Updated Tuesday, February 19 at 1 P.M. New York City time.

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Current Topics:

Category
 Process: 0. Corrosion. Compatibility, Choosing a Finish
 Preparation: 1a. Mechanical Prep 1b. Chemical Pretreatments 1c. Masking & Racking
 Inorganic Finishing: 2a. Anodizing & Light Metals 2b. Electroplating & Electroforming 2c. Electroless Plating
2d. PVD, CVD, Vacuum Processes 2e. Galvanizing, Hot Dipping 2f. Black Oxide, Bluing, Coloring
2g. Other Inorganic Finishing Processes
 Organic Finishing: 3a. Electropainting, Autophoretic 3b. Powder Coating 3c. Lacquers, Clearcoats
3d. Painting, Printing, Adhesives, Organic Coatings
 Post-treatments: 4a. Chemical Post-treatments 4b. Baking & Non-chemical Post-treatments 4c. Stripping, Reworks, etc.
 Supporting Issues: 5a. Analysis, Lab Technique, QA/QC 5b. Water, Wastewater, Pollution 5c. Safety, Emissions, Toxicity
5d. Plant & Process Engineering 5e. Software, Specs, Books, Stats 5f. World Wide Word Of The Week
5g. REACH, RoHS, E-O-L, etc. 5h. Mostly metallurgy 5i. Precious Metal Recovery
 Non-industrial: 6a. Hobbyists, Enthusiasts, Artists 6b. Research, Thesis work 6c. K-12 Science Projects, Elementary to High School
 Not Metal Finishing: 7. Off Topic, but Interesting

0. CORROSION, COMPATIBILITY, CHOOSING A FINISH . . .

31153. Stainless screws okay on aluminum machinery? open Q. (February 19)
60936. Want trophy plating whiter than silver plating (February 18)
53424. How long Gold Plating over brass will last? (February 17)
01744. How long will stainless steel last (February 14)
41930. Will my anodized aluminum solar panel frames face galvanic corrosion? open Q. (February 13)
30274. Need food service coating for 600 °F open Q. (February 12)
48642. Anodized aluminum vs. galvanized steel for Railings (February 6)
19766. Galvanic Action between Galvanized and Stainless Steel? open Q. (February 5)
17652. Can CIP and acid baths cause stainless 304 corrosion? (January 29)
60926. Scratch resistance of various polished metals (January 26)
35528. Hot dip cadmium coating? open Q. (January 24)
39085. What is the difference between Coating and Plating (January 16)
26187. Will NaOH solution corrode 316SS? (January 7)
32087. What metal/plating/treatment is best for gold costume jewelry? open Q. (December 26)
40590. Simple way to deep colour stainless steel yellow? (December 20)
60901. Can Silver plating be done on Copper utensils (December 6)
60899. The best way to have colored pots and pans (November 25)
07897. Galvanic compatibility of aluminum and copper (November 20)
04144. What screw material for galvanized electrical boxes on bridge? open Q. (October 10)
46556. Coating stainless barware for corrosion resistance (October 7)
49642. Anodizing or Chrome Plating? Need expert help open Q. (September 26)
60766. Trivalent chromate on bare steel (September 24)
30608. Reaction between zinc wall cladding and aluminium rivets (September 21)


1. PREPARATION . . .

    1a. MECHANICAL PREP
    [GRINDING, POLISHING, VIBRATORY FINISHING, BUFFING, HONING]

13730. Eliminating machining steps/irregularities in cavity cooling holes camera open Q. (February 13)
22096. Polishing Cast Aluminum Q & A's open Q. (January 21)
12526. Sand blasting standards: Swedish SA 1, SA 2, SA 2.5, SA 3 open Q. (January 8)
60892. Vibratory finishing leaves smut on stainless steel (December 18)
43077. Mirror Polish ID of 0.3 mm hole in Carbide (December 17)
45366. How to get a good polish on a stainless weldment camera (December 16)
53224. Steel blasting for shiny result (December 13)
19484. Does Rmax = Rp + Rv? (December 2)
52636. Vibratory finishing of steel open Q. (September 12)
05629. Vibratory polishing of gold (September 10)
05396. Ra surface finish -- what does it actually mean? (September 10)

    1b. PRETREATMENTS
    [PICKLING, PASSIVATION, PHOSPHATIZING, CLEANING, ELECTROPOLISHING, ACTIVATION]

00276. Reapplying Electropolish process to stainless steel heating coils open Q. (February 19)
10242. Zinc phosphated surface is rough for first few days of each new bath (February 19)
14221. Zinc phosphate coating is covered with rust camera (February 18)
43547. Electropolishing bath volume is growing (February 17)
14343. Removing "Rust" on Stainless Steel (February 16)
45662. Shot Blasting vs Phosphating -- Which is better? (February 8)
34052. Manganese phosphate coating on maraging steel (February 2)
28771. Gray/brown powder on iron phosphate coated parts open Q. (January 28)
03952. Preventing flash rust after iron phosphating? (January 17)
20840. Passivating (or plating) free-machining stainless steel (December 24)
46413. Pickling hardened steel with sulfuric acid open Q. (December 13)
27078. Stainless Steel 304 Electropolishing issues camera (December 12)
39277. 4 pickling tanks in series open Q. (December 12)
17774. White spots when passivating 316SS open Q. (December 7)
37409. Excess Sludge Buildup in Phosphating Bath (December 4)
02030. Passivating Stainless Steel Medical & Surgical Instruments (December 1)
00073. Problems with zinc phosphating machined areas on martensitic material (November 24)
60890. How to remove burn marks off carbide? open Q. (November 12)
12028. Pickling of Steel Q&A's (November 5)
20185. Best detergent for electrolytic cleaning? (October 22)
04561. Electropolishing of molydenum and its alloys open Q. (October 17)
35943. Inco 625 Parts Get White Spots on Some Surfaces after Chemical Etching camera open Q. (October 17)
53135. Need details of "the 7-tank phosphating process" open Q. (October 14)
11573. Cleaning oil & grease from steel surface (October 7)

    1c. MASKING, RACKING, TAPING, PLUGGING, PHOTOSENSITIVE MASKS

60909. Can hard chrome plating survive 7-stage phosphatizing? open Q. (December 31)
58316. Liquid masking for anodizing (December 12)
14483. Hot glue for masking type III anodize? open Q. (November 25)


2. INORGANIC FINISHING PROCESSES . . .

    2a. ANODIZING AND LIGHT METAL TREATMENTS (Aluminum, Magnesium, Titanium)

08147. Finishing titanium medical implants open Q. (February 19)
41155. Copper contamination of boric-sulfuric anodize process open Q.spanish(February 18)
05112. Pitting of 2024 Aluminum with Standard or Ematal Anodizing camera (February 14)
45421. Black spots/streaks in anodized aluminium open Q. (February 9)
01419. Maintenance Schedule of Nitric Acid Rinse (February 5)
34157. White stains on Aluminium cooking pots open Q. (January 31)
42739. Dark smut on conversion coated cast aluminum parts (January 30)
43963. Micro-etching of aluminum open Q. (January 29)
60828. Trickle Charge to Protect Aluminum Cathode for Anodize (January 24)
39354. Heat colouring of titanium open Q. (January 21)
37711. Stripes appearing in aluminum after anodizing camera open Q. (January 16)
35928. Aluminum gets water spots on only one side of sheets open Q. (January 16)
48706. Want dyed and clear polished areas on same aluminum motorcycle wheels camera (January 16)
05333. Are Honda motorcycle parts clear coated or anodized? (January 14)
14550. Contact resistance of Class 3 Chromated Aluminum (January 12)
46143. Can we do colorless chromate on shot blasted surface? (January 4)
56917. Problems with Alodine not sticking on AL7075 aluminum (January 4)
06701. How much anodizing time for 15 microns? (January 3)
04024. 'Never dump' processes for electropolishing aluminum? (December 12)
04039. Conductive coating for aluminium bus bar (December 11)
34822. Chromate conversion coating adhesion failure on aluminum (December 7)
04422. Anodizing dye activation (December 7)
14352. Etch grain problem open Q. camera (December 4)
00317. SDS for Anodized Coatings? open Q. (December 1)
12466. Alodine 600 vs. Alodine 1200 (December 1)
14441. White spots on black dyed sulfuric anodizing with hot water seal (November 25)
25258. Sodium dichromate seal tank - pH adjustment (November 24)
17722. Will ultrasonic cleaning remove trivalent chromate? (November 20)
60895. Black spots on electro-gold colored anodized aluminum open Q. (November 17)
35677. Protecting non aluminum metals when anodizing (November 9)
44778. Cloudy stained hardcoat anodize camera (November 7)
60879. Mill spots and discoloration in 6063 dark anodize camera (November 6)
12997. Why Are Anodized Aluminum Screen Frames Not Available? (November 6)
55827. Is touch-up allowed in Mil-A-8625? open Q. (November 6)
00224. Inorganic gold dyes for anodized aluminum (FAO / ferric ammonium oxalate) open Q. (November 1)
60881. Titanium anodizing contamination problems (October 30)
40535. Will hardcoating of 7075 Aluminum come out Gold colored? (October 30)
19342. Electroless procedure for aluminium plating in a brass color (October 29)
11260. What is ammonium bifluoride and when should it be used (October 23)
48150. Shade Variation in Hard Anodised Aluminium camera (October 20)
32786. Prevention of white rust in aluminum castings open Q. (October 20)
55057. Uniformity problems in vertical aluminium anodizing open Q. (October 17)
30736. Room Temperature Acid Brightener for Aluminum open Q. (October 14)
00270. Clear conductive coating for ADC12 that offers 300 hours salt spray (October 11)
02528. Aluminum Pretreatment: 3-step Iron Phosphate vs. Chromate Conversion Coating (October 6)
04558. MIL-C-5541 / MIL-DTL-5541 Class 1a vs. Class 3 Chromate Conversion Coatings (October 4)
53050. Why does bare aluminum continue to corrode? (October 4)
02469. Hard Anodizing MIC-6 open Q. (October 2) 2nd Request

    2b. ELECTROPLATING and ELECTROFORMING

40095. Acid Zinc / Potassium Zinc Chloride Plating: Problems & Solutions open Q. (February 19)
54183. Powder coating over zinc spray surface open Q. (February 18)
30106. Zinc plating thickness vs. salt spray resistance (February 18)
12860. Acid Zinc Plating bath gets hot (February 14)
44143. Chrome plating blisters on one side, pits on the other camera open Q. (February 13)
49660. Some nickel plated screws aren't getting their brass plating (February 13)
51402. Nickel Sulfamate bath -- pH dropping, anode going passive (February 13)
38265. Why must Copper Bus Bar be Tin Plated? (February 12)
49800. Copper contamination in cadmium cyanide bath (February 12)
07077. Black nickel is gray, not black camera open Q. (February 9)
36390. Hard chrome plating isn't hard enough open Q. (February 9)
60931. Tin Plating Not Adhering to Silver Brazed Inlay open Q. (February 9)
48168. How to activate pot metal (February 9)
51418. Zinc plating gets red rust in 24-hour salt spray test (February 8)
60882. Chrome plating solution strips away underlying copper and nickel in LCD area (February 8)
31850. Dummying a Wood's Nickel Strike (February 2)
36290. Nickel plating / striking of stainless steel (January 31)
41517. Want to hard gold plate 25 microns thick (January 30)
07070. Want 168 hours salt spray and 40 year life from nickel plated ductile iron castings (January 29)
33135. Pre-cleaning oils from carbon steel to be Plated camera (January 29)
60928. Tin plating, bubbling problems (January 28)
10818. Contamination limit for black chrome plating tank (January 24)
04146. Electroformed gold is brittle open Q. (January 24)
05106. Tin plated copper electrical work turning jet black open Q. (January 22)
26448. White spots develop on black zinc plating open Q. (January 22)
44183. Want to install a chromate conversion coating line for existing pregalv EMT (January 22)
47214. Black stain in cadmium deposit after chromate camera (January 18)
60917. Multiple small cells in one plating tank (January 18)
40492. Satin Nickel peels off of copper but not off of bright nickel open Q. (January 16)
48616. What's the difference between glassy and milky hard chrome plating? open Q. (January 16)
09924 Need to drill & tap, then zinc plate, hot-dip galvanized parts (January 14)
54641. Contamination limits for Woods Nickel Strike (January 12)
28434. Need very heavy copper plating on top of nickel plating (January 12)
60915. Chromium Plating Solution - Better with age? (January 11)
11955. Chrome Plating Problems on Gravure Printing Cylinders/Rolls open Q. (January 6)
10282. Acid tin plating staining/milkiness camera open Q. (January 5) 2nd Request
18112. Two Different Colors of Zinc Plate Clear Chromate ASTM B633-15, SC2 Type 5 open Q. (December 27)
44771. Acid Copper Plating Problems (December 27)
01721. Temperature effect on acid copper plating solution (December 26)
02406. Problems in ammonia chloride zinc plating: Q&A's (December 26)
27356. Roughness in silver plating (December 24)
11434. Chloride in Copper Cyanide Plating Bath (December 24)
13588. Effect of potassium formate on Nickel Plating open Q. (December 19)
03795. How to overcome non uniform thickness in electroplating camera open Q. (December 19)
30406. Acid copper pitting in HCD areas even at low current open Q. (December 18)
33883. Pits in nickel-chrome plating on aluminum camera open Q. (December 17)
32077. Black spots in zinc plating open Q. (December 16)
36033. In zinc plating an interior slot gets rusted open Q. (December 16)
43776. Blistering of silver plated parts after high temp. bake camera (December 12)
28621. Black zinc plating for grounding (December 10)
40705. Hard chrome bath contaminated with anti-freeze (December 9)
60880. Need a replacement for Dull Zinc that can be readily epoxy bonded open Q. (December 5)
06736. Gold plating peels off of nickel plating camera (December 4)
29746. What constitutes plateable vs. unplateable diecastings? (December 4)
33291. Gold and Burn on same load in hex chrome plating bath open Q. (December 1)
45138. Dull Nickel Plating Process Details open Q. (November 27)
47424. Bubbles in lacquer on plated Zinc Die Castings camera (November 26)
47037. Discolored yellow chromate on cadmium plating camera open Q. (November 26)
09247. Why does sulphur increase the electro-potential in bright nickel? open Q. (November 25)
00934. Can electric conducting paint metallize ABS for copper plating?
46145. How to reduce Blistering for plating on Zinc Die Cast? (November 24)
56560. Yellow Zinc Plating vs. Clear Zinc (November 20)
28851. Black patches, pit marks on Zn-Ni plating open Q. (November 9)
47124. Current problem with acid copper (November 1)
06082. How is satin chrome plating done? (October 31)
03892. Titanium-Cadmium Plating Q&A open Q. (October 30)
26622. Reaction of sodium on zinc plated steel surface? (October 29)
41906. Dummying nickel, iron, & zinc out of tin plating bath open Q. (October 25)
17284. Copper underplate required for nickel plating on brass? (October 25)
13089. Cadmium vs. Zinc vs. Nickel Plating Comparison open Q. (October 25)
47201. Brown marks near welds on zinc plated parts camera open Q. (October 23)
12243. Barrel tin plating is dull or black (October 18)
09380. Some sulfamate nickel plated parts bright; other shapes not open Q. (October 16)
21250. Why is Zinc Plating changing colors? open Q. (October 14)
40943. Black zinc okay for oxygen environment? open Q. (October 14)
09527. Starting a small plating business open Q. (October 11)
15090. Problems in plating glass-to-metal seals open Q. (October 10)
49143. pH of gold plating bath (October 10)
60869. What Ra or Rz Needed before Bright Plating? open Q. (October 9)
47217. Palladium-nickel plating isn't adhering open Q. (October 9)
54564. Pinholes in Copper Plating of Gravure Cylinders camera open Q. (October 6)
60866. Uneven plating thickness in acid zinc (October 4)

    2c. ELECTROLESS PLATING, PLATING ON PLASTICS, IMMERSION PLATING, CHROME-LOOK SPRAYS

43386. Chrome on plastic: spray on chrome process open Q. (February 10)
47178. Hard Chrome Plating vs. Electroless Nickel open Q. (February 16)
07152. Reliable process for EN on magnesium? (January 31)
56043. Electrolyte for plating copper on MIG wire open Q. (January 26)
59277. Ultrasonic Cleaning ruined Electroless Nickel Plated Parts open Q. (January 4)
06474. Can electroless nickel with silicon carbide replace chrome plating? open Q. (December 30)
03605. Why not Electroless Nickel with Teflon as a cylinder liner? open Q. (December 26)
43445. Electroless Nickel plating peel off on CRCA base material (December 26)
39056. Nightmare burning defect in copper plating on plastics camera (December 21)
39402. Fish eye problem in electroless nickel plating (December 12)
44804. Water spots on immersion gold surface (December 4)
01959. Electroless nickel plating on silver paste (November 25)
11290. Electroless Nickel isn't resisting bleach open Q. (November 19)
33632. Adhesion problem, electroless silver plating on polyamide open Q. (October 18)
26853. Composite electroless nickel-PTFE plating open Q. (October 10)

    2d. PVD, CVD, ION IMPLANTATION, VACUUM PROCESSES

07846. PVD coatings: want pink coating open Q. (January 8)
60903. iPhone 10 Stains Fingers Blue! camera open Q. (December 16) vip
45683. Cracks appear after Vacuum Chrome plating on polycarbonate open Q. (October 10)
28527. Base coats and top coats for vacuum metallizing open Q. (October 5)
34053. Titanium nitride targets cycle off and on (September 2)

    2e. GALVANIZING, ALUMINIZING, HOT TIN DIPPING

49271. I want to produce ZnCl2.NH4Cl solution (February 19)
34714. Controlling hot dip galvanized steel production for dullness or shine open Q. (February 19)
56892. Over-pickling before galvanizing (February 19)
50428. Addition agents for galvanizing flux open Q. (February 16)
49676. Zinc thickness vs. grams / square meter (February 11)
42325. Iron contamination of Galvanizing Flux (February 8)
60905. Dynamic Flux Tests for Galvanizing (January 31)
45719. Hot dip galvanizing: what is reasonable dross & ash material loss? open Q. (January 21)
41998. White rust observed in GI pipe after 16 hours in salt spray test (January 16)
46006. Rough and sandy finish on galvanized rails camera (January 11)
24568. Lead (Pb) in Hot Dip Galvanizing open Q. (January 11)
55032. Minimize/control galvanize coating thickness (January 6)
56867. Spotting, Staining, Blackening of Hot Dip Galvanized Finish camera (January 5)
22164. Difference between electrogalvanized steel and hot dip galvanized steel (December 19)
38207. Advantages/disadvantages of spangle in galvanizing open Q. (December 13)
01341. Painting Galvanizing & Other Zinc Surfaces (November 27)
41571. Good pressure of zinc control in galvanizing line open Q. (October 30)
21047. Treating galvanized steel sheets to avoid white rust (October 20)
60808. GALVALUME Coated Sheet Steel in animal confinement applications (October 3)
43365. Purlins turn red in flux tank open Q. (September 23)
60826. Contaminants building up in galvanizing flux open Q. (September 13) vip

    2f. BLACK OXIDE, BLUING, COLORING, PATINATING, NITRIDING

11822. Passivating carbon steel / when to open Q. (January 8)
07892. Cold bluing chemicals (December 7)
04469. Cold Rust Bluing Methods open Q. (November 25)
36484. Inconel 625 black finishes? open Q. (November 15)
13097. Black Oxide cylinder with small blind holes open Q. (October 26)
27235. Alternative chemistry to selenium black oxide finishing open Q. (October 23)
12141. Gas Nitride Issues: Blistering and Flaking on Nitrided H-13 open Q. (October 16)


    2g. OTHER INORGANIC FINISHING: Mechanical Plating, QPQ, Metal Spray, Zinc-rich Dip-Spin Coatings, Sherardizing, etc.

24154. Welding of Tungsten carbide coating open Q. (July 23)
08591. Chromating a zinc-alloy thermal diffusion coating open Q. (July 17)


3. ORGANIC FINISHING PROCESSES . . .

    3a. ELECTROPAINT PRIMING, AUTOPHORETIC COATINGS

32574. CED coating adheres to sheet metal but not if zinc coated open Q. (February 19)
60934. Increase paint thickness in Cathodic Electrodeposition (CED) system? open Q. (February 2)
46042. CED Ultrafiltration (December 19)
23047. How to reduce paint thickness in Cathodic Electro Deposition (CED) system? (December 18)
44399. Must zinc plating be stripped before Geomet coating? (September 27)
57561. Pin holes in CED e-coating camera open Q. (September 9)

    3b. POWDER COATING

18298. Poor adhesion in powder coating open Q. (February 5)
04745. Powder Coating over Galvanized Steel (January 22)
42644. Pinhole problems in powder coating (January 15)
26699. Industry specs for powder coating thickness and testing methods? (December 26)
60887. Defects found in powder prime on steel camera open Q. (November 8)
45155. Powdercoating stainless steel Q&A's (October 20)
45526. Structure Formation Problem in Powder Coating open Q. (October 14)
35126. Pinholes in powder coating open Q. (October 5)
05234. Repair of Powdercoat after Welding? (September 25)
60844. Bad powder coating on steel: Poor wet out surface defects camera open Q. (September 24)

    3c. LACQUERS, CLEAR COATS, ELECTROPHORETIC TINTING, ANTI-TARNISH

22639. Preparing steel for clearcoat (December 18)
60900. Wire jewelry gets brittle during processing (December 15)

    3d. PAINTING, PRINTING, ADHESIVES AND OTHER ORGANIC COATINGS

32352. Rust, coating peel off, 3-piece cans open Q. (January 29)
23536. Spray finish of silver nitrate open Q. (January 24)
60918. Foam printing paste formulation open Q. (January 16)
07352. Sprayable iridescent paint? open Q. (January 4)
09585. Remove yellow chipped and faded coatings from copper jewelry (December 1)
24110. Kynar vs. Powder coating for boat T-tops (October 24)
23620. Do powder coated trellises need field painting? (October 17)
12199. Holiday detection in FBE Coatings on Pipe open Q. (October 16)
51696. Silky Smooth Rubberized plastic coating on pushbuttons open Q. (October 4)
39979. If We Use High Temperature Paints Will It Contaminate the Shop with Silicone? (September 21)
45803. Any Paint alternate to powder coating for Hospital beds? open Q. (September 18)


4. POST-TREATMENTS

    4a. CHEMICAL POST-TREATMENTS
    [CHROMATE CONVERSION COATINGS, RUST PREVENTATIVES, PATINAS]

33081. Blackening won't adhere to nickel electroform open Q. (January 24)
55350. What treatment should we give to pre-galvanized EMT conduit? (January 20)
02986. Chemical polishing of brass (January 15)
06507. Substitute for benzotriazole (January 8)
28837. Can we do chromate coating on a formed part made from E.G. CRS (September 12)
50709. Blue passivation turns into silvery colour after a week (September 10)

    4b. BAKING AND NON-CHEMICAL POST-TREATMENTS:
    [HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT AND DE-EMBRITTLEMENT, ANNEALING, WHISKERS, SOLDERING, REFLOWING]

00958. Soldering Problems with Tin Plated Brass open Q. (September 6)
07194. Can't Activate ZnNi Plating for Chromate after Baking open Q. (August 25)

    4c. STRIPPING, REWORKS, ETC.

41112. How to remove Powder Coating from aluminum (February 18)
06331. Stripping PVD coatings (January 3)
14893. Remove 10 microns of chrome from nickel sheet (December 26)
21416. RoHS compliant Stripping solution for Aluminium anodising? open Q. (November 14)
60838. Strip Melonite finish from stainless steel open Q. (September 14) 2nd Request


5. SUPPORTING ISSUES

    5a. ANALYSIS, LAB TECHNIQUE, Q.A., SALT SPRAY TESTING

26936. Analysis of zinc cyanide bath open Q. (February 19)
35573. How many salt spray test hours should zinc + yellow chromate survive? (February 9)
52466. How to know if cationic conductivity sensor is good or bad? open Q. (February 2)
42787. Titration procedure for oxalic acid anodizing bath open Q. (January 30)
30658. Can stainless medical parts be used after Copper Sulfate Test? (January 29)
44450. Determination of oil content in Acid degreasing bath open Q. (January 2)
09833. Sulfur Analysis in Nickel Plating by ICP-OES (December 26)
38140. Tri-acid etch analysis without thorium titration or specific-ion electrode? (December 26)
57020. Criteria to decide if component passed or failed Salt Spray Test (December 26)
58336. Titration for cadmium (December 19)
44293. Solution Analysis of Chromic Acid Process (December 10)
41654. Determine % Nitric Acid. Titration? Conversion factor? camera (October 17)
22800. Equivalence between ASTM B-117 vs. ISO 9227 NSS (October 6)
38853. Distinguish Between Electrodeposited Zinc and Cadmium Coating open Q. (October 4)
51596. EDX Q & A's open Q. (September 27)
11800. Ductility issue in acid copper plating (September 27)

     5b. WASTE & WASTEWATER TREATMENT, POLLUTION CONTROL

41896. High TDS problem in effluent treatment (February 2)
07245. Reducing COD in wastewater (January 16)
00674. Floating sludge in clarifier open Q. (January 10)
04405. Acid zinc plating waste treatment problems (January 2)
59691. Sodium Metabisulfite and its reaction with water (December 21)
07063. Recovery of copper from electroplating and etching solutions (December 14)
06852. Does sunlight break down cyanide? (December 4)
34002. Dangers/Toxicity of inhaling muriatic acid fumes (November 3)
40394. Cyanide waste water treatment with sodium hypochlorite (October 31)

    5c. SAFETY ISSUES, EMISSIONS, TOXICITY, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

09128. Copper sulfate in drinking water (February 14)
05941. SDS for plated parts and 'Finished' Materials? open Q. (February 8)
08535. Dangerous Welding Fumes from Galvanized Metal? open Q. (February 5)
37324. Allergic to rhodium open Q. (January 4)
10986. Swallowing Muriatic Acid open Q. (January 4)
19039. Does 1930's range have asbestos? camera open Q. (January 4)
55285. Could chrome strainer cause a health issue on a pot pipe? (December 23)
07164. Galvanized zinc shards in my eyes (November 24)
48653. The effects of cyanide, specifically on the organelles (November 10)
12215. Hexavalent chrome from high temperature working of high-chrome steel open Q. (November 9)
16433. Sick from welding galvanized steel open Q. (October 25)
44945. Is white dust from anodized aluminum harmful (September 18)

    5d. PLANT & PROCESS ENGINEERING, CONSTRUCTION

56947. Proper rectifier size for acid copper plating? (January 29)
60904. How is partial plating on Flatware done camera open Q. (December 17)
01340. Rinse water criteria for electroplating and anodizing (December 9)
08075. Is galvanized steel conductive enough for capacitive sensing? open Q. (November 11)
11675. Understanding and converting resistance, resistivity, conductance, and conductivity open Q. (October 25)
21092. Best Gas Burner for Powder Coating Oven open Q. (October 11)
17485. Tank Water Evaporation Estimates open Q. (September 24)

    5e. QUESTIONS ABOUT SOFTWARE, SPECS, BOOKS, INDUSTRY STATISTICS, ETC.

00097. Electroplating schools in Chennai? open Q. (February 18)
01819. Q&As on Teflon (PTFE) impregnated Hard Anodizing of Aluminum (February 16)
30521. Re-qualify expired paint catalyst (February 13)
50554. In ASTM A967 passivation, does 25% by vol. Nitric represent industrial (65%) or full strength Nitric? (December 20)
50259. Corrosion books and courses (December 7)
35197. What is Fe/Zn8/T4 plating? (December 4)
07666. Standards for Pregalvanized steel (November 25)
29701. Standards for brass plating appearance (November 13)
39060. Basic difference between AMS-2404 and ASTM B733 (High-Phos) Type-V? open Q. November 9, 2018
50746. ASTM A967 vs. AMS 2700? Which is the right passivation spec? open Q. (November 2)
33269. MIL-DTL-16232 Class 4 Questions open Q. (October 23)
26629. What does "MFZn8 Colour Cluster" mean? open Q. (October 20)
24664. Any code for copper pipe touching galvanized steel? open Q. (October 20)
22456. Need specification number for copper bright dip or cleaning open Q. (October 17)
18495. Electroplating Engineering Handbook (September 26)
00097. Training in Electroplating -- Where to Get? open Q. (September 15)


    5f. WORLD WIDE WORD OF THE WEEK

30536. What does "CL" mean in CL304 Cres & CL416 Cres? (August 21)

    5g. REACH, RoHS, EOL Directive; Cd, Pb, Cr+6, Nitric Acid & Phosphate Replacements

11462. Alternatives to trichloroethylene to clean or vapor degrease parts open Q. (February 18) vip
40050. BS EN 12329 vs. BS EN ISO 2081 open Q. (February 13)
60877. Does Wash Primer have Hexavalent Chrome? open Q. (October 20)
03113. Formula for Blue Chromate (Passivation) for Zinc Plating (October 4)

    5h. MOSTLY METALLURGY; Heat Treatment

28871. Hardening 304 & 316 stainless steel (Austenitic) (February 14)
37638. Hydrogen embrittlement in 4140 steel open Q. (February 9)
50226. Type 202 SS for nuts & grain storage? open Q. (January 16)
16553. What is the lower temperature limit for copper oxidation in ambient atmosphere? open Q. (January 10)
60910. Best way to weld/braze/join Silver and Stainless Steel camera open Q. (January 4)
00639. Pickling & passivation of Inox 303 open Q. (December 16)
45435. Removing magnetism from 304 Stainless Steel open Q. (December 16)
51470. Insufficient hardness achieved in heat treating C45 Material (November 3)
15010. Prevent scale build up during induction heating open Q. (October 17)
12545. How to Anneal Stainless Steel open Q. (September 14)

    5i. PRECIOUS METAL RECOVERY

34676. Best & easiest way to refine gold to get high purity open Q. (February 10)
57518. Melting a mirror to recover the silver open Q. (January 15)
22253. Refining of Palladium and making its salt open Q. (January 15)
55693. Scrap value of gold plated stainless flatware? open Q. (October 9)
33616. Gold Recovery for Dummies? (October 9)
60864. How to Recover Tin, Copper & Lead from their chlorides open Q. (October 2)
60814. Blackening of Diamonds after De-Stoning process in Aqua Regia camera (September 29)
06262. Silver refining problem: Removing copper from silver nitrate (September 21)
05198. Sodium Cyanide & Hydrogen Peroxide Destruction open Q. (September 18)


6. CONSUMER, RESEARCH, & STUDENT ISSUES

    6a. ARTISTS, HOBBYISTS, CAR BUFFS, HOME OWNERS, ETC.

32894. Pouring melted gold onto jewelry (February 19)
34482. Housekeepers ruined oil rubbed bronze finish on bath hardware open Q. (February 19)
35232. Clear coat sealer for cast iron camera (February 19)
33143. Repairing base of Stiffel lamp (February 17)
07423. Do I need latex primer between old galvanizing and new cold galvanizing compound? camera open Q. (February 13)
29492. Redoing gold plating on Honda Goldwing at home open Q. (February 12)
34618. Dishwasher discolored my silver plated flatware (February 10)
60863. Hardcoat plus anti-fouling paint for aluminum sailboat? camera open Q. (February 5)
11428. Where do the firebricks go in a wood burning stove (February 5)
02884. Aluminum for pool ladder? (February 5)
16063. Automotive fastener plating for restored car (January 30)
08204. Scratched and dull surface on stainless steel refrigerator door open Q. (January 29)
26032. Change brass coffee table to nickel or chrome look camera open Q. (January 28)
11740. Black Oxide coating for steel open Q. (January 28)
60927. Moldy paint on new aluminum boat open Q. (January 28)
01210. Simple method of black anodizing aluminum wanted open Q. (January 27)
00757. Restoring an old National Cash Register (January 27)
21724. How to remove scratches from stainless steel refrigerator doors? open Q. (January 27)
54096. Can gold be reclaimed from old ceramic pottery? (January 26)
34271. Identifying finish on old skeleton key camera (January 23)
02456. Copper plated bolts are rusting in a few weeks camera (January 22)
36471. Why does silver tea set remain slightly 'goldish/yellowish' despite endless polishing? open Q. (January 21)
34687. Jewelry plating problems for hobbyists, designers, startups (January 18)
41663. Blue Chromate Plating -- what is it? open Q. (January 17)
07137. Dirilyte gold-tone flatware: Cleaning / Polishing open Q. (January 16)
41066. Dishwasher ruined shiny aluminum -- How to fix it? (January 13)
03191. Power Supply for Hobbyist Zinc Plating open Q. (January 8)
30522. Clear coating to seal a rust finish on metal (January 7)
00085. Copper electroforms are spikey open Q. (January 6)
11628. Bluing didn't stop gun from rusting but transmission fluid did (January 4)
28788. Can I do gold plating to fill in an engraving? camera (January 4)
35145. Brass is pink from improper cleaning camera (January 4)
00003. Can real mag wheels be chrome plated? camera (January 3)
32894. Melting down old gold to make new jewelry (January 2)
53013. Cost of gold plating a few tiny items open Q. (December 27)
27167. Minimizing galvanic corrosion between 316SS and 6061 aluminum open Q. (December 26)
20395. Rhodium plating Q&A, woes & problems (December 18)
11385. Rust on polished antique French brass bed (December 16)
38448. Silver plating of wood open Q. (December 16)
04125. How do you plate plastic (December 14)
18493. Silver Plating Discoloration -- turning pink open Q. (December 14)
33774. Need gold plating over sterling silver? open Q. (December 12)
19047. Pitting in Magnalite cast aluminum cookware open Q. (December 12)
12146. Refinishing scratched stainless appliances open Q. (December 11)
30998. Want to make 80-20 alloy of gold and rhodium (December 9)
12938. Formula for sublimation coating (December 7)
24520. Anodizing a stainless watch band clasp to black (December 1)
07290. Dangers of heating pennies in a dutch oven (December 1)
10085. Help identifying what this spring was finished with camera open Q. (December 1)
60898. Need to make anchor locker in boat slippery (November 25)
00260. Tin plating of PCBs (November 20)
30442. What paint do I use on a metal mailbox? camera (November 15)
14247. Deep Chemical Etching in Aluminum open Q. (November 14)
43774. Restoring bleach damaged silver (November 14)
60891. Gold tone on 50 year old pocket watch case open Q. (November 12)
00161. Clear coating copper open Q.(November 12)
13168. Copper Kitchen Counters Q&A, Problems & Solutions open Q. (November 11)
01198. How to Darken Bronze (November 10)
17968. Removing oil-rubbed finish from bronze (November 10)
60858. Rust removal and polishing for Springfield 1911 A1 Stainless Steel (November 10)
00798. Elevators discolored by ammonia-based cleaning solution? (November 10)
15391. Stainless steel cooktop stain removal camera (October 22)
21436. Removing oxidation from bronze grave markers camera (November 10)
43290. Cleaning fingerprints off of copper sheeting open Q. (November 5)
26353. Cleaning gold that has been burned (November 3)
44569. Valuable finds at a garage sale (November 2)
38060. Silver charm won't polish up anymore (October 31)
37526. What gold substitute for motorbike parts? open Q. (October 29)
01298. Addition agents for D-I-Y bright nickel plating open Q. (October 28)
02662. Preserving heat coloring of copper when clear coating open Q. (October 23)
36025. Can Citristrip be used to remove zinc plating? (October 22)
23721. Best aluminum finish to hide scratches yet look complementary to SS? camera (October 20)
03606. Black Chrome Plating for Harley Bolts? (October 16)
14173. Painting a plastic (polyethylene) motorcycle gas tank open Q. (October 15)
59759. Undercoating on GM Cars in the 1950s open Q. (October 9)
28810. Looking for Sheffield "The Silver Solution" replating solution (October 7)
33780. Repaired ring doesn't match its mate open Q. (October 7)
12857. Coloring sterling silver for jewelry use open Q. (October 6)
10270. History of electroplating sterling jewelry with rhodium camera open Q. (October 4)
16945. Bad clearcoat ruined my Corten patina (October 4)

    6b. RESEARCH, THESIS TOPICS, UNIVERSITY & POST-GRAD STUDENTS

60929. Plating the ID of a mm ID stainless steel tube open Q. (January 29)
14061. Anodising rectifier and power requirements (December 2)
04477. AuCN Gold plating Solution Composition? open Q. (November 20)
60896. Theory of galvanising (November 20)
11853. Questions about surfactants open Q. (November 12)
12635. Copper electroplating troubleshooting: spiky crystalline trees camera (November 3)
60875. Why do nails in Kanchan arsenic filters sometimes NOT rust? camera open Q. (October 19)
46268. Gold plating from tetrachloroaurate [AuCl4] (October 16)
08792. The Kelite Bldg. in Los Angeles open Q. (October 4)

    6c. K-12 SCIENCE PROJECTS, GRAMMAR & HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT QUESTIONS

21771. HCl concentration effect on rust removal (January 17)
19022. Student copper plating issues (January 8)
17977. How to make bronze (December 7)
17976. Cleaning pennies for science project (December 1)
28759. Will nail polish prevent rust? (November 16)
11826. Black line on face from gold jewelry when iron is low open Q. (November 14)
32807. Bolts rusting science project (October 29)
26899. Can all metals rust? (October 18)
11608. Science project: Turning pennies gold color (actually brass) (October 14)
48959. How to set up steel wool corrosion test open Q. (September 13)

7. DRIFTED OFF FINISHING, BUT INTERESTING TO SOME OF US :-)

15190. Tree stump killer open Q. (February 18)
53795. Want a chemical that heats up when mixed with water open Q. (February 17)
25152. Bending thinwall aluminum tubing without damage? (February 16)
52212. Cleaning blackened bank notes (February 9)
44362. Swallowed Sodium Hypochlorite during root canal open Q. (February 9)
20033. Did my dog discover that my fireplace stone contains gold? (February 6)
14057. Mill Scale Uses and Applications (February 5)
17903. Tile contractor's muriatic acid corroded our stainless steel appliances camera (January 30)
14122. Re-anodizing Aluminum (January 26)
17560. Bottle cap table hopelessly warped camera (January 26)
29544. Washer machine drain hose overflows open Q. (January 25)
54552. Why Don't Electric Fences Kill Us? (January 24)
22201. Killing roots with copper sulphate camera (January 21)
60920. Glazed and polished porcelain tiles open Q. (January 20)
49464. Cleaning up cement dust from sanding of concrete floor (January 13)
52949. Neighbor burning toxic garbage (December 26)
22201. Will copper sulfate hurt clay drain pipe? open Q. (December 20)
11030. Iridium Copper Metal which Pulls Rice and De-Colors It (December 4)
14167. Electrode polarization and cathodic protection of structures in seawater open Q. (December 4)
23922. Musty smell in basement and throughout entire house (November 29)
09462. How to make HF from ABF open Q. (November 6)
31934. Was Silver Rationed in WWII? (November 2)
38657. Effect of mill scale on refractories open Q. (November 1)
33151. How is this gold attracted by a magnet in Russia? video (October 28)
13807. Need very high friction non-pneumatic wheel coating for Bonneville Salt Flats car open Q. (October 25)
18029. Problems in White phenyl Manufacturing open Q. (October 24)
13277. Copper for natural gas lines? Or steel, plastic, CSST, etc. (October 23)
24359. Barber Chair Restoration Q&A's and Successes open Q. (October 20)
32413. Need sweet spirits of nitre open Q. (October 16)
13393. Food-safe coating for sea shells? (October 5)

legend:

(    )= Date in parentheses is most recent posting on the thread
open Q.= Thread currently ends with a question or the editor-curator's inconclusive musings
opinion!= Comments may raise blood pressure
silly :-)= For those with a sense of humor
video= Contains embedded video
camera= The inquiry has photos / graphics
pdf= Contains embedded pdf
vip= Inquirer often helps others, so especially deserves our help
spanish= Thread is partially in Spanish

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