem in powder coating open Q. (April 30)
43619. Fisheyes when Powdercoating Aluminum but not Steel (April 20)

    3c. LACQUERS, CLEAR COATS, ELECTROPHORETIC TINTING, ANTI-TARNISH

47125. Need gold color on small brass components in bulk open Q. (July 10)
09194. Clear E-coating turns my gold too orange (June 15)
37471. Can't find electrophoretic lacquering services (April 7)

    3d. PAINTING, PRINTING, ADHESIVES AND OTHER ORGANIC COATINGS

22500. Are nanotechnology coatings food-safe? (August 13)
56629. White patches on PU coated Aluminium open Q. (August 6)
38769. Painting over electroplated ABS (August 2)
08382. Formulation of plastisol primer coat open Q. (July 27)
15909. Plastisol Ink for Textile Screen Printing Production Process open Q. (July 13)
26415. Wanted Electroless Coatings for Zinc and Tin-based Pewter (July 11)
11789. PVC coating on 304 grade stainless steel (July 11)
46505. Sublimation Coating Formula open Q. (June 18)
10157. Is NBR rubber sprayable for use as a coating? open Q. (June 3)
30522. Clear coating to seal a rust patina finish on metal (June 1)
60768. Translucent Dye Metal Finishing? camera (May 28)
25811. Paint Viscosity Chart / Cross-reference (May 22)
28407. TT-L-50 (Clear Acrylic Lacquer Aerosol) Replacement open Q. (May 8)
29692. Teflon recoating of pots & pans and kitchen utensils open Q. (April 28)
10691. Painting of zinc plated parts (April 18)
16305. Prep & paint 316SST in the field open Q. (April 18)
42007. Can I paint a walk-in cooler? (April 12)


4. POST-TREATMENTS

    4a. CHEMICAL POST-TREATMENTS
    [CHROMATE CONVERSION COATINGS, RUST PREVENTATIVES, PATINAS]

50193. Brightening & corrosion-proofing brass (August 1)
40243.Corrosion proofing the ID of plated tubing open Q. (July 14)
22456. Bright dip process, copper parts brightening open Q. (June 28)
60766. Trivalent chromate on steel (May 22)
31467. Want to manufacture Copper Bright Dip and Corrosion Inhibitor in house (May 3)
45598. Yellow chromate rubs off (April 19)

    4b. BAKING AND NON-CHEMICAL POST-TREATMENTS:
    [HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT AND DE-EMBRITTLEMENT, ANNEALING, WHISKERS, SOLDERING, REFLOWING]

60809. Tin Plating Solders Well Manually, but Pinholes when Wave Soldered open Q. (July 26)
07194. Hydrogen Relieving parts: how long, how hot? (June 28)
44518. Tin plating turned brown from reflow (April 8)

    4c. STRIPPING, REWORKS, ETC.

41862. Stripping silver from alloy of gold, silver and copper open Q. (July 6)
57202. Chemical to strip nickel plating (March 29)


5. SUPPORTING ISSUES

    5a. ANALYSIS, LAB TECHNIQUE, Q.A., SALT SPRAY TESTING

60442. "Stress Tabs" for plating? open Q. (August 15) 2nd Request
60821. Stripping copper foil from Cr-Ni film (August 13)
35573. How to Quantify the extent of failure in salt spray test (August 11)
60803. SPC measurement for Leadframe Plating Thickness (August 10)
09833. Sulfur Analysis in Nickel Plating by ICP-OES open Q. (August 6)
44293. Solution Analysis of Chromate Conversion Coating Process (July 31)
51596. EDX: We dope, then don't find it all (July 25)
50132. Salt Spray Test -- ASTM B117 Operational Problems (July 23)
08904. Salt Spray Hours vs. real life exposure (July 22)
40408. How to digest stainless steel completely? (July 6)
38230. Steel & Aluminum allowed simultaneously in same Salt Spray Test? (June 6)
47480. Analysis method for nitric acid and ammonium bifluoride for etch bath (June 6)
20398. Testing aluminum mirrors -RFQ- (June 4)
44899. Telling 304 from 316 Stainless? (June 3)
03642. How to calculate % purity of citric acid by titration method? (June 3)
01185. Analysis of MSA tin sludge (May 9)
03907. Gluconate Analysis for Caustic Etch open Q. (April 26)
34601. Electroless Nickel Solution analysis open Q. (April 24)
00885. Analyze acid copper plating solution for chloride open Q. (April 19)
07192. R&R Study for Electroless Nickel Thickness (April 18)
11434. Cyanide Copper plating Solution Analysis open Q. (April 9)
43467. Bath Analysis - Fluoride-Phosphate Conversion Coating open Q. (April 1)

     5b. WASTE & WASTEWATER TREATMENT, POLLUTION CONTROL

02846. Waste treatment in zinc plating open Q. (August 13)
51446. Ferrous Chloride dose rate to remove Sulphides (August 5)
33620. pH increase in blowdown of steam generator? open Q. (July 31)
04555. Disposing of plating solutions / closing down electroplating shop (July 23)
30932. Ion Exchange / DM plant calculations open Q. (July 22)
43864. Reducing nickel content in wastewater effluent (July 22)
03392. Wastewater treatment of iron and zinc phosphate conversion coating processes open Q. (July 21)
00269. Catalytic oxidation of cyanide using carbon open Q. (July 19)
32633 Tube Settler Reynold's Number camera open Q. (July 17)
40394. Cyanide reduction using sodium hypochlorite (July 11)
32443. Mixed bed of dimineralizer isn't working right (July 10)
00674. Floating Sludge in Wastewater Treatment open Q. (June 25)
07245. Reducing COD in waste water with natural mineral products open Q. (June 3)
24103. Disposal of chrome waste open Q. (May 9)
34600. High Sulfate in nickel-chrome plating plant wastewater open Q. (May 2)
35685. Chloride level in cooling towers? open Q. (April 25)
00016. Effluent from paint manufacturing is not clear after treatment (April 17)
24871. Rinsing and disposal of Alodine solution (April 4)

    5c. SAFETY ISSUES, EMISSIONS, TOXICITY, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

34001. Hexavalent chromium emissions from anode of unknown metal? (August 8)
49633. Looking for PPE recommendations for Chrome plating line (August 8)
15303. Is bronze flatware safe (July 31)
07164. Can zinc-based primer cause metal fume fever? open Q. (July 23)
01321. Eating off of Medallion Liquid Gold plated flatware open Q. (July 22)
20858. Is old low quality plated flatware from Italy safe? (July 21)
38164. Hazards of Grinding Anodised Aluminium open Q. (June 29)
40416. Aluminum oxide = health risks? (June 23)
21703. Galvanized stove and metal fume fever (June 4)
40784. Is chrome plating safe for food processing tools or machines? (May 9)
12778. Danger of copper sulphate (April 18)
45056. Galvanized steel for planting vegetables (April 12)

    5d. PLANT & PROCESS ENGINEERING, CONSTRUCTION

04221. Heating and Cooling of Chrome Plating Tanks (July 29)
07984. Pump seals for hydrochloric acid open Q. (July 22)
22905. DI water is attacking PVC Piping open Q. (July 21)
56947. IGBT vs. Diode Rectifiers open Q. (July 20)
60793. Aluminum Smelter Cathode Deterioration While Idle open Q. (July 10)
41928. Zinc Phosphate Sludge Buildup Problems (June 15)
60772. U-shape vs in-line zinc electroplating (June 6)
45164. Paint Booth floor open Q. (May 31)
34366. Alternative to stainless steel for parts washer construction (May 30)
00194. Calculate boiler size for heating plating tanks (May 14)
39416. Protect Concrete from Sulphuric Acid open Q. (May 8)
41610. Tinned copper motor connection wires turned green open Q. (April 26)
60731. Materials of Construction for Nickel Acetate Seal open Q. (April 10)
17485. Tank Water Evaporation Estimates (April 10)
60725. Filter for Ag and Au Strike Baths (April 4)

    5e. QUESTIONS ABOUT SOFTWARE, SPECS, BOOKS, INDUSTRY STATISTICS, ETC.

54165. Where to get NACE corrosion training? (July 15)
26629. What does MFZn8S mean on GM spec? open Q. (July 6)
60788. MIL-PRF-32348 Class Distinction open Q. (July 3)
43668. Thickness tolerances for 2024 T4 aluminum (June 5)
60770. Standards for Chemical Milling open Q. (June 1)
60763. Charging customers for audits? (May 25)
60745. Ni-Cr treated DC 0.05/400 HV, etc. open Q. (May 2)
14585. Rhodium plating on silver jewelry open Q. (April 23)


    5f. WORLD WIDE WORD OF THE WEEK

30536. What does "CL" mean in CL304 Cres & CL416 Cres? open Q. (May 31)
03605. What is Alusil? Who can coat it on fuel tanks? (April 23)
60702. What is flash anodizing? (April 15)
60736. Need all details for PF ZN 8C plating open Q. (April 11)
29294. What does "premium quality" stainless mean? (April 10)

    5g. REACH, RoHS, EOL Directive; Cd, Pb, Cr+6, Nitric Acid & Phosphate Replacements

48221. Repairing Type I Conversion Coating with Type II open Q. (May 14)
24431. Is SPI B3 Finish RoHS & REACH Compatible? (May 5) 2nd Request
57850. Supplier says trivalent chromate but not RoHS compliant (April 9)

    5h. MOSTLY METALLURGY

10417. Spring Failure Causes open Q. (July 26)
51470. Insufficient hardness achieved in heat treating C45 Material open Q. (July 23)
12545. How to Anneal Stainless Steel open Q. (July 21)
31430. Hy-Tuf Steel Machinability & Hardenability open Q. (July 19)
60790. Chrome plated pin gage is oversize (July 6)
28871. How to Harden Type 316 Stainless (May 10)

    5i. PRECIOUS METAL RECOVERY

60814. Blackening of Diamonds after De-Stoning process in Aqua Regia camera open Q. (August 10)
34676. Best & easiest way to refine gold to get high purity (July 31)
22253. Refining of Platinum & Palladium (July 31)
06262. Silver refining problem: Removing copper from silver nitrate (July 31)
53511. Recovering gold from 'bombing' procedure (July 31)
18889. Left CPU gold plated pins in acid solution too long and it dried out camera open Q. (July 15)
18889. Recovering gold from electronics (June 4)
15559. Silver extraction from waste hypo/fixer solution open Q. (April 13)


6. CONSUMER, RESEARCH, & STUDENT ISSUES

    6a. ARTISTS, HOBBYISTS, CAR BUFFS, HOME OWNERS, ETC.

00798. Elevators discolored by ammonia-based cleaning solution? open Q. (August 13)
41930. Galvanic Corrosion between Galvanized Steel and Aluminum (August 12)
17968. Removing oil-rubbed finish from bronze (August 12)
60818. Painting raw edge of plaster board (August 9)
08229. Removing stains from bath tubs. (August 8)
19519. Painting Fiberglass Tub/Shower Unit open Q. (August 8)
32106. Derusting of old pipes camera (August 8)
30186. Stainless sink stains white towels (August 8)
33151. How is this gold attracted by a magnet in Russia? video (August 5)
34112. Will steel patio set rust? (August 2)
38226. Brake rotors: G3000 castings with Geomet vs. G3500 with zinc plating (August 1)
35697. Carburetor re-plating / re-coloring (July 31)
00085. Can electroplating rectifier be used for electroforming? (July 26)
37544. Removing scratches on painted kitchen stoves and refrigerator doors open Q. (July 26)
60807. Low-temp flux for soldering stainless steel open Q. (July 25)
01198. How to Darken Bronze open Q. (July 25)
16559. Powder coated lawn furniture is sticky open Q. (July 25)
16945. Bad clearcoat ruined my Corten patina (July 25)
26821. Lacquering of copper with airbrush open Q. (July 23)
18178. Small scale copper polishing open Q. (July 23)
16257. Painting galvanized steel open Q. (July 23)
60799. Can you add additional Chrome to a thin layered chromed part? open Q. (July 22)
15539. How to make stainless steel duller open Q. (July 21)
01831. Rough edges on aluminum billiard rack are tough on felt table (July 21)
21209. Stripping and painting cast aluminum patio set (July 21)
21693. Sealing aluminum yard art to prevent oxidation? camera (July 21)
31286. Is a barrier layer of Nickel plating needed when Silver plating on Copper Jewelry? (July 18)
07423. Steel boat - applying a 2 part epoxy primer to an OSPHO treated surface open Q. (July 18)
19866. Cleaning zinc clad tabletop? (July 18)
03066. Anodized aluminum for C4 corrosion class? open Q. (July 17)
43774. Restoring bleach damaged silver (July 17)
34318. Cast Iron Claw-foot Bathtubs: How to Clean, Remove Rust & Stains, Restore, Re-surface, Recoat open Q. (July 16)
41066. Aluminum kitchen stuff no longer shiny -- How to fix it? open Q. (July 16)
41124. Q&A's Replating of Silver Rings (July 15)
29417. Cold blackening a Scotty Cameron stainless steel putter (July 14)
09480. Porosity issue on galvanized trailer open Q. (July 11)
37536. Heat resistant, food-safe finishing open Q. (July 10)
09128. Copper Sulphate as Swimming Pool Algae Remedy? (July 10)
39975. Outdoor Resin Furniture Refreshing (July 9)
19891. Removing chrome plating to return to nickel plating (July 4)
09462. Glass etching cream is not strong enough open Q. (July 4)
60789. Strange particles on stainless steel refrigerator open Q. (July 3)
27488. Peruvian silver markings open Q. (July 3)
44569. Ford 75th Anniversary Silver Bowl (July 2)
23824. Can I turn a blued gun into a silver looking shiny gun? open Q. (June 28)
26032. Changing brass to silver, nickel, or satin chrome look (June 27)
21436. Removing oxidation from bronze grave markers camera (June 25)
16032. Cleaning/restoring vintage tin humpback trunk open Q. (June 25)
12873a. Removing Silica Water Stains open Q. (June 25)
10337. Remove rhodium plating from gold -- Is Rhodium plating reversible? open Q. (June 25)
34314. Electrolytic cleaning plates for silver: Q&A open Q. (June 23)
26176. Automotive Wet Spray vs. Powder Coat -- 1950's Tanker Desk (June 19)
53424. Gold plating of brass Van de Graaf screens open Q. (June 15)
00001. Is there a Preparation for chrome dipping bone ? open Q. (June 13)
10202. Jeweler says it will take 2 weeks of humidity for my ring to get shiny again open Q. (June 13)
12868. How to dull brass (June 13)
53013. How to calculate the cost of gold plating per piece (June 12)
17560. Bottle cap and similar decorative tabletops camera (June 6)
60773. How to Colour Stainless Bolts Bright Blue Similar to Aluminium Anodising camera (June 5)
18212. Cadmium plating disk brake rotors? Yes/No? (June 5)
18486. Stainless flatware in the dishwasher (June 4)
55151. Oxalic acid for stains on vinyl pool liner open Q. (June 3)
30419. Want to replate chlorinator plates with rhodium stripped from them camera (June 3)
23481. Polished Aluminum Clearcoat Secret (June 1)
23568. How long will brass lacquer last? (June 1)
29778. Damaged my Harley brake pedals stripping the chrome camera open Q. (June 1)
34465. Pre-coating for sublimation transfers onto ceramic open Q. (May 31)
46505. Will PVA glue accept sublimation? open Q. (May 30)
47295. Copper plating onto nickel plating open Q. (May 30)
50226. Is stainless steel okay for cake tester? (May 25)
35772. Rust treatment with phosphoric acid (May 24)
27029. Painting metal to go on wall behind a woodstove (May 23)
49880. Aluminum horse trailer corrosion protection (May 23)
60756. Refining of platinum (May 23)
02697. Electroblackening of Steel (May 16)
60754. Treating steel frame of house boat for anti-rust and corrosion open Q. (May 11)
22490. Repainting aluminum swimming pool coping (May 11)
03331. Home brew aluminum anodizing help (May 10)
34112. Suitability of galvanised metal for outdoor furniture open Q. (May 10)
07074. D-I-Y Power Supply for Aluminum Anodizing? open Q. (May 9)
38904. How To Intentionally Rust Metals Such As Jingle Bells & Safety Pins (May 8)
00946. Want to do Anodizing but can't get some of the chemicals open Q. (May 8)
50693. Help with removal of melted/burnt-on Teflon open Q. (May 8)
06773. Is my gold flatware real gold plating (May 7)
16370. Dissolving gold in sulfuric acid open Q. (May 6)
44251. Removing brass paint from a gold plated chandelier (May 3)
41483. Sealant for hot rolled steel floor camera open Q. (May 1)
17571. Refinishing Bathroom Faucets / Fixtures (April 25)
07137. Dirilyte gold-tone flatware: Cleaning / Polishing open Q. (April 25)
28968. What voltage is used to copper plate (April 25)
24936. 24 kt Gold Looks Like Copper (April 25)
00284. Bronzing a resin trophy (April 24)
11146. Replacement for corrugated iron roof open Q. (April 23)
38061. CLR stained my stainless steel sink camera (April 18)
47714. Expensive Chrome Wheels are "pitting" (April 17)
09549. What is black patina on old woodplane? open Q. (April 16)
26353. Cleaning gold that has been burned open Q. (April 15)
04913. Want to do Nickel Plating at Room Temperature (April 13)
20443. Difference between pure silver and sterling silver (April 13)
35498. Painting outdoor aluminum furniture (April 11)
30700. How to tell if silver tray is lacquered open Q. (April 9)
49464. Cleaning up cement dust from sanding of concrete floor (April 9)
60729. Plating gun barrels with precious metals (April 9)
24229. Can I make concrete stains by dissolving metals in acid? open Q. (April 6)
00161. Clear coating brass, copper and silver jewelry (April 5)
03338. How do I stop copper from oxidizing? (April 5)
03003. Dissolving gold deposits for analysis (April 4)
12362. Coating tables and bar tops with thick clear pourable plastic camera (April 3)
22867. Why would yellow gold turn silver? (April 3)
02161. How can I tarnish or dull bright brass (April 2)
22541. Ceramic Coating vs. Powder Coating vs. Ceramic-powder Coating? open Q. (April 1)
00779. Remove patina from old ship's wheel camera open Q. (April 1)

    6b. RESEARCH, THESIS TOPICS, UNIVERSITY & POST-GRAD STUDENTS

00555. Plating copper onto aluminum camera (July 21)
60798. Applications for Nickel foam open Q. (July 19)
07372. Plating Thickness vs. Current/Amperage -- What is the Relationship? (July 17)
53795. What chemical will dry out clay & bone ash casting? (June 23)
12891. How to neutralize nitric acid open Q. (June 14)
52520. FMEA analysis for Nickel Chrome plating open Q. (May 21)
31345. Manganese phosphate chemistry (May 21)

    6c. K-12 SCIENCE PROJECTS, GRAMMAR & HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT QUESTIONS

09716. Why is copper chloride blue? (August 13)
20696. Treating copper sulphate waste as school project open Q. (July 19)
48959. How does pH affect rust (July 17)
06997. What is rust? And how does pH effect it? (June 24)
32766. What conducts heat quicker copper or nickel? (June 15)
21478. Acid + Carbonate = what reaction? (June 3)
09644. Reaction acid+metal (May 22)
53766. Generating Methane from Manure and Turning It into Electricity (May 16)
11194. Magnesium ribbon and hydrochloric acid reaction (April 18)
33641. What is the affect of using different voltages in the electroplating process? (April 15)

7. DRIFTED OFF FINISHING, BUT INTERESTING TO SOME OF US :-)

18029. Problems in White phenyl Manufacturing (July 31)
19039. Cast Iron Cook Stoves: How to restore open Q. (July 29)
23922. Musty smell in basement and throughout entire house (July 10)
24359. Barber Chair Restoration Q&A's and Successes open Q. (July 6)
14995. Excessive Iron in Swimming Pool Water camera (July 4)
33143. Reassemble Stiffel Lamp camera open Q. (June 29)
44362. Swallowed Sodium Hypochlorite during root canal open Q. (June 28)
13393. Preparing sea shells for crafts or display open Q. (June 28)
60769. Etching to get roughened surface on Phillips screwdrivers (June 22)
60777. Is recycled steel more prone to rusting? open Q. (June 19)
19953. Cleaning stainless trowels for color plastering open Q. (June 10)
29312. Making a Silver Catalyst Bed open Q. (June 8)
13277. Copper for natural gas lines? Or steel, plastic, CSST, etc. (June 3)
30479. Copper corrosion and blue water in residential water system open Q. (June 1)
44362. Swallowed Sodium Hypochlorite during root canal (May 30)
29544. Washing machine drain line backs up open Q. (May 8)
60748. N=N aromatic cleavage reaction open Q. (May 7)
60705. Self-curing cast polyurethane? open Q. (May 1)
09868. Can lightning turn copper into iridium? (April 23)
47120. Melting Aluminum Scrap: Too much aluminum oxide open Q. (April 13)
60732. Repair of Steel Pool filter - 3.5" hole open Q. (April 10)
26801. Solving an electrolysis problem in home plumbing open Q. (April 10)
11438. How to Make Iron Non-magnetic (April 6)

legend:

(    )= Date in parentheses is most recent posting on the thread
open Q.= Thread currently ends with a question or the editor-curator's inconclusive musings
opinion!= Comments may raise blood pressure
silly :-)= For those with a sense of humor
video= Contains embedded video
camera= The inquiry has photos / graphics
pdf= Contains embedded pdf
vip= Inquirer often helps others, so especially deserves our help

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