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Categories
 Process: 0. Corrosion. Compatibility, Choosing a Finish
 Preparation: 1a. Mechanical Prep 1b. Chemical Pretreatments 1c. Masking & Racking
 Inorganic Finishing: 2a. Stainless Steel & Titanium Processing 2b. Anodizing & Light Metals 2c. Electroplating & Electroforming
2d. Electroless Plating 2e. PVD, CVD, Vacuum Processes 2f. Galvanizing, Hot Dipping
2g. Black Oxide, Bluing, Coloring 2h. Other Inorganic Finishing Processes
 Organic Finishing: 3a. Electropainting, Autophoretic 3b. Powder Coating 3c. Lacquers, Clearcoats
3d. Painting, Printing, Adhesives, Organic Coatings
 Post-treatments: 4a. Chemical Post-treatments 4b. Baking & Non-chemical Post-treatments 4c. Stripping, Reworks, etc.
 Supporting Issues: 5a. Analysis, Lab Technique, QA/QC 5b. Water, Wastewater, Pollution 5c. Safety, Emissions, Toxicity
5d. Plant & Process Engineering 5e. Software, Specs, Books, Stats 5f. World Wide Word Of The Week
5g. REACH, RoHS, E-O-L, etc. 5h. Mostly metallurgy 5i. Precious Metal Recovery
 Non-industrial: 6a. Hobbyists, Enthusiasts, Artists 6b. Research, Thesis work 6c. K-12 Science Projects, Elementary to High School
 Not Metal Finishing: 7. Off Topic, but Interesting

0. CORROSION, COMPATIBILITY, CHOOSING A FINISH . . .

34271i What is this finish? open Q. (January 18)

61193i Building a scintillator. How to get a bright/reflective surface? (January 13)

61185-1t Plating/Coating/Finishing Metal Charms (December 13)

30444i Affordable copper infrared reflector high temperature transparent coating (November 30)

31503i Galvanic compatible material mating to Aluminum and Nickel (November 30)

What base/substrate material for gold plated electrodes? (November 21)

7984i What spring material is resistant to 30% HCl? (November 14)

Establishing a standard for matte black finish (November 11)

7352i Want rainbow iridescent coating open Q. (November 10)

10157-1bi Nitrile Rubber not bonding properly to mild steel pipe open Q. (November 8)

61144i Need zinc-gold plating on stainless steel RFQ (November 3)

37526i Want gold colored finishes without use of gold (October 29)

What happens to stainless spring if attached to part while it's zinc plated? open Q. (October 29)


1. PREPARATION . . .

1a. MECHANICAL PREP
[GRINDING, POLISHING, VIBRATORY FINISHING, BUFFING, HONING]

Looking for linear grinding/finishing tool practical for non-production use open Q. (January 16)

How to Mirror Finish Alumina Ceramics open Q. (January 15)

44848-1i Ra vs. Rz: Ra keeps growing, Rz stays the same? (January 2)

Deburring of Aluminum components (November 22)

45366i Polishing Stainless Steel to a Mirror Finish (November 20)

1b. PRETREATMENTS
[CLEANING, PICKLING, ETCHING, PHOSPHATIZING, ACTIVATION]

Want good salt spray hours from phosphating without oil open Q. (January 14)

Dip vs. Spray Phosphating (January 11)

Carbon Smut Problems in Plating; Pretreatment for Adhesion (December 21)

Cleaning gold that has been burned open Q. (December 14)

Chemical removal of heat treating scale and oxides open Q. (December 7)

Rinsing after Stainless Steel Passivation (December 4)

Formulation or Citric or Sulfamic acid pickling solution for 12L14? (December 2)

Pretreatment for ZnTi alloy. 95% Zn, 5% Ti open Q. (November 29)

Manganese phosphating or black oxide on S7 tool steel & gun parts (November 12)

Unusual reaction of Bohler K390 steel to phosphoric acid open Q. (November 11)

Pickling and Passivating of Welded Carbon Steel Pipes (November 6)

718 nickel parts discolor when pickled after EDM (November 6)

1c. MASKING, RACKING, TAPING, PLUGGING, PHOTOSENSITIVE MASKS

61191-2i Masking for Silver Plating Inside Hollow Aluminum Cylinders (January 19)

Masking of keyways when anodizing & electroplating (November 27)


2. INORGANIC FINISHING PROCESSES . . .

2a. STAINLESS STEEL & TITANIUM PROCESSING

Room temperature ("cold") passivation of stainless steel (January 15)

Anodizing of titanium with stainless steel attached (December 31)

44070-1i Need durable black coating for stainless steel (December 21)

Do I have to passivate after mag particle inspection? (December 10)

2963-1i Acids for electropolishing stainless steel (December 9)

Sodium Dichromate passivation (ASTM A967) Q&As (November 24)

Baffling Citric Acid passivation bath issue open Q. (November 17) vip

2b. ANODIZING AND LIGHT METAL TREATMENTS (Aluminum, Magnesium)

14229i Brown discoloration after clear anodizing (January 20)

Aluminum piping underground. How to do corrosion protection? (January 11)

Dissolved Aluminum in Anodizing bath -- How Much to Have, How to Analyze/Titrate, How to Correct/Adjust It (January 10)

61025i High Dielectric Anodizing of Aluminum (January 6)

19266i Galvanic potential of aluminum after conversion coating (January 4)

Aluminum anodizing: Constant current vs. controlling the voltage open Q. (December 28)

Anodizing vs. e-coating of aluminum (December 22)

46468i Anodizing 7075 & 7xxx aluminum. Problems & Solutions, Q&A's open Q. (December 22)

Which coating for magnesium parts to protect against corrosion? open Q. (December 18)

Adding sulfuric acid additions while anodizing (December 11)

Water stain prevention for aluminum open Q. (December 11)

Salt Spray Test after Hard Anodising (December 9)

Zincate doesn't stick to aluminum bus bar from some suppliers (December 9)

Energy savings in high temperature Type II anodizing (December 5)

61176i Shot Blast Aluminum Casting for Dark Color (December 2)

18655i Beadblasted aluminium dark shadows when anodised (December 2)

Sharp edges not anodising and dyeing (November 25)

Brushed, glossy anodizing on 70's & 80's HiFi Front Panels? open Q. (November 22)

Burning problem in Hard Anodizing of Aluminum open Q. (November 21)

Applications for room-temperature hard anodizing open Q. (November 20)

Two new polymer-based seals for anodized Aluminum: Non-Hazardous, No metals open Q. (November 19)

39479i Sulfuric Anodized 2024 Al turning Pink open Q. (November 19)

Non nitric acid baths for bright dipping aluminum open Q. (November 14)

PVDF over 25 micron anodising open Q. (November 10)

12445i Sulfuric Acid Anodizing Type IIB procedure & problems (November 10)

Aluminum cathodes for anodizing tanks (November 6)

Parameters for Pulse Hardcoat Anodizing 2xxx Aluminum (November 1)

2c. ELECTROPLATING and ELECTROFORMING

58478i Tin-Silver Electroplating over Copper Pillar Bump open Q. (January 20)

11191i Manufacturing Process of Nickel Sulphate and Nickel Chloride (January 20)

44964i Black Nickel Bath Formula for Barrel Plating (January 18)

Emissivity value for Cadmium plated steel and Zinc Plated Steel open Q. (January 16)

White Patches in Trivalent Chrome Plating open Q. (January 15)

Can lack of ZnCl2 additions cause chloride zinc roughness? open Q. (January 12)

Hard Chrome Plating Additives? HEEF Advantages? MSA? (January 12)

How thick is the chromate on zinc-nickel plating? open Q. (January 11)

How to do brass plating on stainless steel (January 11)

How much voltage and amperage for barrel acid zinc plating? open Q. (January 11)

How did zinc plating pass 550-hour salt spray? open Q. (January 8)

9737i Need to touch up Cadmium plate (January 6)

Nickel plating is coming out black open Q. (December 31)

44143i Chrome plated hydraulic cylinder rods have pits open Q. (December 31)

Black spots on zinc plated parts with trivalent chromate open Q. (December 26)

Electroplating with Brass (Electrodeposition of Brass) (December 26)

Water marks in alkaline zinc plating open Q. (December 22)

Thiourea and Polyethylene Glycol for acid copper plating additives (December 23)

Hard Chrome Plating on Aluminum Q&A;s, Problems & Solutions (December 21)

33774i Stain Issues Gold Plating 3 Microns on Sterling Silver open Q. (December 21)

Recommended tin plating thickness on bus bars? open Q. (December 16)

Gold plating of aluminum open Q. (December 15)

Gold plate on brass with pen/brush plater? open Q. (December 14)

Bronze Plating for Watch Components RFQ (December 14)

Iron contamination in zinc-nickel plating tank open Q. (December 13)

Nickel Contamination of Gold Bath without a known source open Q. (December 11)

Will silver dissolve in cyanide without rectifier current? open Q. (December 7)

Gold plated aluminum blisters when baked open Q. (December 7)

Nickel plating on leaded steel bubbles at soldering temperature (December 5)

Plating chrome on a nickel substrate open Q. (December 3)

Peel off in hard chrome plating after chemical additions open Q. (December 2)

Process detail for electroplating diamond coating RFQ (November 30)

52602i Zinc plating defects (Quality of metal finishing) open Q. (November 28)

Non-Uniform Nickel Plating Deposit (November 28)

Brighteners for Gold Plating open Q. (November 28)

Adhesion issue between electroless nickel and cyanide silver plating open Q. (November 28)

Turn iron into gold color (November 27)

Need chromate-based anti-tarnish for silver plating RFQ (November 25)

Zinc Plating with Black Passivation comes off during handling (November 24)

44598i Chromate Rubs Off open Q. (November 24)

17286i Best electrically conductive plating for mild steel rodent traps? (November 24)

Problem Dissolving Aluminum Mandrel after Electroforming on It (November 24)

16200i Zinc plating on Zamak blisters & peels open Q. (November 22)

What causes blistering of nickel plated parts? (November 19)

41922i Nickel plating white patches and dullness (November 19)

23416i How to achieve iridescent finish on zinc plated steel (November 18)

Black chromate on cadmium rubs right off open Q.(November 12)

Q&A: Tin plated parts turn yellowish (November 10)

Reducing chloride concentration in acid copper bath open Q. (November 9)

Shelf Life of Tin Electroplate open Q. (November 2)

2d. ELECTROLESS PLATING, PLATING ON PLASTICS, IMMERSION PLATING, CHROME-LOOK SPRAYS, LIQUID METAL COATINGS

Black Stain in blind & threaded holes of electroless nickel plating (January 15)

Mid Electroless nickel on Brass against an 6000 series Aluminium? open Q. (January 13)

Solder turns black and takes no Electroless Nickel open Q. (December 7)

Difference in meaning between: ENIG vs Immersion Gold vs Chemical Gold (December 7)

39992i Chrome plating peels off of electroless nickel (November 25)

Barrel plating on plastics: EN comes off in copper plating step open Q. (November 24)

Decomposition/Plate-out of Electroless Nickel Plating Bath (November 20)

Palladium activation for electroless nickel process open Q. (November 19)

Problem doing EN on stainless with only non-magnetic plating open Q. (November 19)

36730i White Stains and Unplated areas in EN Plating open Q. (November 16)

2e. PVD, CVD, ION IMPLANTATION, VACUUM PROCESSES

PVD coating on SS wire (August 20)

How to get white color with PVD? open Q. (July 30)

2f. GALVANIZING, ALUMINIZING, HOT TIN DIPPING

52073i Problems & solutions in continuous strip & wire galvanizing open Q. (December 19)

61180i Roughness in Hot Dip Galvanizing Process (December 14)

Pre-Galvanized Sheet vs. Post-Galvanized Components (November 30)

23115i Re-galvanizing Worn or Partially Galvanized Steel open Q. (November 27)

Why can't we add pure aluminum to galvanizing kettle? (November 27)

2g. BLACK OXIDE, BLUING, COLORING, PATINATING, NITRIDING

Black oxide on steel comes out gray open Q. (January 12)

Does black oxide add hardness? (January 11)

Best Alternative to Black Oxide Finishing open Q. (January 5)

Black oxided stainless fails salt spray, but supplier says it passed when supplied open Q. (November 2)

How to give steel a dull appearance open Q. (November 1)

2h. OTHER INORGANIC FINISHING: Mechanical Plating, QPQ, Metal Spray, Zinc-rich Dip-Spin Coatings, Sherardizing, etc.

Thermal Diffusion Coating Process (September 14)

Anodizing Tungsten Carbide for Electrical Insulation open Q. (July 23)


3. ORGANIC FINISHING PROCESSES . . .

3a. ELECTROPAINT PRIMING, AUTOPHORETIC COATINGS

32574i Defects in CED Coating open Q. (December 28)

57561i CED coating has pinholes open Q. (December 22)

CED Paint conductivity is dropping open Q. (November 12)

3b. POWDER COATING

Powder coating reclaim -- does anybody take recycled waste powder? (January 15)

Aqua Blasting before Powder Coating open Q. (January 8)

1255i How to Powder Coat Plastics (Nylon, ABS, Polycarbonate, Composites) open Q. (December 30)

Candy color powder looks great on chrome plating but not on imitation chrome powder open Q. (December 17)

Is it necessary to wash paintlok prior to powder coating? open Q. (December 10)

Salt spray life of powder coating mild steel sheet after shot blasting surface treatment (November 27)

Powder coating onto zinc-iron plating open Q. (November 11)

3c. LACQUERS, CLEAR COATS, ELECTROPHORETIC TINTING, ANTI-TARNISH

30522i Clear coating to seal a rust patina finish on metal (December 14)

Polymer Coating of Sterling Silver as an Anti-tarnish Treatment open Q. (October 10)

3d. PAINTING, PRINTING, ADHESIVES AND OTHER ORGANIC COATINGS

23245i Painting of flexible polyurethane and vinyl objects open Q. (November 10)

Poor adhesion of paint to aluminum open Q. (August 23)


4. POST-TREATMENTS

4a. CHEMICAL POST-TREATMENTS
[CHROMATE CONVERSION COATINGS, RUST PREVENTATIVES, PATINAS, COLORIZING]

Paint is peeling from chromated zinc plating (July 26)

47325i Zinc plating with blue chromate has fat brown stripe (June 19)

4b. BAKING AND NON-CHEMICAL POST-TREATMENTS:
[HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT AND DE-EMBRITTLEMENT, ANNEALING, WHISKERS, SOLDERING, REFLOWING]

Solderability of tin plate containing intermetallic compounds (November 19)

Hydrogen embrittlement relief is softening our carburized parts open Q. (October 7)

4c. STRIPPING, REWORKS, ETC.

Removing TiN (Titanium Nitride) coatings with Oxiclean open Q. (December 23)

Stripping/removing cadmium plating safely open Q. (December 17)

Issues Stripping Cadmium with Ammonium Nitrate (December 2)


5. SUPPORTING ISSUES

5a. ANALYSIS, LAB TECHNIQUE, Q.A., SALT SPRAY TESTING

18375i Measuring cadmium plating thickness magnetically open Q. (January 18)

60442i Copper vs. stainless "Stress Tabs" for Electroless Nickel open Q. (January 16)

Salt Spray vs. Humidity Test for Passivated Stainless Steel? open Q. (January 16)

How to calibrate a pH meter for 0.65 and 1.3 pH range (January 10)

In-house lab setup for plating & anodizing shop open Q. (December 31)

Zinc plating didn't rust in salt spray test, but got thinner open Q. (November 24)

Anodizing I.D. (internal diameter) of hollow aluminum tubing (November 20)

Analysis of HF in Mixed Acid Baths (November 19)

Analysis of metals and acids in Electropolishing Baths for stainless steel open Q. (November 6)

5b. WASTE & WASTEWATER TREATMENT, POLLUTION CONTROL

Wastewater treatment issue: Turbidity problems open Q. (January 19)

Waste Water Treatment of Silica top coats open Q. (January 14)

Removing black from anodizing dye rinse open Q. (December 10)

Alternative uses for high TDS waste from RO system? vip open Q. (December 7)

Need photo of chrome tank with mist suppressant please open Q. (November 9)

5c. SAFETY ISSUES, EMISSIONS, TOXICITY, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

47195i Toxic Lead and chrome in coffee makers and espresso machines? open Q. (January 18)

Will heated copper pipe emit cyanide gas or other toxins? (December 4)

Chromium plated teas strainer scares me ... a lot (November 30)

37601i Can I safely cook my Turkey in galvanized trash can? (November 30)

Dishwasher repaired with zinc plated washers (November 12)

5d. PLANT & PROCESS ENGINEERING, CONSTRUCTION

Cleaning/leaching a plating tank (January 19)

7378i Corroded Titanium Anode Baskets in Plating Tank (January 14)

Scale Buildup in Drain Lines of black oxide and aluminum etch open Q. (January 10)

Barrel plating : long workpiece / nail/spike/screw open Q. (December 22)

Uses for Graphite Anodes? (December 2)

Push manifold for open surface tanks (plating shop) (November 5)

5e. QUESTIONS ABOUT SOFTWARE, SPECS, BOOKS, EDUCATION, INDUSTRY STATS, ETC.

Is Nickel Strike allowed before Cadmium plating heat treated bearing steel? (January 14)

18596i Where to find Dr. Alec Watson's paper on Nickel Sulphamate plating (January 12)

Anodized Aluminum Coating Weight Testing ASTM B137 open Q. (January 8)

9511i Metal Finishing Guidebook -- How to Get It? (November 23)

Stress relief & de-embrittlement baking when hardness of parts varies? open Q. (November 19)

5f. W...W...W...WORD OF THE WEEK

What does Surface Current Density mean? (July 30)

What is this mystery "electroplating over paint" process? (July 24)

5g. REACH, RoHS, EOL Directives; and Replacements for Cd, Pb, Cr+6, Nitric Acid & Phosphate Replacements

Substitute for nitric acid to strip zincate off aluminum open Q. (December 30) 2nd Request

Substitute for chrome plating open Q. (December 26)

Understanding MIL-C-5541 Type 1 Class 1A & 3, and Type 2 Class 1a & 3 (December 15)

5h. MOSTLY METALLURGY; Heat Treatment

Can Powder Coating Affect Heat Treatment or Weaken Aluminum? open Q. (January 12)

Hardening EN8 & EN9 parts open Q. (December 21)

Low temperature impact on 304L permeability open Q. (December 1)

Aluminum temper T6 vs. T66 open Q. (November 6)

5i. PRECIOUS METAL RECOVERY

Separate gold, silver, and platinum from each other open Q. (October 22)

Melt old gold to make new jewelry open Q. (September 26)


6. CONSUMER, RESEARCH, & STUDENT ISSUES

6a. ARTISTS, HOBBYISTS, CAR BUFFS, HOME OWNERS, ETC.

36481i How to fix pewter that turned gold color open Q. (January 20)

42416i Zincate formulas for plating on aluminum open Q. (January 20)

42007i Can I rubber line a bottle cooler? (January 20)

35145i Help, my yellow brass clock turned pink (January 18)

Lacquering / clear coating a Brass Bed (January 18)

2654i Home Anodizing (January 18)

Boiling water seal for home anodizing? open Q. (January 18)

High strength fastener Q&A's, Issues & Answers open Q. (January 16)

2238i Dyed Anodizing Color Matching Q&A, Problems & Solutions open Q. (January 15)

Paint/powder coat Aluminum Wheelchair Q&A's (January 14)

Stripping a faucet down to raw brass open Q. (January 13)

49168i How to clean Birds in Flight metal sculpture open Q. (January 13)

Pre-coating for sublimation transfers onto ceramic (January 11)

How to electroplate Aluminum onto Aluminum (January 10)

Yellow Chromate Adhesion Problem (January 6)

Rash from Ring? Fixed by Boiling in Vinegar & Peroxide! (January 5)

Demi-fine gold plating of jewelry open Q. (January 5)

50455i Restoring the dark brown finish to copper sinks (January 4)

19039i Cast Iron Cook Stoves: Where to find parts and how to restore open Q. (January 4)

How to Blue / Blacken Brass open Q. (January 3)

CLR ruined my baking pan (December 31)

Re-anodizing Aluminum which has been previously anodized open Q. (December 30)

Bathroom faucets corrode away from the inside (December 22)

Confused about "acid test" for silver and other precious metals open Q. (December 21)

34314i Electrolytic cleaning plates for silver: Q&A (December 19)

34687i Jewelry plating problems for hobbyists, designers, startups open Q. (December 18)

61189i What finish is on this antique turn signal actuator? (December 16)

Want to do matte silver finish "french dead silvering" on brass clock dial open Q. (December 15)

How to Clean Brass and Prevent Tarnishing open Q. (December 15)

Preserving heat coloring of copper when clear coating (December 15)

Q&A's about 'Memory Wire' in Jewelry (December 15)

Hardness of black chrome finish for handgun? open Q. (December 10)

8937i How to refinish cast iron and cast bronze fireplace surrounds open Q. (December 10)

How to clean/restore old brass or bronze portholes open Q. (December 9)

Annealing mixed metal jewelry (copper & silver) open Q. (December 7)

Can you plate over yellow zinc with clear/silver? (December 7)

Remove rust spots from manganese phosphate (December 5)

11428i Restoring rusty cast iron wood stove, painting it (December 4)

Teak oil dries unevenly -- some spots are too dry (December 1)

6b. RESEARCH, THESIS TOPICS, UNIVERSITY & POST-GRAD STUDENTS

Electroforming of Copper Foil open Q. (January 10)

Teflon coating of stainless steel open Q. (January 2)

Want High Residual Stress in Electroless Nickel (December 2)

Selective passivation of Iridium edges open Q. (November 28)

6c. K-12 SCIENCE PROJECTS, GRAMMAR & HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT QUESTIONS

Which Beverage cleans pennies best? (December 15)

Electroplating copper from copper sulfate bath for science project (December 7)


7. DRIFTED OFF FINISHING, BUT INTERESTING TO SOME OF US :-)

32107i Fix frozen zipper stuck from salt spray or corrosion (January 12)

Mill Scale Uses and Applications open Q. (January 5)

33143i Can't disassemble Stiffel lamp socket open Q. (January 2)

10153i Residential Elevators Parts and Maintenance open Q. (December 30)

Zinc oxide production by French process open Q. (December 24)

18029i Problems in White phenyl Manufacturing open Q. (November 21)

57929i Formula for electroless nickel plating solution open Q. (November 19)

legend:
(    )= Date in parentheses is most recent posting on the thread
open Q.= Thread currently ends with a question, or the response leaves the question partially unanswered
RFQ= This posting is a combination technical question and RFQ
opinion!= Comments may raise blood pressure
silly :-)= For those with a sense of humor
video= Contains embedded video
camera= The inquiry has photos / graphics
pdf= Contains embedded pdf
vip= Inquirer often helps others, so especially deserves our help
spanish= Thread is partially in Spanish

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