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topic 7068

Anodization of Titanium for Biocompatibility


Q. Under our investigation of biocompatibility of titanium we find out that an anodization finishing process reduce the activity of the osteoblast cell on the surface. We believe that's due to the microstructure of the surface; have you got any idea? Can you help us to find out the microstructure on the titania? Can you get us some information about the anodization process?

Thank You.

Max Svetina
- Udine, F.V.G., Italia


A. Hi Max,

It is true that anodizing is able to improve the biocompatibility of titanium material. The oxide film basically contains anatase (one of TiO2 structures)in a certain range of anodizing voltage. Unlike rutile (another form of TiO2), anatase has catalytic property for the redox reaction of hydrogen peroxide. Therefore, anatase is also an antibacteria material. Although various electrolytes can be used in titanium anodizing, buffered phosphate-phosphoric acid solution is probably the best electrolyte in your specific application. Voltage is the key factor to maximize the bioactivity of anodized Ti. You will observe color spectrum. The color variation is not important in your application. You also have other means for producing anennas on Ti instead of anodizing processes. Regarding the analysis of oxide film on Ti, it is just a matter of cost. If you need to find a reputable surface analysis center with complete sophisticated equipment, I might be able to help you.

Good luck.

Ling Hao
- Grand Rapids, Michigan


Q. Do you have any references for the increased biocompatibility of anodized titanium that you describe? I am also interested if you have any references on the biocompatibility of wear particles produced from an anodized component.

Thank you very much for your help.

Bill Cottle
-Austin, Texas


A. Bill, You can find several papers dealing with the biocompatibility of anodized titanium in Chemical Abstracts if you can do literature search. I do not have them at hand. Good luck!

Ling Hao
- Grand Rapids, Michigan


Q. I am research student at Chonbuk National University.for anodization of titanium metal I use buffered phosphate phosphoric acid solution(mixture of monopotassium phosphate and phosphoric acid pH=2.1) as electrolyte and highest voltage is 480 V.But during anodization at constant voltage it is not constant.I would be grateful if you can provide me the solution.

Madhav Prasad Neupane
- South Korea


Q. Regarding anodization of titanium in various reagents, I am a research scholar and pursuing in field of Electrochemistry, and that to in anodizing Titanium pure metal.Help me with already covered reagents so far.



Can you tell us what you want to do, NNS, because titanium can be anodized (to a degree) in almost any alkaline or mild acid. Decorative anodizing has been done in coca-cola and other soft drinks, sodium bicarbonate, trisodium phosphate [linked by editor to product info at Amazon], etc. But functional anodizing is done from alkaline solutions.

Ted Mooney, Teds signature
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Pine Beach, New Jersey


In reply to my previous question ,you have mentioned about decorative anodising. I am interested in it,being a research student. Can you give more details about it?



A. Hello, NNS. Please patiently use the search engine, with the search terms "decorative titanium anodizing"and "coloring titanium" and you will find dozens of threads on the subject. Good luck.

Ted Mooney,
Teds signature
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Pine Beach, New Jersey

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