-- The Home Page of the Finishing Industry
A website for Serious Education, promoting Aloha,
& the most FUN smiley you can have in metal finishing

on this site
current topics
topic 15377

Need to build or buy a Hot-Dip Galvanizing Kettle

adv. pointer   western technologies banner  gunatit builders banner

A discussion started in 2002 but continuing through 2017


Q. I would like to get access to a design manual (regardless of date) for the construction of a hot-dip galvanizing kettle. I would like to build a very small one (1 cu. ft.). I know it will be expensive. Please help.


Al Henderson
- Tallapoosa, Georgia

Hot Dip Galvanizing

Faults in Hot-Dip Galvanizing


Q. We have a hot dip galvanizing workshop but kettle is from ceramic for high temperature. We are going to establish a metal kettle of about 3,20 m long, 1,50 m deep and .80 m wide. If you received any information from somebody kindly share it with us or we can share our information too.

Mansour Mansouri
- Esfahan, Iran


RFQ: Dear sir,

I really need info about: Where can I get the kettle of hot dip galvanize (size 1 x 2 x 7 meter) and the supplier of molten zinc?

Best regards,

Taufik H [last name deleted for privacy by Editor]
- Sukabumi, Jawa Barat, Indonesia
^- Sorry, this RFQ is outdated
     View Current RFQs


RFQ: I need to find a used or ready-to-sell hot-dip galvanizing kettle at the dimensions of 2.5 m or more length, 1.0 m or more depth and 1.0 m or more length at useful dimensions. How can I find any?

Evren S [last name deleted for privacy by Editor]
- Pavlograd, Ukraine
^- Sorry, this RFQ is outdated
     View Current RFQs


RFQ: I WANT TO BUILD A KETTLE 5m long 2m deep 1.5m wide. Who can make it and how much does it cost?

Ali Ak
- Istanbul, Turkey
^- Sorry, this RFQ is outdated
     View Current RFQs


RFQ: We represent a local engineering organization dealing in galvanizing of steel structures for use in power transmission and telecommunication sector since 1987 in Pakistan. The production of our plant is 1500 tonnes/month. We are interested in purchasing a galvanizing kettle of specifications 30'x 3'x 3.5' (deep). The natural gas is used as fuel. The operating temperature is about 460-465 °C. You are requested to provide your quotation for this kettle along with necessary accessories. Please also mention the expected life of the item. Your immediate response will be warmly welcomed.


M SHOAIB J [last name deleted for privacy by Editor]
- Lahore, PAKISTAN
^- Sorry, this RFQ is outdated
     View Current RFQs

February 4, 2009

A. In response to your questions on building your kettle. I have built 6 kettles so I am sure I can help. Thanks.

Al Wise
- San Diego, California

Ed. note: Folks, this is a public forum for camaraderie & technical info exchange, and is made possible for us all by our supporting advertisers. Please feel free to help by publicly sharing whatever technical information you are willing to. But we don't put readers into private contact for a bunch of reasons; and we can't ask our supporting advertisers to pay the advertising costs of their competitors who choose not to advertise here. Apologies.

To minimize searching and offer multiple viewpoints, we've combined multiple threads into the dialog you're viewing. Please forgive any resultant repetition or failures of chronological order.


Q. Is there a standard for chemical composition of a galvanizing kettle material? What is a typical chemical composition of steel used for manufacturing galvanizing kettle?

Erhan Ulvan
- Mississauga, Ontario, Canada


A. In the United States it called Flange and Firebox quality steel. It basically is a very low carbon, very low silicon steel plate. Rods for welding it should also be low in C and Si.

Guillermo Marrufo
Monterrey, NL, Mexico

Can we use a cast iron galvanizing pot?


Q. We manufacture galvanized steel sheet (both plain & corrugated). Presently, our zinc melting pot is fabricated out of steel plates.But we don't get good life of melting pot, besides its cost. Can we use Cast iron melting pot? What would be other problems with CI melting pot?

Galvanized Steel Sheet - Kolkata, WB, India


A. Sir,
Cast iron is NOT a suitable material to make a galvanizing kettle. In the "old days" the common material was fire box steel. Some years ago "Max Ten" was specified which means the alloying agents in the steel would add up to no more than 0.10%. Today modern kettle makers know what can and cannot be used to make a galvanizing kettle. Certainly silicon, aluminum, and phosphorus contents in the steel must be VERY LOW. Also one MUST use the correct welding rod or else the welds will be "eaten up" by the zinc. In addition only the side walls can be heated (NEVER THE BOTTOM). Also a horizontal stripe 6 inches high at the top of the walls and a horizontal stripe 12 inches at the bottom of the kettle are insulated and (NEVER HEATED). The maximum heat throughput through the walls is 10,000 BTU/sq.ft. on the heat zone of the side walls. My article about a year ago in Metal Finishing (the magazine) would help you. A proper kettle with a proper furnace can have a lifetime of 10 years or more even with high production. A kettle depth to width ratio (e.g. d/w) should be 2 or greater.

Dr. Thomas H. Cook
Galvanizing Consultant - Hot Springs, South Dakota


A. Use a special alloy or a ceramic bath.

Wilfred Sprang

Chemical composition of galvanizing kettle


Q. Dear sir,
Please let me now the chemical composition of steel used in zinc kettle and also let me know if this composition varies for different size of zinc tank.
Since I am working for a galvanizing Company and we are starting a new plant for which I need the following detail.

Tanveer Ahmed
Plant In Charge - United Arab of Emirates


A. Dear Sir:
About 35 years ago kettle makers used "max ten" which means that the kettle "steel" was nearly pure iron with the combined alloying agents adding up to less than 0.10%. Armco made "steel" (iron) of this type. Today I do not think this type steel is available. Another term that I have heard is "boiler plate steel."
Today there are two kettle makers that likely make most of the galvanizing kettles. One is in the USA and the other is in Germany. These kettles now usually have 2 inch thick walls (years ago they were 1 inch thick). The weld rod and welding methods are quite specialized. I recommend that you purchase rather than make a kettle. With a proper kettle and proper furnace, the kettle can last 10 or more years. A poor kettle and poor furnace can give a kettle life of only a few months.
In the journal Metal Finishing you can get my article on kettle furnace design though interlibrary loan (xerox copy) from most large libraries. This article details the most efficient system which is end-firing with high velocity burners. Galvanizing kettles and galvanizing kettle furnaces are NOT do-it-yourself projects.

Dr. Thomas H. Cook
Galvanizing Consultant - Hot Springs, South Dakota


A. The most critical element in the steel for kettles is Silicon.
This needs to be at or close to zero.
Silicon is used extensively in steelmaking to de-oxidize the steel while molten and in casting processes. (The slabs cast in continuous casting plants are later rolled to plate.)

Alternative de-oxidants are available for this special grade of plate.
S and P are also important.

Geoff Crowley
Geoff Crowley
galvanizing & powder coating shop
Glasgow, Scotland

Best steel and welding rod for galvanizing kettle construction?

October 26, 2008 -- this entry appended to this thread by editor in lieu of spawning a duplicative thread

Q. What would be the ideal steel material (grade and specification)for galvanising bath tank. We would be very grateful if you can spare your precious moment for sharing your valuable knowledge.

Rudrash Aryal
Mechanical Engineer - Butwal, Lumbini, Nepal

October 31, 2008

A. SAE/AISI 1006.

Welding consumable must put down weld metal which has either (a) less than 0.05% silicon, or (b) between 0.11 and 0.25% silicon. It must not be between 0.05 and 0.11

Bill Reynolds
Bill Reynolds
   consultant metallurgist
Ballarat, Victoria, Australia
We sadly relate the news that Bill passed away on Jan. 29, 2010.

October 31, 2008

A. Sir:
35 years ago there was a steel (iron product) that was called "max ten." This meant that with the exclusion of iron the other ingredients all added together totaled 0.10%. Thus the carbon, silicon, phosphorus, manganese, etc. all added together could not exceed 0.10%. Another terminology was "fire-box steel." Still another terminology was Armco Iron (or steel). The usual thickness of steel (iron) kettles is 2 inches in North America and welded with very specific welding rod. The welds are normally x-rayed to be sure that they are good. Making a galvanizing kettle is NOT a "do it yourself" job.
Columbiana Boiler in the USA and Pilling in Germany are major suppliers of hot dip galvanizing kettles. Through the heating zone on the sidewalls (excluding the top 6 inches and the bottom 9 to 12 inches which are insulated) it is allowed to transmit 10,000 Btu's/sq ft/hour with an expected kettle life of 10 years. High-velocity end-firing is the most efficient system with proper shielding near the burners. Looking from above the hot gases circle the kettle. The burners are on diagonal corners with initial firing along the long sides. The depth(numerator) to width(denominator) ratio should be about 1.5 to 2. E.G. considerably deeper than wide. I have published several articles in the journal METAL FINISHING which details these informations.
I strongly recommend that you purchase a commercially made kettle and contract a qualified kettle furnace installer.

Dr. Thomas H. Cook
Galvanizing Consultant - Hot Springs, South Dakota

December 5, 2008

A. Sir:
A galvanizer told me recently that the proper welding rod is "FLEET 7." He also said that MIG equipment is better. The rod, or wire only has traces of silicon and phosphorus (also I think that low aluminum is important).

Dr. Thomas H. Cook
Galvanizing Consultant - Hot Springs, South Dakota

December 16, 2008 -- this entry appended to this thread by editor in lieu of spawning a duplicative thread

Q. I need the welding procedure Specification for Zinc pot, which will we use for the galvanizing of corrugated sheet.

- Adama, Ethiopia

June 14, 2009 -- this entry appended to this thread by editor in lieu of spawning a duplicative thread

Q. I am msc student at Adama University in manufacturing engineering I have a question to know the material of Zn pot and how to prepare a welding specification.
Thank you!

Woldetinsay Gutu
- Adama, Ethiopia

October 7, 2009

A. The steel used for galvanising pots should conform to BS 2858 [link by ed. to spec at TechStreet]. Also the higher the temperature of the zinc the more the dissolving effects.
There are new zinc alloys available and new methods of maintaining the alloying elements in solution. These factors together can greatly reduce zinc consumption.

Paul Markham
furnaces - Burntwood, Staffs, UK

July 15, 2010

RFQ: I am interested in building a Hot Dip Galvanize kettle or purchasing one -- can you help?

Gary L
[last name deleted for privacy by Editor]
threading - Brentwood, California, USA
^- Sorry, this RFQ is outdated
     View Current RFQs

February 14, 2011

RFQ: I am building a kettle. Mild steel lined with fire brick. Need advice and guidance. Happy to pay for consulting.

Chuck M [last name deleted for privacy by Editor]
- Tooele, Utah
^- Sorry, this RFQ is outdated
     View Current RFQs

March 6, 2012

Q. Looking to install a hot dip galvanizing line, have great potential customers but little know-how on the operation.
Any feedback would be greatly appreciated.

Patric M [last name deleted for privacy by Editor]
- San Diego, California, USA

March 7, 2012

A. Sir:

Obtain and read the two books: "Hot Dip Galvanizing" [linked by editor to product info at Amazon] by Heinz Bablik and "Handbook of Hot-Dip Galvanization" [link is to info about book at Amazon].

Visit galvanizing plants including San Diego Galvanizing and LA Galvanizing.

California is an environmentally tough state to have a galvanizing plant. Check the California Proposition 65 list to better understand the regulations, especially with regard to lead, nickel, and hex chrome.


Dr. Thomas H. Cook
Galvanizing Consultant - Hot Springs, South Dakota

April 9, 2013 -- this entry appended to this thread by editor in lieu of spawning a duplicative thread

Q. Kindly suggest the specification for melting zinc for hot dip galvanising; we want to make a tank nearly 5.5 meters long and 0.50 meters depth, please suggest the width.
Can we use normal mild steel plates? Also please suggest the thickness of the plates used, welding rod grades. Can you guide us in the process for fabrication of such tank?
Please reply at your earliest.

Asit Pathak
- Indore, (M.P.), India

April 10, 2013

A. Hi Asit. Welcome! We appended your inquiry to a thread which answers some of your questions, but it's a tall order to ask for complete instructions for safely designing and fabricating a galvanizing tank. I don't think it's going to happen for free in a public forum.

Good luck, but if you don't have all the info you need quickly enough, please see the ads for galvanizing consultants at the top of the page.


Ted Mooney, Teds signature
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
Pine Beach, New Jersey

April 13, 2013

A. You should not attempt to make a galvanizing tank yourself if you cannot answer these questions.

Your depth of 0.5 m seems far too small. What could you use such a tank for?

At length 5.5 m, more typical dimensions would be 1.2 m wide and 2-4 m deep. Material will be very low Si steel, a special steel not readily available, and made especially for this purpose of galvanizing tanks. Typically its 50 mm thick. Special welding electrodes are required, and special techniques for welding.
There are 3-4 suppliers worldwide who supply long lasting kettles, but the furnace is equally important for long life.
You might expect 10 years or more from a well made kettle of the right material.
You might expect a few months from a homemade one.

Geoff Crowley
Geoff Crowley
galvanizing & powder coating shop
Glasgow, Scotland

April 19, 2013

A. Hi, Asit.

Its better to define first size of your materials which are going to be galvanize and required production per day or per shift.

Based on same you have to select the size of your Galvanizing kettle.

Ilesh G Vyas
Gunatit Builders
supporting advertiser
Manjalpur, Vadodara, Gujarat
gunatit builders

MIG vs. TIG welding for galvanizing kettle? What stick or wire?

May 24, 2013 -- this entry appended to this thread by editor in lieu of spawning a duplicative thread

Q. Hi Everyone

For welding a Galvanizing pot, fabricated using a DSQ plate. Is it better to use MIG welding or TIG welding. And what is the recommended grade of stick or wire to be used?



Kanvar Bamrah
- New Delhi, India

June 5, 2013

A. Dear Friend
The Welding Electrode must be of same material as Plates. I recommend 45 S, D&H electrodes for DSQ steel.

Umesh Dalela
- Sana'a, Yemen

November 16, 2014 -- this entry appended to this thread by editor in lieu of spawning a duplicative thread

Q. I need help. I want to make galvanizing kettle. I need help how to make and how it is heated? Thanks.

Ruphert connock
- cebu philippines

November 25, 2014

A. Dear Ruphert Connok.

It's better to hire a consultant and supplier who can guide you how to start Galvanizing plant. It will be more advisable then doing it yourself.


Ilesh G Vyas
Gunatit Builders
supporting advertiser
Manjalpur, Vadodara, Gujarat
gunatit builders

December 2, 2014

A. Not a good idea to build your own kettle for galvanizing if you have to ask how to do it.

If you want it to last any time, then buy one from a reputable supplier. There are several, even one not so far from you.

Homemade might last 6 months. Bought one 10-14 years.

Geoff Crowley
Geoff Crowley
galvanizing & powder coating shop
Glasgow, Scotland

August 29, 2015

Q. What's the grade and specification for galvanising bath tank.


rama rao ch
- hyderabad, telangana, india

August 2015

thumbs up signHi cousin Rama. That question was already answered in quite deep detail. Please try to request clarification rather than starting over. Thanks!


pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
Pine Beach, New Jersey
Striving to live "Aloha"

September 28, 2015

A. Dear MR. Rama Rao Ch.

for Galvanizing Bath , in India, people use DSQ Plate (dead soft Quality) manufactured by SAIL.

Ilesh G Vyas
Gunatit Builders
supporting advertiser
Manjalpur, Vadodara, Gujarat
gunatit builders

Hot-dip kettle material for Zn-Al-Mg coating

September 22, 2015 -- this entry appended to this thread by editor in lieu of spawning a duplicative thread

Q. Hi,

We want to design a kettle for coating. Our alloy elements are zinc, aluminum and magnesium. And bath temperature 450 °C-650 °C. We are thinking to use stainless steel (310,316). Is stainless steel suitable for experiment. We will use the bath for one month. Our alloy should contact steel, not brick.
I must choose kettle material. Which material is suitable? Also, the material that we choose should not react with zinc, aluminum and magnesium.

Could you help me, please ?

Teslime Orhan
- Turkey

September 2015

? Hi Teslime. We appended your inquiry to one of several threads here on galvanizing tank construction. I'm reading between the lines that you are talking about a tiny kettle for a short-term experiment, but if you can give us a feel for its size it might be helpful.


pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
Pine Beach, New Jersey
Striving to live "Aloha"

November 4, 2015

Q. I am building a small kettle and I understand the pitfalls of not having it on full time. I was wondering if I could coat the walls of the kettle with a ceramic coating would that neutralize the erosion of the walls every-time I heated up and cooled down the kettle. The kettle's walls are 1.500" thick. Thanks Matt

Matthew s Willis
- Mesa, Arizona, United States

December 16, 2015

Q. I request help to answer the below,

1) What is the best-used Steel Grade for a Galvanizing Kettle? BS 5258, SAE 1006 or some other? Saying only very low Carbon or Silicon contents is an open sentence?

2)What is Grade / Manufacturer Brand of Welding Electrodes for best welding of Kettle?

3) Is there any brief procedure having important control points to weld Kettle?

4) What minimum Qualification /experience required for a Kettle Welder?

mukhtar ahmad
Engr. Mukhtar Ahmad
- Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan

December 21, 2015

A. Several steel manufacturers make a special steel for this application. It's a low carbon mild steel, but with ultra low Si - almost zero. I'm not sure if there's a grade name.
To make a kettle out of plain grades of steel would be to ensure a very short life for the kettle.

Geoff Crowley
Geoff Crowley
galvanizing & powder coating shop
Glasgow, Scotland

January 24, 2016

A. Dear Sir.

It's better to purchase Kettle from Reputed manufacturer as they have experience in manufacturing kettles.

Steel generally used to manufacture Kettle should be low carbon, low silicon, with same property for welding electrodes.

Ilesh G Vyas
Gunatit Builders
supporting advertiser
Manjalpur, Vadodara, Gujarat
gunatit builders

January 29, 2016

Q. What about the A514B -- is that good for a zinc kettle?

The main problem that I have is the way to manufacture this kettle.

Recently, we had problems with last kettle ... it was made of steel A36 :(

Now I have a question for Dr. Thomas H. Cook:
Why must the kettle have a horizontal stripe 6 inches high at the top of the walls and a horizontal stripe 12 inches at the bottom of the kettle are insulated and (NEVER HEATED)?

Please help!!

Juan De Lira
- Torreon, Coahuila. mexico

May 13, 2016

A. Dear Juan De Lira

As per specification of A 36 grade steel, Silicon content is much more higher then allowable to fabricate Galvanizing Kettle.

Galvanizers prefer to have silicon content Trace or maximum 0.03 % for better life of kettle.

Ilesh G Vyas
Gunatit Builders
Manjalpur, Vadodara, Gujarat

February 24, 2016

Q. Hello

I want to make hot dip galvanization investment but I'm in a dilemma whether do it in metallic or ceramic material?

Please help me with some of your experienced opinion?

Aleksandro Bardhi
- Durres Albania

May 13, 2016

A. Dear Aleksandro Bardhi,

Selection of Metallic or Ceramic bath mostly based on what kind of materials you would like to Galvanize.

Generally for Fasteners, threaded items peoples are going with Ceramic bath with higher temperature otherwise for structure and bigger job, better to go with Metallic bath.

Ilesh G Vyas
Gunatit Builders
Manjalpur, Vadodara, Gujarat

April 22, 2016

Q. I have a large location and permission to set up a hot dip galvanising plant. The primary use would be for galvanising lampposts (7 meters to 9 meters) and arms (1 meter to 3 meters). I don't expect to galvanise more than 300 per month. I want the most cost effective and fastest method. Are you able to advise me? Any information would be greatly appreciated. Any details for consultants or distributors.

Abaz Lika
- Monterrey, Mexico

Ed. note: Hi Abaz. The banner near the top of the page lists such advertisers; we don't discuss sourcing within the forum, and it leads to boundless spam.

April 25, 2016

Q. What are the basic reasons of deterioration in galvanizing pot or formation cavity at both side of kettle?

sai misser
- Simra, Nepal

May 16, 2016

A. Dear Sai.

Basic reason of deterioration in Galvanizing pot are

1 ) uneven heating
2 ) furnace design.
3 ) Deposition of Hard zinc (Dross) inside zinc kettle.
4 ) Quality of Pot materials.

Ilesh G Vyas
Gunatit Builders
Manjalpur, Vadodara, Gujarat

June 16, 2016

A. My company is a manufacturer & exporter of zinc kettle.

The best material for kettles is "CLASS A DSQ (Dead Soft Quality)" and "GP2"

Warm Regards,

Akash Rodrigues
- Mumbai,India

June 18, 2016

Q. Dears,
Our zinc kettle got a puncture within 2 years of service life; now we are in process to find the puncture area. Is there any chance to repair the kettle?

Mohd Shaqib
- Dubai, United Arab Emirates

August 29, 2016

Q. Hi,

what would you recommend to prevent a zinc bath from leaking? The client has experienced leaks through bad welds (problem corrected) and now a slow leak from erosion/corrosion.

Thanks for your help,

Philippe Reid
- Montreal, Quebec, Canada

February 6, 2017

Q. Dear sir,

Our Zn-Al-Mg kettle size:
length:150 cm width:25 cm depth: 40 cm.

We will not use ceramics in the construction of the kettle material (because size is small). We want to use metal material. But which metal material we should use (316L,Zirconium,titanium,super alloy)?

The alloy(Zn-Al-Mg) will directly contact the kettle material(316L,Zr,Ti...). Over time, metal material may dissolve .

Thank you.

Teslime Orhan
- Tarsus, Mersin, Turkey

June 30, 2017

Q. Are there other credible Galvanizing Kettle Manufacturers besides Pilling & Columbiana?

Bob Hendricks
- Fort Worth, Texas, USA

June 2017

Hi Bob. We've learned from 20+ years of this forum that posting sourcing questions is always a big mistake :-)

... but because we didn't edit sufficiently 9 years ago and those suppliers were already mentioned on this page, we'll compromise and let people name additional possible suppliers, with no testimonials or adjectives like 'credible' and see how it goes, although we usually end up having to delete the page because it becomes a spam magnet and a race to the bottom :-)

We hope you'll start by contacting Western Technologies [a supporting advertiser] and Gunatit Builders [a supporting advertiser] , who are making this discussion forum possible.


pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
Pine Beach, New Jersey
Striving to live "Aloha"

July 5, 2017

We are also manufacturing Zinc Kettle. Can contact us.

U. C. Dalela
Galvanizers & Consultants - NEW DELHI

Ed. note July 6: Bronx international, Thane India, and Anyang Yongle Trading Co., Ltd. of China have started spamming us with offers for their galvanizing lines and kettles -- so add them to your list :-)

This public forum has 60,000 threads. If you have a question in mind which seems off topic to this thread, you might prefer to Search the Site


Disclaimer: It's not possible to diagnose a finishing problem or the hazards of an operation via these pages. All information presented is for general reference and does not represent a professional opinion nor the policy of an author's employer. The internet is largely anonymous & unvetted; some names may be fictitious and some recommendations may be deliberately harmful.

  If you need a product/service, please check these Directories:

JobshopsCapital Equip. & Install'nChemicals & Consumables Consult'g, Train'g, SoftwareEnvironmental ComplianceTesting Svcs. & Devices

©1995-2018, Inc., Pine Beach, NJ   -   About   -  Privacy Policy
How Google uses data when you visit this site.