Updated Saturday, November 17 at 1:15 AM New York City time.

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Current Topics:

Category
 Process: 0. Corrosion. Compatibility, Choosing a Finish
 Preparation: 1a. Mechanical Prep 1b. Chemical Pretreatments 1c. Masking & Racking
 Inorganic Finishing: 2a. Anodizing & Light Metals 2b. Electroplating & Electroforming 2c. Electroless Plating
2d. PVD, CVD, Vacuum Processes 2e. Galvanizing, Hot Dipping 2f. Black Oxide, Bluing, Coloring
2g. Other Inorganic Finishing Processes
 Organic Finishing: 3a. Electropainting, Autophoretic 3b. Powder Coating 3c. Lacquers, Clearcoats
3d. Painting, Printing, Adhesives, Organic Coatings
 Post-treatments: 4a. Chemical Post-treatments 4b. Baking & Non-chemical Post-treatments 4c. Stripping, Reworks, etc.
 Supporting Issues: 5a. Analysis, Lab Technique, QA/QC 5b. Water, Wastewater, Pollution 5c. Safety, Emissions, Toxicity
5d. Plant & Process Engineering 5e. Software, Specs, Books, Stats 5f. World Wide Word Of The Week
5g. REACH, RoHS, E-O-L, etc. 5h. Mostly metallurgy 5i. Precious Metal Recovery
 Non-industrial: 6a. Hobbyists, Enthusiasts, Artists 6b. Research, Thesis work 6c. K-12 Science Projects, Elementary to High School
 Not Metal Finishing: 7. Off Topic, but Interesting

0. CORROSION, COMPATIBILITY, CHOOSING A FINISH . . .

24520. Anodizing of stainless steel vs. other coloring methods open Q. (October 29)
04144. What screw material for galvanized electrical boxes on bridge? open Q. (October 10)
46556. Coating stainless barware for corrosion resistance (October 7)
49642. Anodizing or Chrome Plating? Need expert help open Q. (September 26)
60766. Trivalent chromate on bare steel (September 24)
30608. Reaction between zinc wall cladding and aluminium rivets (September 21)
33735. Need a long lasting low COF coating for aluminum (September 12)
07897. Galvanic compatibility of aluminum and copper (September 10)
22849. Coating the inside of a stainless nut to prevent galling camera (September 7) vip
51622. Stainless railings stained by concrete open Q. (August 12)
60819. Aluminum Pool Track Bonding (August 11)
48391. Compatibility of aluminum and galvanized steel open Q. (August 6)
60810. Corrosion of SAPH440 steel packed in VCI bags open Q. (July 31)
60806. Rebar suffering black rust or iron sulfide? camera (July 26)
27702. Silver corrosion from zinc based additives in lubricants (ZDDP) open Q. (July 25)
23629. Plating Methods Cost Comparison (July 22)
35528. Substituting bright zinc plating for cadmium on studbolts (July 16)
43730. Electrolysis between stainless steel and steel (July 6)


1. PREPARATION . . .

    1a. MECHANICAL PREP
    [GRINDING, POLISHING, VIBRATORY FINISHING, BUFFING, HONING]

53224. Steel blasting for shiny result open Q. (November 17)
60892. Vibratory finishing leaves smut on stainless steel (November 15)
45366. How to get a good polish on a stainless weldment camera open Q. (October 17)
52636. Vibratory finishing of steel open Q. (September 12)
05629. Vibratory polishing of gold (September 10)
05396. Ra surface finish -- what does it actually mean? (September 10)
28824. Belt Grinding of HVOF coatings (September 7)
10620. Carbon steel media burnishing (August 27) vip
22747. Aluminum Impregnation in Stainless Steel? - Glass Media Blasting open Q. (August 25)
12866. Mill finish vs. 180-grit finish (July 14)

    1b. PRETREATMENTS
    [PICKLING, PASSIVATION, PHOSPHATIZING, CLEANING, ELECTROPOLISHING, ACTIVATION]

00073. Problems with zinc phosphating machined areas on martensitic material (November 16)
14221.
Surface Activation for Phosphating, Grain Size Issues (November 13)
60890. How to remove burn marks off carbide? open Q. (November 12)
10242. Alternative to pickling open Q. (November 6)
12028. Pickling of Steel Q&A's (November 5)
20185. Best detergent for electrolytic cleaning? (October 22)
04561. Electropolishing of molydenum and its alloys open Q. (October 17)
35943. Inco 625 Parts Get White Spots on Some Surfaces after Chemical Etching camera open Q. (October 17)
53135. Need details of "the 7-tank phosphating process" open Q. (October 14)
11573. Cleaning oil & grease from steel surface (October 7)
39277. HCl pickling process (October 2)
26380. Etching acid for removing possible oxide layer on shot-peened IN718 open Q. (September 27)
34589. Iron spray Phosphating blue finish (September 18)
25146. Chrome plating gets stained by passivation chemicals (September 14)
32384. How many microns should phosphate coatings be, and how to check? (September 11)
00779. Copper Polish Stains Hands Black open Q. (September 2)
34052. Black manganese phosphating coating has black and gray dots camera (August 24)
04344. Defoaming agent for degreaser tank open Q. (August 23)
13830. Radiusing by tumble processing open Q. (August 22)
60823. Precision Etching for 316L watch parts camera open Q. (August 17)
13109. Electropolishing a brazed stainless 304L/copper 101 part in same bath? open Q. (August 8)
11047. Electropolishing S.G. drops in summer open Q. (July 25)
27078. Stainless Steel 304 Electropolishing issues camera open Q. (July 23)
10166. Pickling codes for A312 Stainless Steel (July 22)
60796. 304 Stainless Passivation for Powdered Medical Food Storage (July 20)
01655. Chemical polishing of stainless steel open Q. (July 19)
20720. Zinc phosphating problem: very low pH in activation bath open Q. (July 18)
28409. Etching a pattern in large stainless sheet sheet open Q. (July 13)
15480. Maximum temperatures for phosphate coatings (July 13)
37610. Zirconium oxide following phosphoric acid pickling open Q. (July 10)
12132. Passivating welded stainless steel (July 10)
47682. Easiness of descaling stints open Q. (July 4)
40321. Iron phosphate formula to aid powder coating adhesion open Q. (July 3)

    1c. MASKING, RACKING, TAPING, PLUGGING, PHOTOSENSITIVE MASKS

58316. Liquid masking for anodizing (June 27)
60780. Permanent masking for plastic plating open Q. (June 27)


2. INORGANIC FINISHING PROCESSES . . .

    2a. ANODIZING AND LIGHT METAL TREATMENTS (Aluminum, Magnesium, Titanium)

17722. Will ultrasonic cleaning remove trivalent chromate? (November 17)
60895. Black spots on electro-gold colored anodized aluminum open Q. (November 17)
41155. Starting up Boric-Sulfuric anodizing open Q. (November 16)
14352. Etch grain problem open Q. camera (November 15)
25258. Sodium dichromate seal tank - pH adjustment open Q. (November 12)
35677. Protecting non aluminum metals when anodizing (November 9)
44778. Cloudy stained hardcoat anodize camera (November 7)
60879. Mill spots and discoloration in 6063 dark anodize camera (November 6)
12997. Why Are Anodized Aluminum Screen Frames Not Available? (November 6)
55827. Is touch-up allowed in Mil-A-8625? open Q. (November 6)
00224. Inorganic gold dyes for anodized aluminum (FAO / ferric ammonium oxalate) open Q. (November 1)
60881. Titanium anodizing contamination problems (October 30)
40535. Will hardcoating of 7075 Aluminum come out Gold colored? (October 30)
19342. Electroless procedure for aluminium plating in a brass color (October 29)
45421. Black spots/streaks in anodized aluminium camera (October 25)
11260. What is ammonium bifluoride and when should it be used (October 23)
14441. White spots on black dyed sulfuric anodizing with hot water seal (October 22)
48150. Shade Variation in Hard Anodised Aluminium camera (October 20)
32786. Prevention of white rust in aluminum castings open Q. (October 20)
55057. Uniformity problems in vertical aluminium anodizing open Q. (October 17)
60828. Trickle Charge to Protect Aluminum Cathode for Anodize open Q. (October 16)
04024. 'Never dump' processes for electropolishing aluminum? open Q. (October 16)
30736. Room Temperature Acid Brightener for Aluminum open Q. (October 14)
00270. Clear conductive coating for ADC12 that offers 300 hours salt spray (October 11)
02528. Aluminum Pretreatment: 3-step Iron Phosphate vs. Chromate Conversion Coating (October 6)
04558. MIL-C-5541 / MIL-DTL-5541 Class 1a vs. Class 3 Chromate Conversion Coatings (October 4)
53050. Why does bare aluminum continue to corrode? (October 4)
02469. Hard Anodizing MIC-6 open Q. (October 2) 2nd Request
44929. High temperature color anodize (September 29)
11686. Formulas for chromating of aluminum (September 26)
01819. Q&As on Teflon (PTFE) impregnated Hard Anodizing of Aluminum open Q. (September 25)
14229. Clear anodizing, how to get the best clarity (September 21)
46468. Prep of aluminium 7108 before anodizing open Q. (September 18)
03678. Precision optics - aluminum race with sliding steel sphere (September 17)
60839.Can we buy bright aluminum plate? open Q. (September 12)
04343. Plating 6061 Aluminum for sea water submersion open Q. (September 12)
06903. Anodizing for Electrical Resistance / Dielectric (September 12)
24127. Yellow Spot/Stain on ADC12 Die Casting Part camera open Q. (September 8)
33933. Anodise encroachment into chromated area (September 5)
23085. Streaking problems in anodizing extrusions camera open Q. (September 3)
45313. Copper builds up in de-smut/de-oxidizer open Q. (August 28)
54298. Can you clear anodize over color anodizing to make it darker? (August 27)
10807. ASTM-B117 Salt Spray test on aluminum -- how long? (August 25)
60812. Inside of hollow anodized aluminum profile has white dots camera (August 21)
01263. Interference color anodizing of aluminum and two-step (electrolytic) coloring open Q. (August 19)
45728. Alodine 1200S Problem: Powdery Condition open Q. (August 17)
24066. Importance of nickel acetate in anodize sealing (August 6)
60816. Titanium grade for fasteners for aluminum anodizing open Q. (August 6)
06733. Concentration of phos/nitric acid in bright dip for aluminum? open Q. (August 6)
50478. Powdery issue on Al-2024 with sulphuric acid anodized and dichromate seal camera (August 1)
10002. Cleaning fingerprints from conversion coated aluminum open Q. (July 31)
00937. Anodizing titanium alloys in gold and other colors open Q. (July 25)
28128. MIL-A-8625 Type II, chromate sealed parts have white patches camera (July 19)
40099. Hard anodizing color problem open Q. (July 11)

    2b. ELECTROPLATING and ELECTROFORMING

46145. How to reduce Blistering for plating on Zinc Die Cast? open Q. (November 16)
47037. Discolored yellow chromate on cadmium plating camera (November 16)
54641. Contamination limits for Woods Nickel Strike open Q. (November 15)
06736. Gold plating peels off of nickel plating camera open Q. (November 13)
28851. Black patches, pit marks on Zn-Ni plating open Q. (November 9)
31850. Dummying a Wood's Nickel Strike (November 6)
47124. Current problem with acid copper (November 1)
06082. How is satin chrome plating done? (October 31)
60882. Chrome thickness too low in Copper-Nickel-Chrome Plating (October 30)
03892. Titanium-Cadmium Plating Q&A open Q. (October 30)
26622. Reaction of sodium on zinc plated steel surface? (October 29)
60880. Need a replacement for Dull Zinc that can be readily epoxy bonded open Q. (October 26)
41906. Dummying nickel, iron, & zinc out of tin plating bath open Q. (October 25)
17284. Copper underplate required for nickel plating on brass? (October 25)
13089. Cadmium vs. Zinc vs. Nickel Plating Comparison open Q. (October 25)
43776. Blistering of silver plated parts after high temp. bake camera open Q. (October 24)
47201. Brown marks near welds on zinc plated parts camera open Q. (October 23)
12243. Barrel tin plating is dull or black (October 18)
33883. Pits in nickel-chrome plating on aluminum open Q. (October 17)
09380. Some sulfamate nickel plated parts bright; other shapes not open Q. (October 16)
21250. Why is Zinc Plating changing colors? open Q. (October 14)
40943. Black zinc okay for oxygen environment? open Q. (October 14)
09527. Starting a small plating business open Q. (October 11)
15090. Problems in plating glass-to-metal seals open Q. (October 10)
49143. pH of gold plating bath (October 10)
60869. What Ra or Rz Needed before Bright Plating? open Q. (October 9)
47217. Palladium-nickel plating isn't adhering open Q. (October 9)
07077. Black nickel is fading camera (October 7)
54564. Pinholes in Copper Plating of Gravure Cylinders camera open Q. (October 6)
60866. Uneven plating thickness in acid zinc (October 4)
04153. Silver plating small tubes on inside (September 29)
44771. Acid Copper Plating Problems (September 25)
09737. Cadmium Plating Touch-up (September 24)
54204. Chrome plated rods passed 500 hours NSS; now they fail at 90 hours open Q. (September 23)
60842. White rust over zinc coated bolts open Q. (September 19)
40095. Remove titanium contamination from acid zinc plating bath open Q. (September 19)
46130. Gold plating onto 304 Stainless Steel (September 18)
28863. Seeking alternative methods for lowering Copper Cyanide in Alkaline Bath open Q. (September 18)
15017. Help with sulfate concentration in a chrome plating bath (September 18)
02797. Peeling off problem in nickel strike on 303 stainless steel (September 18)
51293. Alkaline zinc plating doesn't cover axle bolt threads camera (September 18)
05287. Is the stress in hard chrome plating tensile or compressive? open Q. (September 18)
31565. Hard chrome plating on Aluminum Bronze open Q. (September 17)
37430. Gold plating is turning copper-ish color open Q. (September 17)
21020. Can I nickel plate undersize shaft ends? (September 17)
08473. Chromium cracking after bake cycle open Q. (September 11)
55350. Zinc Plating: clear, blue, yellow, green passivation differences (trivalent or hexavalent) (September 9)
38047. Horizontal hard chrome plating (September 7)
36618. Washers nesting and not getting cad coverage open Q. (September 7)
50375. Need rhodium plated silver to stay tarnish-free 2 years (September 5)
56395. Does tin plating need undercoating with copper/nickel? open Q. (August 31)
37067. Electroplating Copper onto Silicon Wafers open Q. (August 31)
26110. Avoiding tin whiskers on bus bars (August 28)
29013. Why Ni-Cu-Ni plating of NdFeB Magnets? open Q. (August 26)
03795. How to overcome non uniform thickness in electroplating open Q. (August 25)
38877. White spots in alkaline zinc plating open Q. (August 21)
44753. Pitting in sulfate nickel bath for diamond plating only when new camera (August 21)
50922. Silver plated surface as an anode for hard chrome? open Q. (August 21)
24842. Chrome burns when 4 parts on rack but not with 2 parts camera open Q. (August 18)
23909. Problems in zinc plating of cast iron open Q. (August 9)
41922. Nickel Plating defect: white patches camera open Q. (August 8)
35619. Nickel bath has white precipitate open Q. (August 5)
32077. Black spots in zinc plating camera (August 1)
25173. Want rough zinc plating so powder coating adheres (August 1)
37456. White Spots after Zinc Electroplating (July 21)
43916. Black spots on antique brass plating (July 26)
06561. Chrome hardness varies across the part open Q. (July 25)
04676. Rhodium plating with Vintage Finishing open Q. (July 25)
60804. Reel-to-Reel Cleaning of Copper Coil before Plating open Q. (July 25)
38936. Rusting of Cu-Ni-Sn plated steel camera open Q. (July 23)
11706. White precipitate on anode rods & anode bags in Nickel Sulfate solution (July 23)
10870. Platinized titanium anodes for electroplating (July 23)
07458. Corrosion on a zinc plated item camera (July 21)
05106. Tin plated parts are turning black (July 21)
20963. How to barrel silver plate nichrome open Q. (July 21)
38212. Cyanide zinc electroplating problems (July 21)
49424. Tin plating over copper is blistering (July 21)
12175. Seeking Touch Up Pen for Zinc Plating and Chromate open Q. (July 19)
11579. Coefficient of friction of yellow vs clear chromate (July 16)
56140. Adding Chemicals in HEEF-25 Hard Chrome Plating (July 13)
54564. Rotagravure copper plating is too soft open Q. (July 7)
open Q. (July 7)
32321. Yellow Passivation for Spokes & Nipples (July 7)
00005. Gold Plating of Microwave Guide open Q. (July 2)
47424. Bubbles in lacquer on plated Zinc Die Castings camera (July 18)

    2c. ELECTROLESS PLATING, PLATING ON PLASTICS, IMMERSION PLATING

11290. Electroless Nickel isn't resisting bleach (November 16)
44804. Water spots on immersion gold surface open Q. (November 15)
47178. Hard Chrome Plating vs. Electroless Nickel open Q. (November 5)
56043. How to check the copper coating thickness in MIG wire? open Q. (October 20)
33632. Adhesion problem, electroless silver plating on polyamide open Q. (October 18)
26853. Composite electroless nickel-PTFE plating open Q. (October 10)
32955. Etching of ABS for Electroplating with chromic-sulphuric acid open Q. (September 27)
16897. Problems doing Electroless nickel plating on stainless steel open Q. (September 26)
20973. Immersion gold sticks to baskets (August 24)
60811. Electroplating Plastic (ABS) Threads: Tolerances open Q. (July 29)
59721. Electroless nickel buildup in small holes open Q. (July 26)
47083. Chrome Plating of ABS Plastic -- Delayed Cracking camera open Q. (July 11)

    2d. PVD, CVD, ION IMPLANTATION, VACUUM PROCESSES

07846. PVD coatings: color control problem with TiN (November 9)
45683. Cracks appear after Vacuum Chrome plating on polycarbonate open Q. (October 10)
28527. Base coats and top coats for vacuum metallizing open Q. (October 5)
34053. Titanium nitride targets cycle off and on (September 2)
06125. Bright PVD Gold Is Okay; Matte Gold Won't Adhere (July 31)

    2e. GALVANIZING, ALUMINIZING, HOT TIN DIPPING

01341. Upcoming Webinar on Painting Galvanizing & Other Zinc Surfaces (November 12)
56867. Spotting, Staining, Blackening of Hot Dip Galvanized Finish camera open Q. (November 5)
41571. Good pressure of zinc control in galvanizing line open Q. (October 30)
21047. Treating galvanized steel sheets to avoid white rust (October 20)
55032. Minimize/control galvanize coating thickness open Q. (October 14)
60808. GALVALUME Coated Sheet Steel in animal confinement applications (October 3)
43365. Purlins turn red in flux tank open Q. (September 23)
49271. Ammonium chloride requirements for galvanizing flux open Q. (September 17)
60826. Contaminants building up in galvanizing flux open Q. (September 13) vip
22164. Electroplating vs. galvanized for permanent tent (September 10)
57163. White shadow mark on hot dip galvanised material camera (September 3)
37959. What is the maximum temperature a pre-flux bath tank can be? (August 23)
56573. Galvanizing Pot Temperature -- Ideal zinc temperature for galvanizing? (August 22)
38915. Peeling problem in galvanizing of steel open Q. (August 16)
45651. How to stop hot dip galvanizing flaking (August 16)
60822. Accessory for hanging parts for galvanizing? camera (August 16)
08715. How does galvanized steel get its look? (August 16)
34789. Difference between pre-galvanized and hot-dip galvanized steel? (August 6)
43365. Galvanizing flux Q&A's (July 27)

    2f. BLACK OXIDE, BLUING, COLORING, PATINATING, NITRIDING

36484. Inconel 625 black finishes? open Q. (November 15)
11740. Black oxide came out brown open Q. (November 6)
13097. Black Oxide cylinder with small blind holes open Q. (October 26)
27235. Alternative chemistry to selenium black oxide finishing open Q. (October 23)
12141. Gas Nitride Issues: Blistering and Flaking on Nitrided H-13 open Q. (October 16)
39187. Black oxide failing oxalic acid test (August 1)


    2g. OTHER INORGANIC FINISHING: Mechanical Plating, QPQ, Metal Spray, Zinc-rich Dip-Spin Coatings, Sherardizing, etc.

24154. Welding of Tungsten carbide coating open Q. (July 23)
08591. Chromating a zinc-alloy thermal diffusion coating open Q. (July 17)


3. ORGANIC FINISHING PROCESSES . . .

    3a. ELECTROPAINT PRIMING, AUTOPHORETIC COATINGS

32574. Defects in CED Coating open Q. (September 29)
44399. Must zinc plating be stripped before Geomet coating? (September 27)
23047. How to reduce paint thickness in Cathodic Electro Deposition (CED) system? open Q. (September 26)
57561. Pin holes in CED e-coating camera open Q. (September 9)
46042. How to clean choked membrane? open Q. (July 20)
51966. Electrodeposition/e-coating (CED) issues & problems (July 13)

    3b. POWDER COATING

60887. Defects found in powder prime on steel camera open Q. (November 8)
45155. Powdercoating stainless steel Q&A's (October 20)
45526. Structure Formation Problem in Powder Coating open Q. (October 14)
35126. Pinholes in powder coating open Q. (October 5)
05234. Repair of Powdercoat after Welding? (September 25)
60844. Bad powder coating on steel: Poor wet out surface defects camera open Q. (September 24)
42644. Pinhole problems in powder coating open Q. (September 23)
10377. Powder coating on aluminum casting camera open Q. (September 11)
08904. Salt Spray Hours vs. real life exposure for powder coating (September 3)
15733. Preheating with sunlight before powder coating open Q. (August 27)
22876. Powder Coating masking and peeling problem open Q. (August 25)
01618. How do you powder coat over a powder coat primer? (August 23)
18298. Black "rub marks" on powder coating open Q. (August 22)
60820. Powder Coating Problem: Grinding & Sanding Marks show through (August 22)
48524. Powder Coating fails impact test open Q. (August 6)
60795. Discoloration of Gray polyester powder coating over aluminum open Q. (July 11)
15733. Food-safe pretreatment of aluminum before powder coating open Q. (July 4)
21611. Pretreating and Powder Coating Cast Iron (July 3)

    3c. LACQUERS, CLEAR COATS, ELECTROPHORETIC TINTING, ANTI-TARNISH

22639. Preparing steel for clearcoat (October 29)
47125. Need gold color without real gold open Q. (August 25)
09194. Clear E-coating turns my gold too orange (June 15)

    3d. PAINTING, PRINTING, ADHESIVES AND OTHER ORGANIC COATINGS

23536. Spray finish of silver nitrate open Q. (October 30)
24110. Kynar vs. Powder coating for boat T-tops (October 24)
23620. Do powder coated trellises need field painting? (October 17)
12199. Holiday detection in FBE Coatings on Pipe open Q. (October 16)
51696. Silky Smooth Rubberized plastic coating on pushbuttons open Q. (October 4)
39979. If We Use High Temperature Paints Will It Contaminate the Shop with Silicone? (September 21)
45803. Any Paint alternate to powder coating for Hospital beds? open Q. (September 18)
09222. How I can make Teflon paste? open Q. (September 13)
29450. Electro-black parts get white spots after lacquering open Q. (September 9)
56629. White patches on PU coated Aluminium camera open Q. (August 20)
22500. Are nanotechnology coatings food-safe? (August 13)
38769. Painting over electroplated ABS (August 2)
08382. Formulation of plastisol primer coat open Q. (July 27)
15909. Plastisol Ink for Textile Screen Printing Production Process open Q. (July 13)
26415. Wanted Electroless Coatings for Zinc and Tin-based Pewter (July 11)
11789. PVC coating on 304 grade stainless steel (July 11)


4. POST-TREATMENTS

    4a. CHEMICAL POST-TREATMENTS
    [CHROMATE CONVERSION COATINGS, RUST PREVENTATIVES, PATINAS]

28837. Can we do chromate coating on a formed part made from E.G. CRS (September 12)
50709. Blue passivation turns into silvery colour after a week (September 10)
39937. Blackening Nickel Plated Items (August 26)
03755. Clear coating of Silver for Anti-tarnish (August 17)
50193. Brightening & corrosion-proofing brass (August 1)
40243.Corrosion proofing the ID of plated tubing open Q. (July 14)

    4b. BAKING AND NON-CHEMICAL POST-TREATMENTS:
    [HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT AND DE-EMBRITTLEMENT, ANNEALING, WHISKERS, SOLDERING, REFLOWING]

00958. Soldering Problems with Tin Plated Brass open Q. (September 6)
07194. Can't Activate ZnNi Plating for Chromate after Baking open Q. (August 25)
60809. Tin Plating Solders Well Manually, but Pinholes when Wave Soldered open Q. (July 26)

    4c. STRIPPING, REWORKS, ETC.

21416. RoHS compliant Stripping solution for Aluminium anodising? open Q. (November 14)
41112. How to remove Powder Coating from aluminum open Q. (November 13)
60838. Strip Melonite finish from stainless steel open Q. (September 14) 2nd Request
41862. Stripping silver from alloy of gold, silver and copper open Q. (July 6)


5. SUPPORTING ISSUES

    5a. ANALYSIS, LAB TECHNIQUE, Q.A., SALT SPRAY TESTING

35573. Acceptance criteria after salt spray test open Q. (November 15)
09833. Sulfur Analysis in Nickel Plating by ICP-OES open Q. (October 28)
40492. Is peel-off test needed for Satin Nickel? open Q. (October 28)
38140. Tri-acid etch analysis without thorium titration or specific-ion electrode? open Q. (October 18)
41654. Determine % Nitric Acid. Titration? Conversion factor? camera (October 17)
22800. Equivalence between ASTM B-117 vs. ISO 9227 NSS (October 6)
38853. Distinguish Between Electrodeposited Zinc and Cadmium Coating open Q. (October 4)
01744. Can 304 SS replace Galvanized Steel? (September 29)
51596. EDX Q & A's open Q. (September 27)
11800. Ductility issue in acid copper plating (September 27)
44450. Determination of oil content in degreasing bath open Q. (September 23)
35573. Will yellow chromate get white rust in salt spray test? (September 14)
44422. Sulfate Analysis of Chrome Plating Solution open Q. (September 6)
26694. How to determine acceptable manganese phosphate appearance? open Q. (August 26)
54154. Analysis of fluoride in hard chrome plating without using thorium nitrate open Q. (August 22)
44293. Solution Analysis of Chromate Conversion Coating Process (August 20)
60442. "Stress Tabs" for plating? open Q. (August 15) 2nd Request
60821. Stripping copper foil from Cr-Ni film (August 13)
60803. SPC measurement for Leadframe Plating Thickness (August 10)
50132. Salt Spray Test -- ASTM B117 Operational Problems (July 23)
40408. How to digest stainless steel completely? (July 6)

     5b. WASTE & WASTEWATER TREATMENT, POLLUTION CONTROL

34002. Dangers/Toxicity of inhaling muriatic acid fumes (November 3)
40394. Cyanide waste water treatment with sodium hypochlorite (October 31)
07245. Plating wastewater treatment (October 4)
30932. Ion Exchange / DM plant calculations open Q. (September 6)
48818. Reuse regenerated water in Cooling tower as a makeup open Q. (September 4)
14346. How to remove fungus from drinking water pipe line open Q. (September 4)
02846. Waste treatment in zinc plating open Q. (August 13)
51446. Ferrous Chloride dose rate to remove Sulphides (August 5)
33620. pH increase in blowdown of steam generator? open Q. (July 31)
04555. Disposing of plating solutions / closing down electroplating shop (July 23)
43864. Reducing nickel content in wastewater effluent (July 22)
03392. Wastewater treatment of iron and zinc phosphate conversion coating processes open Q. (July 21)
00269. Catalytic oxidation of cyanide using carbon open Q. (July 19)
32633 Tube Settler Reynold's Number camera open Q. (July 17)
32443. Mixed bed of dimineralizer isn't working right (July 10)

    5c. SAFETY ISSUES, EMISSIONS, TOXICITY, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

09128. Copper sulfate in drinking water (November 16)
48653. The effects of cyanide, specifically on the organelles (November 10)
12215. Hexavalent chrome from high temperature working of high-chrome steel open Q. (November 9)
16433. Sick from welding galvanized steel open Q. (October 25)
07164. Galvanized zinc shards in my eyes (October 23)
44945. Is white dust from anodized aluminum harmful (September 18)
10836. Mercury Poisoning from thermometers (September 3)
15303. Is bronze flatware safe (September 3)
45056. Galvanized steel for planting vegetables (August 29)
10986. Swallowing Muriatic Acid (August 25)
54053. Can working in aluminum foundry cause Parkinson's ? open Q. (August 18)
34001. Hexavalent chromium emissions from anode of unknown metal? (August 8)
49633. Looking for PPE recommendations for Chrome plating line (August 8)
01321. Eating off of Medallion Liquid Gold plated flatware open Q. (July 22)

    5d. PLANT & PROCESS ENGINEERING, CONSTRUCTION

08075. Is galvanized steel conductive enough for capacitive sensing? open Q. (November 11)
11675. Understanding and converting resistance, resistivity, conductance, and conductivity open Q. (October 25)
21092. Best Gas Burner for Powder Coating Oven open Q. (October 11)
17485. Tank Water Evaporation Estimates open Q. (September 24)
22905. DI water is attacking PVC Piping (August 19)
04221. Heating and Cooling of Chrome Plating Tanks (July 29)
07984. Pump seals for hydrochloric acid open Q. (July 22)
56947. IGBT vs. Diode Rectifiers open Q. (July 20)
60793. Aluminum Smelter Cathode Deterioration While Idle open Q. (July 10)

    5e. QUESTIONS ABOUT SOFTWARE, SPECS, BOOKS, INDUSTRY STATISTICS, ETC.

29701. Standards for brass plating appearance (November 13)
39060. Basic difference between AMS-2404 and ASTM B733 (High-Phos) Type-V? open Q. November 9, 2018
50746. ASTM A967 vs. AMS 2700? Which is the right passivation spec? open Q. (November 2)
33269. MIL-DTL-16232 Class 4 Questions open Q. (October 23)
26629. What does "MFZn8 Colour Cluster" mean? open Q. (October 20)
24664. Any code for copper pipe touching galvanized steel? open Q. (October 20)
00097. Which plating book to start with? (October 18)
22456. Need specification number for copper bright dip or cleaning open Q. (October 17)
18495. Electroplating Engineering Handbook (September 26)
00097. Training in Electroplating -- Where to Get? open Q. (September 15)
35197. What is FE/ZN Cz plating? open Q. (August 17)
54165. Where to get NACE corrosion training? (July 15)
60788. MIL-PRF-32348 Class Distinction open Q. (July 3)


    5f. WORLD WIDE WORD OF THE WEEK

49660. Need stainless steel rails on a brass hairline finish (August 26)
30536. What does "CL" mean in CL304 Cres & CL416 Cres? (August 21)

    5g. REACH, RoHS, EOL Directive; Cd, Pb, Cr+6, Nitric Acid & Phosphate Replacements

60877. Does Wash Primer have Hexavalent Chrome? open Q. (October 20)
03113. Formula for Blue Chromate (Passivation) for Zinc Plating (October 4)
59342. RoHS Zinc Plating ASTM B633 with Trivalent Chromate (August 31)
60831. Cement reverts to having hex chrome after treatment (August 29)

    5h. MOSTLY METALLURGY; Heat Treatment

50226. Type 202 SS for food oil storage? (November 16)
51470. Insufficient hardness achieved in heat treating C45 Material (November 3)
15010. Prevent scale build up during induction heating open Q. (October 17)
12545. How to Anneal Stainless Steel open Q. (September 14)
03862. Annealed SS tubes come out green or black open Q. (September 4)
05089. How to remove heat treat scale with non-aggressive chemicals open Q. (August 28)
25152. Bending thinwall aluminum tubing with out damage? open Q. (August 23)
10417. Spring Failure Causes open Q. (July 26)
31430. Hy-Tuf Steel Machinability & Hardenability open Q. (July 19)
60790. Chrome plated pin gage is oversize (July 6)

    5i. PRECIOUS METAL RECOVERY

57518. Melting a mirror to recover the silver open Q. (November 2)
55693. Scrap value of gold plated stainless flatware? open Q. (October 9)
33616. Gold Recovery for Dummies? (October 9)
60864. How to Recover Tin, Copper & Lead from their chlorides open Q. (October 2)
60814. Blackening of Diamonds after De-Stoning process in Aqua Regia camera (September 29)
20033. Getting gold from my black sand farm open Q. (September 23)
06262. Silver refining problem: Removing copper from silver nitrate (September 21)
34676. Best & easiest way to refine gold to get high purity open Q. (September 18)
05198. Sodium Cyanide & Hydrogen Peroxide Destruction open Q. (September 18)
49593. How to manufacture rhodium plating solution on a large scale open Q. (August 23)
22253. Refining of Platinum & Palladium (July 31)
53511. Recovering gold from 'bombing' procedure (July 31)
18889. Left CPU gold plated pins in acid solution too long and it dried out camera open Q. (July 15)


6. CONSUMER, RESEARCH, & STUDENT ISSUES

    6a. ARTISTS, HOBBYISTS, CAR BUFFS, HOME OWNERS, ETC.

11428. Restoring a rusty wood burning stove (November 16)
00260. Tin plating of PCBs (November 16)
30442. What paint do I use on a metal mailbox? camera (November 15)
14247. Deep Chemical Etching in Aluminum open Q. (November 14)
43774. Restoring bleach damaged silver (November 14)
60891. Gold tone on 50 year old pocket watch case open Q. (November 12)
00161. Clear coating copper open Q.(November 12)
07423. Pretreatment and painting of galvanizing (October 17)
13168. Copper Kitchen Counters Q&A, Problems & Solutions open Q. (November 11)
01198. How to Darken Bronze (November 10)
17968. Removing oil-rubbed finish from bronze (November 10)
60858. Rust removal and polishing for Springfield 1911 A1 Stainless Steel (November 10)
00798. Elevators discolored by ammonia-based cleaning solution? (November 10)
15391. Stainless steel cooktop stain removal camera (October 22)
21436. Removing oxidation from bronze grave markers camera (November 10)
41517. Gold plating turns orange if touched (November 5)
43290. Cleaning fingerprints off of copper sheeting open Q. (November 5)
26353. Cleaning gold that has been burned (November 3)
44569. Valuable finds at a garage sale (November 2)
38060. Silver charm won't polish up anymore (October 31)
37526. What gold substitute for motorbike parts? open Q. (October 29)
01298. Addition agents for D-I-Y bright nickel plating open Q. (October 28)
17560. Bottle cap tables camera (October 25)
02662. Preserving heat coloring of copper when clear coating open Q. (October 23)
36025. Can Citristrip be used to remove zinc plating? (October 22)
23721. Best aluminum finish to hide scratches yet look complementary to SS? camera (October 20)
03606. Black Chrome Plating for Harley Bolts? (October 16)
14173. Painting a plastic (polyethylene) motorcycle gas tank open Q. (October 15)
33774. Gold plating over sterling silver? (October 14)
59759. Undercoating on GM Cars in the 1950s open Q. (October 9)
00085. Small scale acid copper plating problems open Q. (October 8)
28810. Looking for Sheffield "The Silver Solution" replating solution (October 7)
33780. Repaired ring doesn't match its mate open Q. (October 7)
12857. Coloring sterling silver for jewelry use open Q. (October 6)
10270. History of electroplating sterling jewelry with rhodium camera open Q. (October 4)
16945. Bad clearcoat ruined my Corten patina (October 4)
60863. Anodize, Alodine or Paint Aluminum Catamaran Structure? (October 4)
54552. Why Don't Electric Fences Kill Us? (October 4)
29692. Teflon Finish on catering pans open Q. (September 30)
60862. Cheap & easy way to keep motorcycle headers from rusting open Q. (September 30)
20323. Brass Finishers in the 1800's open Q. (September 29)
53424. Gold plating of brass jewelry open Q. (September 29)
44383. Rust protection and rust removal from steel and stainless bearings open Q. (September 27)
49168. How to clean C. Jere metal sculpture camera open Q. (September 26)
35145. Is citric acid the same thing as ammonium nitrate? (September 26)
26845. How to paint a stove top (September 25)
59059. Removing Tarnish and Cloudiness from a Trombone (September 24)
12873a. Removing Silica Water Stains open Q. (September 23)
19891. Chrome plating on faucet is disintegrating (September 23)
14512. Chrome contamination of all-chloride nickel plating bath (September 21)
22541. Car propeller shaft corrosion protection (September 19)
47295. Copper striking for hobbyists (September 19)
01432. Replating silverware at home (September 17)
15649. Heat treating steel for color effects (September 17)
16257. Painting galvanized steel (September 14)
00019. How to Blacken Engraved Areas in Stainless Steel open Q. (September 12)
00001. Help a beginner to electroform (September 9)
41804. Differences between SS304 and SS316 stainless steel (September 7)
04736. How to anodize an aluminum water bucket camera (September 4)
42425. Color plating of chrome vanadium sockets (September 4)
44081. Patina on nickel, Artificial aging (September 4)
01215. How to Antique or Blacken 24 kt Gold Plated Lamp (September 3)
12362. Coating tables and bar tops with thick clear pourable plastic open Q. (September 3)
44807. Anodizing aluminium with steel pin in it (August 29)
42765. Confused about "acid test" for silver open Q. (August 28)
34692. How to reproduce amazing gold plated chain? open Q. (August 27)
18493. Silver Plating Discoloration -- turning pink (August 24)
20705. Electroplating plastic model parts open Q. (August 23)
20858. How to clean old nickel-silver knife (August 22)
19866. Cleaning zinc clad tabletop? open Q. (August 21)
28788. Newcomer wants to know everything about Gold plating (August 21)
16006. Can Alodine be 'wiped on'? (August 17)
41930. Galvanic Corrosion between Galvanized Steel and Aluminum (August 16)
46505. What not to use to clean a sublimation coated mug? open Q. (August 16)
60818. Painting raw edge of plaster board (August 9)
08229. Removing stains from bath tubs. (August 8)
19519. Painting Fiberglass Tub/Shower Unit open Q. (August 8)
32106. Derusting of old pipes camera (August 8)
30186. Stainless sink stains white towels (August 8)
34112. Will steel patio set rust? (August 2)
38226. Brake rotors: G3000 castings with Geomet vs. G3500 with zinc plating (August 1)
35697. Carburetor re-plating / re-coloring (July 31)
37544. Removing scratches on painted kitchen stoves and refrigerator doors open Q. (July 26)
60807. Low-temp flux for soldering stainless steel open Q. (July 25)
16559. Powder coated lawn furniture is sticky open Q. (July 25)
26821. Lacquering of copper with airbrush open Q. (July 23)
18178. Small scale copper polishing open Q. (July 23)
60799. Can you add additional Chrome to a thin layered chromed part? open Q. (July 22)
15539. How to make stainless steel duller open Q. (July 21)
01831. Rough edges on aluminum billiard rack are tough on felt table (July 21)
21209. Stripping and painting cast aluminum patio set (July 21)
21693. Sealing aluminum yard art to prevent oxidation? camera (July 21)
31286. Is a barrier layer of Nickel plating needed when Silver plating on Copper Jewelry? (July 18)
03066. Anodized aluminum for C4 corrosion class? open Q. (July 17)
34318. Cast Iron Claw-foot Bathtubs: How to Clean, Remove Rust & Stains, Restore, Re-surface, Recoat open Q. (July 16)
41066. Aluminum kitchen stuff no longer shiny -- How to fix it? open Q. (July 16)
41124. Q&A's Replating of Silver Rings (July 15)
29417. Cold blackening a Scotty Cameron stainless steel putter (July 14)
09480. Porosity issue on galvanized trailer open Q. (July 11)
37536. Heat resistant, food-safe finishing open Q. (July 10)
39975. Outdoor Resin Furniture Refreshing (July 9)
19891. Removing chrome plating to return to nickel plating (July 4)
60789. Strange particles on stainless steel refrigerator open Q. (July 3)
27488. Peruvian silver markings open Q. (July 3)

    6b. RESEARCH, THESIS TOPICS, UNIVERSITY & POST-GRAD STUDENTS

11853. Questions about surfactants open Q. (November 12)
12635. Copper electroplating troubleshooting: spiky crystalline trees camera (November 3)
60875. Why do nails in Kanchan arsenic filters sometimes NOT rust? camera open Q. (October 19)
46268. Gold plating from tetrachloroaurate [AuCl4] (October 16)
08792. The Kelite Bldg. in Los Angeles open Q. (October 4)
01185. Problem in MSA Tin Plating on Silicon open Q. (September 9)
09676. Plating solder over brass (August 17)
00555. Plating copper onto aluminum camera (July 21)
60798. Applications for Nickel foam (November 10)
07372. Plating Thickness vs. Current/Amperage -- What is the Relationship? (July 17)

    6c. K-12 SCIENCE PROJECTS, GRAMMAR & HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT QUESTIONS

28759. Will nail polish prevent rust? (November 16)
11826. Black line on face from gold jewelry when iron is low open Q. (November 14)
32807. Bolts rusting science project (October 29)
26899. Can all metals rust? (October 18)
11608. Science project: Turning pennies gold color (actually brass) (October 14)
48959. How to set up steel wool corrosion test open Q. (September 13)
11551. Science project: Coins or nails in vinegar (September 11)
04134. Copper sulphate reaction with steel wool (September 8)
36628. How do you make copper sulphate crystals? (September 2)
38861. What are ways to measure rust? (August 24)
09716. Why is copper chloride blue? (August 13)
20696. Treating copper sulphate waste as school project open Q. (July 19)

7. DRIFTED OFF FINISHING, BUT INTERESTING TO SOME OF US :-)

09462. How to make HF from ABF open Q. (November 6)
31934. Was Silver Rationed in WWII? (November 2)
38657. Effect of mill scale on refractories open Q. (November 1)
33151. How is this gold attracted by a magnet in Russia? video (October 28)
13807. Need very high friction non-pneumatic wheel coating for Bonneville Salt Flats car open Q. (October 25)
18029. Problems in White phenyl Manufacturing open Q. (October 24)
13277. Copper for natural gas lines? Or steel, plastic, CSST, etc. (October 23)
24359. Barber Chair Restoration Q&A's and Successes open Q. (October 20)
52212. Cleaning blackened bank notes (October 20)
11030. Iridium Copper Metal which Pulls Rice and De-Colors It (October 16)
32413. Need sweet spirits of nitre open Q. (October 16)
13393. Food-safe coating for sea shells? (October 5)
44362. Swallowed Sodium Hypochlorite during root canal open Q. (September 23)
19039. Cast Iron Cook Stoves: How to restore open Q. (September 18)
53795. What chemicals will heat up water (September 15)
37106. Cleaning roof with bleach (September 8)
14356. Unable to get bids on SS316L roof (September 2)
14995. Excessive Copper in Swimming Pool Water? open Q. (August 22)
23922. Musty smell in basement and throughout entire house (July 10)

legend:

(    )= Date in parentheses is most recent posting on the thread
open Q.= Thread currently ends with a question or the editor-curator's inconclusive musings
opinion!= Comments may raise blood pressure
silly :-)= For those with a sense of humor
video= Contains embedded video
camera= The inquiry has photos / graphics
pdf= Contains embedded pdf
vip= Inquirer often helps others, so especially deserves our help

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