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Categories
 Process: 0. Corrosion. Compatibility, Choosing a Finish
 Preparation: 1a. Mechanical Prep 1b. Chemical Pretreatments 1c. Masking & Racking
 Inorganic Finishing: 2a. Anodizing & Light Metals 2b. Electroplating & Electroforming 2c. Electroless Plating
2d. PVD, CVD, Vacuum Processes 2e. Galvanizing, Hot Dipping 2f. Black Oxide, Bluing, Coloring
2g. Other Inorganic Finishing Processes
 Organic Finishing: 3a. Electropainting, Autophoretic 3b. Powder Coating 3c. Lacquers, Clearcoats
3d. Painting, Printing, Adhesives, Organic Coatings
 Post-treatments: 4a. Chemical Post-treatments 4b. Baking & Non-chemical Post-treatments 4c. Stripping, Reworks, etc.
 Supporting Issues: 5a. Analysis, Lab Technique, QA/QC 5b. Water, Wastewater, Pollution 5c. Safety, Emissions, Toxicity
5d. Plant & Process Engineering 5e. Software, Specs, Books, Stats 5f. World Wide Word Of The Week
5g. REACH, RoHS, E-O-L, etc. 5h. Mostly metallurgy 5i. Precious Metal Recovery
 Non-industrial: 6a. Hobbyists, Enthusiasts, Artists 6b. Research, Thesis work 6c. K-12 Science Projects, Elementary to High School
 Not Metal Finishing: 7. Off Topic, but Interesting

0. CORROSION, COMPATIBILITY, CHOOSING A FINISH . . .

43283. Electrodes best suited to split water (May 19)
60956. Torque Increment process in Bronze C-95500 hot line clamp camera (May 18)
16063. Coatings for screws, cable clamps, cable trays in dry fertilizer storage open Q. (May 7)
40943. Black zinc plating vs. Black oxiding. What's the difference? (April 15)
50328. What coating is on this 416SS which is 50µm thick with hardness of 35-40 HRC? open Q. (April 15)
42140. Correct usage of 4 metals in electrical circuit open Q. (April 8)
01744. How long will stainless steel last in salt spray test? (April 8)
19766. Galvanic Action between Galvanized and Stainless Steel? (April 5)
31153. Stainless screws okay on aluminum machinery? (March 25)
34692. Gold plating + clearcoat vs. titanium nitride for jewelry (March 19)
22402. Alternative spring coatings instead of "flock" (March 18)
35528. Hot dip cadmium coating? (March 18)
41930. Will my anodized aluminum solar panel frames face galvanic corrosion? (March 18)
60936. Want trophy plating whiter than silver plating (February 18)
53424. How long Gold Plating over brass will last? (February 17)
30274. Need food service coating for 600 °F open Q. (February 12)
48642. Anodized aluminum vs. galvanized steel for Railings (February 6)
17652. Can CIP and acid baths cause stainless 304 corrosion? (January 29)
60926. Scratch resistance of various polished metals (January 26)
39085. What is the difference between Coating and Plating (January 16)
26187. Will NaOH solution corrode 316SS? (January 7)


1. PREPARATION . . .

    1a. MECHANICAL PREP
    [GRINDING, POLISHING, VIBRATORY FINISHING, BUFFING, HONING]

26572. Tumble polishing stainless steel (April 24)
12526. Interviewer says SA2.5 measures surface roughness not cleanliness open Q. (April 17)
21712. Deburring of Aluminum components (April 16)
05396. Is this surface smooth enough? (April 7)
14468. Formula for polishing & buffing compounds open Q. (April 4)
13730. Eliminating machining steps/irregularities in cavity cooling holes camera (February 27)
22096. Polishing Cast Aluminum Q & A's open Q. (January 21)

    1b. PRETREATMENTS
    [PICKLING, PASSIVATION, PHOSPHATIZING, CLEANING, ELECTROPOLISHING, ACTIVATION]

10242. Zinc phosphated surface is brown instead of black (May 20)
11047. Retaining some portion of electrolyte when dumping electropolishing bath (May 20)
39913. Selective / Touch-up Passivation of Stainless Steel (May 9)
06885. Problems & Solutions in Passivation of Titanium (May 9)
06053. Want shiny finish on stainless steel bolts/screws (April 28)
42333. Mirror Electropolishing of 2205 Duplex Stainless (April 17)
47017. Chemical to clean weld marks from stainless steel (April 11)
42723. Passivating stainless steel tanks (April 11)
56364. Maintaining acid levels in Nitric-hydrofluoric pickling process open Q. (April 6)
53648. Brush on Electropolishing open Q. (April 4)
51678. Rust in Cast Iron parts with internal cavities after Mn Phosphate & Waxing open Q. (March 28)
35943. Schantz Reagent for Etching Stainless & Nickel Superalloys open Q. (February 27)
40763. Mechanically polished stainless leaches less than electropolished? open Q. (February 26)
00276. Reapplying Electropolish process to stainless steel heating coils open Q. (February 19)
14221. Zinc phosphate coating is covered with rust camera (February 18)
43547. Electropolishing bath volume is growing (February 17)
14343. Removing "Rust" on Stainless Steel (February 16)
45662. Shot Blasting vs Phosphating -- Which is better? (February 8)
34052. Manganese phosphate coating on maraging steel (February 2)
28771. Gray/brown powder on iron phosphate coated parts open Q. (January 28)
03952. Preventing flash rust after iron phosphating? (January 17)

    1c. MASKING, RACKING, TAPING, PLUGGING, PHOTOSENSITIVE MASKS

60909. Can hard chrome plating survive 7-stage phosphatizing? open Q. (December 31)
58316. Liquid masking for anodizing (December 12)
14483. Hot glue for masking type III anodize? open Q. (November 25)


2. INORGANIC FINISHING PROCESSES . . .

    2a. ANODIZING AND LIGHT METAL TREATMENTS (Aluminum, Magnesium, Titanium)

01819. Q&As on Teflon (PTFE) impregnated Hard Anodizing of Aluminum (May 17)
08147. Finishing titanium medical implants (May 9)
60958. Over-etched anodized parts and a ton of other problems (May 9)
45313. Aluminum de-smut/de-oxidize chemicals process & chemical Q&A's open Q. (April 30)
01353. What is the proprietary additive for room-temperature hard anodizing? open Q. (April 28)
14352. Aluminum Frame anodizing - how to prevent white spot at the frame joining camera open Q. (April 24)
11225. "Dishwasher Safe?" Anodized Aluminum (April 22)
07428. Fading hardcoat anodize camera open Q. (April 18)
15922. Sealing Hard Anodic Coatings (April 17)
21693. Sealing Aluminum to prevent oxidation? camera (April 17)
31663. Plated aluminum for projection welding fixtures open Q. (April 16)
42711. Etching, deoxidizing, anodizing, sealing problems with type 2219 aluminum alloy open Q. (April 9)
46468. Problems in anodizing 7xxx aluminum open Q. (April 9)
07926. Two-tone titanium anodizing problems (April 9)
22258. Increasing aluminum in chromic acid anodizing bath open Q. (April 4)
42837. Aluminium vs. titanium anodizing racks open Q. (April 2)
05691. White Spots when Anodizing 6061 Aluminum and Dyeing It Blue open Q. (April 1)
06701. How to calculate anodizing time for different load sizes (March 30)
02530. Start the stopwatch when we begin immersing the load or when it's all the way in? open Q. (March 30)
60828. Trickle Charge to Protect Aluminum Cathode for Anodize (March 28)
19342. Is default color of chromate conversion coating gold? open Q. (March 13)
56917. Problems with Alodine not sticking camera (March 9)
44929. High temperature color anodizing (March 9)
45421. Black spots/streaks in anodized aluminium (March 7)
05112. Pitting of 2024 Aluminum with Standard or Ematal Anodizing camera (March 2)
06733. Bright dip aluminum at room temperature (March 2)
54534. Hard Anodize Problem on AL2024 (March 2)
22121. Cleaning, pickling, etching of Ti-6Al-4V titanium Q&A open Q. (March 1)
39354. Heat colouring vs. chemical coloring of titanium (February 27)
53012. Electrolytic Etching of Aluminum Plates open Q. (February 27)
04499. White residue on gold chromate (February 21)
14819. Can we use Alclad 2024 test panels? (February 20)
41155. Copper contamination of boric-sulfuric anodize process open Q.spanish(February 18)
01419. Maintenance Schedule of Nitric Acid Rinse (February 5)
34157. White stains on Aluminium cooking pots open Q. (January 31)
42739. Dark smut on conversion coated cast aluminum parts (January 30)
43963. Micro-etching of aluminum open Q. (January 29)
37711. Stripes appearing in aluminum after anodizing camera open Q. (January 16)
35928. Aluminum gets water spots on only one side of sheets open Q. (January 16)
48706. Want dyed and clear polished areas on same aluminum motorcycle wheels camera (January 16)
05333. Are Honda motorcycle parts clear coated or anodized? (January 14)
14550. Contact resistance of Class 3 Chromated Aluminum (January 12)
46143. Can we do colorless chromate on shot blasted surface? (January 4)

    2b. ELECTROPLATING and ELECTROFORMING

06338. Rhodium brighteners after carbon filtration camera open Q. (May 20)
36730. White stains in nickel plating camera open Q. (May 17)
22409. Safe plating thickness to not cause thread binding of #6 screw? open Q. (May 16)
30419. Remove copper contamination from rhodium plating bath (May 16)
34092. Problem with potassium chloride/ammonium chloride acid zinc plating open Q. (May 16) vip
36390. Hard chrome plating isn't hard enough (May 16)
48966. Freezing out carbonates in alkaline zinc plating bath camera open Q. (May 14)
10210. Fine white grit on nickel plating. Excessive boric acid? camera (May 13)
11395. Plating tin on phos bronze (May 11)
12412. Silver plating bath brighteners (May 7)
09527. Buying a small plating business (May 7)
47970. Is our copper plating too hard? (May 5)
28003. Silver Plating of Switchgear Bus Bar turns black (May 3)
28032. Electroplating with Brass (Electrodeposition of Brass) open Q. (May 2)
55324. Barrier Layer to Prevent Tarnish on Gold Plated Silver (April 28)
60957. Can cad plating be applied over chrome? (April 26)
50905. Cyanide or sulfite gold plating better for my application? open Q. (April 26)
47340. Brightener consumption in nickel plating (April 26)
10051. Brass anodes are polarized (April 20)
56140. Chloride contamination of chrome plating solution -- Analysis and Removal open Q. (April 20)
47484. Chrome plating ID of stainless tube (April 20)
04146. Electroformed gold is brittle (April 18)
03946. Silver Plating is Yellow open Q. (April 18)
15218. Is a nickel D crown anode the same thing as a nickel S round (April 17)
30106. Zinc plating thickness vs. salt spray resistance (April 15)
34821. Want gold flash plating layer 0.005 microns thick (April 14)
38265. Why must Copper Bus Bar be Tin Plated? (April 11)
38877. "Wire marks" when we wire tractor pins for non-cyanide zinc plating (April 9)
33774. Plating white bronze onto sterling silver (April 5)
07077. Black nickel is gray, not black camera (April 1)
60947. Gold Plating Solution starts water clear, gets very dark (March 24)
43260. Nickel plating on hard brass is rough and non reflective (March 17)
00477. Problem in Wood's Nickel Strike (March 10)
12311. Electroplating on Aluminium open Q. (March 3)
00037. Albaloy, Miralloy, Optalloy copper/tin/zinc alloy plating open Q. (March 3)
05697. Plated anodes for Wood's Nickel Strike bath? (March 2)
34107. Appearance problems with zinc plating open Q. (February 27)
48052. Can stainless steel be chrome plated in a high quality manner? open Q. (February 27)
55225. Alkaline zinc plating problem: Black dots/spots camera open Q. (February 25)
36879. Clear chromate on Zinc-Nickel plating is shaded yellow camera open Q. (February 24)
00476. Non-cyanide zinc goes dull. Why? (February 23)
40095. Acid Zinc / Potassium Zinc Chloride Plating: Problems & Solutions open Q. (February 19)
54183. Powder coating over zinc spray surface open Q. (February 18)
12860. Acid Zinc Plating bath gets hot (February 14)
44143. Chrome plating blisters on one side, pits on the other camera open Q. (February 13)
49660. Some nickel plated screws aren't getting their brass plating (February 13)
51402. Nickel Sulfamate bath -- pH dropping, anode going passive (February 13)
49800. Copper contamination in cadmium cyanide bath (February 12)
60931. Tin Plating Not Adhering to Silver Brazed Inlay open Q. (February 9)
48168. How to activate pot metal (February 9)
51418. Zinc plating gets red rust in 24-hour salt spray test (February 8)
60882. Chrome plating solution strips away underlying copper and nickel in LCD area (February 8)
31850. Dummying a Wood's Nickel Strike (February 2)
36290. Nickel plating / striking of stainless steel (January 31)
41517. Want to hard gold plate 25 microns thick (January 30)
33135. Pre-cleaning oils from carbon steel to be Plated camera (January 29)
60928. Tin plating, bubbling problems (January 28)
10818. Contamination limit for black chrome plating tank (January 24)
05106. Tin plated copper electrical work turning jet black open Q. (January 22)
26448. White spots develop on black zinc plating open Q. (January 22)
44183. Want to install a chromate conversion coating line for existing pregalv EMT (January 22)
47214. Black stain in cadmium deposit after chromate camera (January 18)
60917. Multiple small cells in one plating tank (January 18)
40492. Satin Nickel peels off of copper but not off of bright nickel open Q. (January 16)
48616. What's the difference between glassy and milky hard chrome plating? open Q. (January 16)
09924 Need to drill & tap, then zinc plate, hot-dip galvanized parts (January 14)
54641. Contamination limits for Woods Nickel Strike (January 12)
28434. Need very heavy copper plating on top of nickel plating (January 12)
60915. Chromium Plating Solution - Better with age? (January 11)
11955. Chrome Plating Problems on Gravure Printing Cylinders/Rolls open Q. (January 6)
10282. Acid tin plating staining/milkiness camera open Q. (January 5) 2nd Request

    2c. ELECTROLESS PLATING, PLATING ON PLASTICS, IMMERSION PLATING, CHROME-LOOK SPRAYS

13785. Reactivate electroless nickel without current (May 12)
11290. Electroless nickel for washing machine components open Q. (May 7)
18069. Alternative to chromic acid etch for plastics? (May 5)
24114. Discoloration of immersion tin plating open Q. (April 15)
46404. How to mix PTFE into an EN plating bath open Q. (April 9)
09379. Electroless Nickel Plating of Steel Molds for Plastic Injection Molding (April 7)
35056. Electroless Nickel Plating with Silicon Carbide Particles open Q. (March 19)
16897. Teflon/ electroless nickel plating of 420 stainless mold tooling issues open Q. (March 6)
20973. Red water spots after cleaning electroless gold surface open Q. (March 2)
43386. Chrome on plastic: spray on chrome process open Q. (February 10)
47178. Hard Chrome Plating vs. Electroless Nickel open Q. (February 16)
07152. Reliable process for EN on magnesium? (January 31)
56043. Electrolyte for plating copper on MIG wire open Q. (January 26)
59277. Ultrasonic Cleaning ruined Electroless Nickel Plated Parts open Q. (January 4)

    2d. PVD, CVD, ION IMPLANTATION, VACUUM PROCESSES

14081. Applying PVD metal coatings to ceramic tiles (April 17)
07846. PVD coatings: color control issues (March 9)
60903. iPhone 10 Stains Fingers Blue! camera open Q. (December 16) vip
45683. Cracks appear after Vacuum Chrome plating on polycarbonate open Q. (October 10)
34053. Titanium nitride targets cycle off and on (September 2)

    2e. GALVANIZING, ALUMINIZING, HOT TIN DIPPING

38915. Does sulfur content in rolling oil composition affect the galvanizing? open Q. (May 16)
57860. Fish-boning on galvanized surface open Q. (May 16)
41998. What galvanized sheet grade for 1000 hours salt spray? (May 10)
60959. Galvanized Rainwater Goods on Barn of Larch & Douglas Fir (May 8)
21692. Convert 90 GSM coating thickness to microns (May 3)
39461. Black spots in hot dip zinc coated wire (April 17)
44978. Galvanizing kettle furnace and burner design (April 12)
06056. Galvannealed vs. Hot dip galvanized open Q. (April 7)
57163. Galvanizing surface defect (black spots) open Q. (April 6)
57418. Double Dip or Single Dip for Galfan? (April 6)
40753A Moving zinc from old galvanizing kettle to new (March 25)
15958. Hot dip tinning of copper is yellowed open Q. (March 21)
57322. Thick Galvanized Coatings, How to Get, What is Maximum (March 19)
39907. Steps for hot dip galvanizing open Q. (March 17)
49676. Zinc thickness vs. grams / square meter (March 10)
45551. Reducing galvanizing thickness by adding nickel salts (March 6)
60826. How well does "low fuming galvanizing flux" perform? open Q. (March 6)
55032. Minimize/control galvanize coating thickness (February 27)
56892. Over-pickling before galvanizing (February 21)
13337. % of Aluminum in dross in galvanizing? open Q. (February 19)
16257. Painting galvanized pipe open Q. (February 19)
49271. I want to produce ZnCl2.NH4Cl solution (February 19)
34714. Controlling hot dip galvanized steel production for dullness or shine open Q. (February 19)
50428. Addition agents for galvanizing flux open Q. (February 16)
42325. Iron contamination of Galvanizing Flux (February 8)
60905. Dynamic Flux Tests for Galvanizing (January 31)
45719. Hot dip galvanizing: what is reasonable dross & ash material loss? open Q. (January 21)
46006. Rough and sandy finish on galvanized rails camera (January 11)
24568. Lead (Pb) in Hot Dip Galvanizing (January 11)
56867. Spotting, Staining, Blackening of Hot Dip Galvanized Finish camera (January 5)

    2f. BLACK OXIDE, BLUING, COLORING, PATINATING, NITRIDING

11740. Black Oxide coating for steel (May 12)
05718. Description of Malcolmizing Process open Q. (May 6)
24076. Heat coloring Stainless: Durability of the finish outside (May 3)
36214. Composition of cold blackening solutions for steel, iron, ferrous metal (April 19)
11822. Passivating carbon steel / when to open Q. (January 8)
07892. Cold bluing chemicals (December 7)
04469. Cold Rust Bluing Methods open Q. (November 25)
36484. Inconel 625 black finishes? open Q. (November 15)


    2g. OTHER INORGANIC FINISHING: Mechanical Plating, QPQ, Metal Spray, Zinc-rich Dip-Spin Coatings, Sherardizing, etc.

24154. Welding of Tungsten carbide coating open Q. (July 23)


3. ORGANIC FINISHING PROCESSES . . .

    3a. ELECTROPAINT PRIMING, AUTOPHORETIC COATINGS

53135. What is the role of CED in phosphating? (April 15)
32574. Having 7 different problems in CED coating open Q. (April 1)
57561. Pin holes in CED e-coating camera (March 2)
60934. Increase paint thickness in Cathodic Electrodeposition (CED) system? open Q. (February 2)

    3b. POWDER COATING

37147. Powder coating reclaim -- does anybody take recycled waste powder? open Q. (May 17)
26699. Powder coating thickness for steel furniture in high humidity (May 16)
32204. Can I import raw aluminum from China and have it Powder Coated in the USA? open Q. (May 2)
42644. Pinhole problems in powder coating open Q. (April 23)
24567. Powder coating peel off problems on hot rolled steel open Q. (February 28)
18298. Poor adhesion in powder coating open Q. (February 5)
04745. Powder Coating over Galvanized Steel (January 22)

    3c. LACQUERS, CLEAR COATS, ELECTROPHORETIC TINTING, ANTI-TARNISH

14122. Re-storing old anodizing (May 14)
28527. Rainbow defect in vacuum metalizing topcoat (April 2)
08096. Repair runs in lacquer coating of brass bed (March 17)
22639. Preparing steel for clearcoat open Q. (March 13)

    3d. PAINTING, PRINTING, ADHESIVES AND OTHER ORGANIC COATINGS

34465. Pre-coating for sublimation transfers onto ceramic open Q. (May 14)
57718. How to paint on HIPS plastic materials (May 9)
33467. Is there a way to make paint more resistant to heat (April 12)
60877. Does Wash Primer have Hexavalent Chrome? open Q. (March 19)
12601. Inventor wants teflon coating for serving spoons open Q. (March 4)
23536. Spray finish of silver nitrate (February 24)
32352. Rust, coating peel off, 3-piece cans open Q. (January 29)
60918. Foam printing paste formulation open Q. (January 16)
07352. Sprayable iridescent paint? open Q. (January 4)


4. POST-TREATMENTS

    4a. CHEMICAL POST-TREATMENTS
    [CHROMATE CONVERSION COATINGS, RUST PREVENTATIVES, PATINAS]

33081. Blackening won't adhere to nickel electroform open Q. (January 24)
55350. What treatment should we give to pre-galvanized EMT conduit? (January 20)
02986. Chemical polishing of brass (January 15)
06507. Substitute for benzotriazole (January 8)

    4b. BAKING AND NON-CHEMICAL POST-TREATMENTS:
    [HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT AND DE-EMBRITTLEMENT, ANNEALING, WHISKERS, SOLDERING, REFLOWING]

01747. Nickel-chrome plated parts are cracking when hammered open Q. (May 7)
23078. Hydrogen de-embrittlement cycle for fasteners open Q. (April 15)
15043. Problems in Annealing of Copper Wire open Q. (March 24)
00958. Soldering Problems with Tin Plated Brass open Q. (September 6)
07194. Can't Activate ZnNi Plating for Chromate after Baking open Q. (August 25)

    4c. STRIPPING, REWORKS, ETC.

41112. How to remove Powder Coating from aluminum (May 16)
38954. Stripping Dry Lube in Welded Area to Prep for E-coating open Q. (May 14)
06331. Stripping PVD coatings (January 3)
14893. Remove 10 microns of chrome from nickel sheet (December 26)
21416. RoHS compliant Stripping solution for Aluminium anodising? open Q. (November 14)


5. SUPPORTING ISSUES

    5a. ANALYSIS, LAB TECHNIQUE, Q.A., SALT SPRAY TESTING

41654. Determining nitric acid concentration (May 17)
35573. Chromated zinc parts pass salt spray test per one testing house but not another open Q. (May 1)
40408. How to dissolve stainless steel to estimate manganese? open Q. (May 1)
51596. Interpretation of EDX spectrum result: Weight % vs. Atomic % camera (April 11)
35573. How many salt spray hours for painted structurals? open Q. (April 8)
57140. Analysis & replenishment of passivation solution for stainless steel: nitric acid, chromate, iron (March 10)
02550. Need Salt spray test chamber parts & service open Q. (March 6)
38853. Distinguish Between Electrodeposited Zinc and Cadmium Coating (March 2)
22800. Equivalence between ASTM B-117 vs. ISO 9227 (February 19)
26936. Analysis of zinc cyanide bath open Q. (February 19)
52466. How to know if cationic conductivity sensor is good or bad? open Q. (February 2)
42787. Titration procedure for oxalic acid anodizing bath open Q. (January 30)
30658. Can stainless medical parts be used after Copper Sulfate Test? (January 29)
44450. Determination of oil content in Acid degreasing bath open Q. (January 2)

     5b. WASTE & WASTEWATER TREATMENT, POLLUTION CONTROL

32443. pH of DM water is a mystery open Q. (May 14)
41896. High TDS and soluble salt problem in effluent treatment (May 11)
49809. Is an RO System necessary for a DM plant? (May 3)
39112. How to wash filter cake? open Q. (April 23)
32578. Chrome plating mist /fume control (April 22)
33660. How to improve pH for DM water open Q. (April 11)
33620. Inexplicable pH drop in boiler blowdown water (April 10)
22905. Hybrid DI / Mineral Oil immersion solution open Q. (April 2)
17230. About CO2 in demineralized water open Q. (April 2)
59691. Sodium Metabisulfite for Water Treatment (March 13)
29294. How much nickel with 304SS pressure cooker leach? open Q. (March 12)
00674. Floating sludge in clarifier (March 9)
32149. Treatment of complexed copper in waste water (March 1)
14886. Gypsum as coagulant for waste water treatment (February 21)
07245. Reducing COD in wastewater (January 16)
04405. Acid zinc plating waste treatment problems (January 2)

    5c. SAFETY ISSUES, EMISSIONS, TOXICITY, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

10986. Swallowing Muriatic Acid (May 7)
60955. Is Melchoir safe? (April 23)
02632. Handling cadmium plated parts (April 18)
22369. 1,000 lb hazmat exclusion? (April 17)
34155. Removed teflon from pan, but tiny dots remain video(March 28)
22551. Is there a danger in Cast aluminum cookware? (March 9)
16433. Clothes & skin purple from galvanizing steel open Q. (February 27)
09128. Copper sulfate in drinking water (February 23)
05941. SDS for plated parts and 'Finished' Materials? open Q. (February 8)
08535. Dangerous Welding Fumes from Galvanized Metal? open Q. (February 5)
37324. Allergic to rhodium open Q. (January 4)

    5d. PLANT & PROCESS ENGINEERING, CONSTRUCTION

11465. Sludge buildup on heating coils in phosphating tank open Q. (May 7)
06364. Plating barrel danglers and other maintenance problems (May 2)
41698. Holding work in process for cleaning check without corrosion (March 13)
60943. What to do with 35,000 gallons of unused Sulfuric Acid - Nitric Acid (March 4)
02593. Need practical way to remove porous pot from chrome plating tank open Q. (March 2)
00194. Heating & cooling of plating tanks open Q. (March 1)
09963. Cost of a nitriding plant open Q. (February 24)
56947. Proper rectifier size for acid copper plating? (January 29)

    5e. QUESTIONS ABOUT SOFTWARE, SPECS, BOOKS, INDUSTRY STATISTICS, ETC.

07070. Who does ASTM G32 Cavitation Test? open Q. (April 18)
04379. Phosphoric acid anodizing per ASTM D3933-98 open Q. (April 7)
54825. Is Wash Primer Required for Painting over Cadmium Overplating? open Q. (March 27)
35197. Questions about zinc electroplating specification Fe/Zn8, thicknesses and chromate post-treatments open Q. (March 19)
31926. Waterbreak testing (March 13)
00097. Electroplating schools in Chennai? open Q. (February 18)
30521. Re-qualify expired paint catalyst (February 13)
50554. In ASTM A967 passivation, does 25% by vol. Nitric represent industrial (65%) or full strength Nitric? (December 20)
50259. Corrosion books and courses (December 7)
35197. What is Fe/Zn8/T4 plating? (December 4)


    5f. WORLD WIDE WORD OF THE WEEK

26940. What does Sursulf Oxynit mean? (April 12)
60946. Clean and descale per STO110LA0008 open Q. (March 17)

    5g. REACH, RoHS, EOL Directive; Cd, Pb, Cr+6, Nitric Acid & Phosphate Replacements

11462. Alternatives to trichloroethylene to clean or vapor degrease parts (March 4) vip
40050. BS EN 12329 vs. BS EN ISO 2081 open Q. (February 13)

    5h. MOSTLY METALLURGY; Heat Treatment

28871. Hardening 304 & 316 stainless steel (Austenitic) open Q. (May 16)
21169. Best abrasive disc for cutting stainless steel? open Q. (May 1)
45235. Will stainless discolor to copper color when heated in a vacuum open Q. (April 26)
23834. Is Nital Etch needed if grinding is only Before heat treating? (April 24)
12545. Annealing Stainless Steel open Q. (April 17)
52552. How to make shoes molds from cast iron open Q. (March 25)
00336. Rusting of stainless steel at weld (March 19)
46264. Vacuum Furnace Discoloration of Inconel 718 open Q. (March 11)
07041. Etchant for steel to aluminum joint? open Q. (February 28)
37638. Hydrogen embrittlement in 4140 steel open Q. (February 9)
50226. Type 202 SS for nuts & grain storage? open Q. (January 16)
16553. What is the lower temperature limit for copper oxidation in ambient atmosphere? open Q. (January 10)
60910. Best way to weld/braze/join Silver and Stainless Steel camera open Q. (January 4)

    5i. PRECIOUS METAL RECOVERY

32894. The economics of melting gold bars (May 11)
19529.
Refining of silver chloride to silver metal open Q. (May 3)
54096. Can gold be reclaimed from reflective glass? open Q. (April 28)
34676. Best & easiest way to refine gold to get high purity open Q. (April 14)
22867. Are "We Buy Gold" stores reputable? (April 10)
27475. How do I sell iridium? (March 3)
60864. How to Recover Tin, Copper & Lead from their chlorides (February 25)
22253. Refining of Palladium and making its salt (February 19)
57518. Melting a mirror to recover the silver open Q. (January 15)
22253. Refining of Palladium and making its salt open Q. (January 15)


6. CONSUMER, RESEARCH, & STUDENT ISSUES

    6a. ARTISTS, HOBBYISTS, CAR BUFFS, HOME OWNERS, ETC.

11353. Does Yellow Zinc Plating need a clear coat? camera open Q. (May 20)
22092. Keum-boo and ruthenium too open Q. (May 20)
02662. Torch blackening of brass open Q. (May 19)
51130. How to remove scratches from stainless with a clear coat on it? (May 19)
35277. How long can brass be buried? (May 17)
30442. What paint do I use on a metal mailbox? camera open Q. (May 16)
09787. Refinishing an antique pie safe open Q. (May 16)
07423. Painting & Ospho camera open Q. (May 15)
07897. Galvanic compatibility of aluminum and copper (May 14)
40886. Agitation air sizing for electroforming (May 9)
50455. Ruined copper sink with Tarn-X (May 8)
16945. How to keep Corten bench from staining clothes? open Q. (May 8)
19035. Bathroom cleaner stained stainless sink open Q. (May 8)
31904. Buffing ruined my concrete pavers open Q. (May 7)
60510. Coatings for washing machine basket spiders (May 7)
19226. Want Black Titanium Finish camera (May 5)
15174. Gun Bluing / Cold bluing open Q. (May 3)
30700. How to remove paint/lacquer from silver (April 25)
00085. Problem with Copper electroplating/electroforming (April 23)
51406. Cutting up old fridge door to use as gas barbeque heat shields (April 23)
21436. Removing oxidation from bronze gravemarkers camera open Q. (April 23)
16432. Painting a gas fireplace (April 22)
19833. Rust prevention with Phosphoric Acid (April 18)
12453. Problems in hobby anodizing (April 18)
14075. What Solution for Etching sterling silver? open Q. (April 17)
17968. Speeding up the "living finish" on oil rubbed bronze open Q. (April 17)
15733. Aluminum pretreatment for powder coating of buzzbaits (April 16)
30186. Lime-Away destroyed stainless steel sink (April 15)
33644. Rainbow "oil slick" coating on pottery and plaster items camera open Q. (April 14)
17478. Sealing rusted steel camera open Q. (April 10)
21437. Want colorful patterns on stainless steel (April 10)
28788. Plating gold onto karat gold? camera open Q. (April 10)
09067. Rave hairspray is not working for sublimation coating open Q. (April 9)
06873. Old Japanning Paint Recipe wanted (April 9)
34758. Copper plating staining problems (April 9)
35145. Brass is pink from improper cleaning open Q. (April 8)
01574. How to estimate surface area for anodizing (April 6)
48051. Why is rhodium plating so expensive? (April 4)
58843. Removing gold plating on tungsten carbide ring (April 2)
31345. Room temperature manganese phosphate for hobby use (March 31)
16032. Cleaning/restoring vintage tin humpback trunk camera open Q. (March 30)
06773. Removing faded gold accent on silverplate flatware open Q. (March 27)
30522. Clear coating to seal a rust finish on metal (March 25)
13743. Maple Syrup Boiling / Evaporator Pans: use Mild Steel or Galvanized or What? open Q. (March 25)
18847. Amateur D-I-Y Copper Plating at Home open Q. (March 24) be 06062. Voltages for Brush Gold Electroplating open Q. (March 24)
37255. Restoring the yellow dichromate finish on automobile carburetors camera open Q. (March 24)
34482. How to Oil Rub Bronze open Q. (March 24)
11428. Restoring wood burning stoves (March 20)
06876. Black oxidized steel for kitchen countertop? (March 17)
13825 Strip black rhodium from silver necklace (March 17)
10209. 304 stainless exhaust header pipe turns brown (March 17)
60945. Making lace cotton fabric rigid enough for electroplating (March 17) vip
19047. Want to use my Magnalite warranty 45 years later (March 14)
22177. Polishing old fire extinguishers open Q. (March 13)
24229. Making homemade acid stains for concrete open Q. (March 12)
25718. Copper pipe is turning black. How to remove it? (March 12)
30273. Lacquering pitted gold plating (March 10)
00161. Clear coating copper (March 5)
43774. Restoring bleach damaged silver (March 2)
01006. Step by step copper plating guide for novice (March 2)
02456. Copper plated bolts are rusting in a few weeks camera (March 2)
03755.Sealing silverware to make it dishwasher safe open Q. (March 2) beRFQ: 24520. Anodizing stainless steel sculptures camera (March 2)
27167. Minimizing galvanic corrosion between 316SS and 6061 aluminum open Q. (February 27)
18650. Blackening tin fishing sinkers (February 23)
07137. Dirilyte gold-tone flatware: Cleaning / Polishing (February 20)
16306. Aluminum as art painting surface open Q. (February 19)
30504. Artist painting sheet metal open Q. (February 19)
34482. Housekeepers ruined oil rubbed bronze finish on bath hardware open Q. (February 19)
35232. Clear coat sealer for cast iron camera (February 19)
33143. Repairing base of Stiffel lamp camera (February 17)
29492. Redoing gold plating on Honda Goldwing at home open Q. (February 12)
34618. Dishwasher discolored my silver plated flatware (February 10)
60863. Hardcoat plus anti-fouling paint for aluminum sailboat? camera open Q. (February 5)
02884. Aluminum for pool ladder? (February 5)
08204. Scratched and dull surface on stainless steel refrigerator door open Q. (January 29)
26032. Change brass coffee table to nickel or chrome look camera open Q. (January 28)
60927. Moldy paint on new aluminum boat open Q. (January 28)
01210. Simple method of black anodizing aluminum wanted open Q. (January 27)
00757. Restoring an old National Cash Register (January 27)
21724. How to remove scratches from stainless steel refrigerator doors? open Q. (January 27)
34271. Identifying finish on old skeleton key camera (January 23)
36471. Why does silver tea set remain slightly 'goldish/yellowish' despite endless polishing? open Q. (January 21)
34687. Jewelry plating problems for hobbyists, designers, startups (January 18)
41663. Blue Chromate Plating -- what is it? open Q. (January 17)
41066. Dishwasher ruined shiny aluminum -- How to fix it? (January 13)
03191. Power Supply for Hobbyist Zinc Plating open Q. (January 8)
11628. Bluing didn't stop gun from rusting but transmission fluid did (January 4)
00003. Can real mag wheels be chrome plated? camera (January 3)
32894. Melting down old gold to make new jewelry (January 2)

    6b. RESEARCH, THESIS TOPICS, UNIVERSITY & POST-GRAD STUDENTS

13738. Questions about Immersion Plating / Replacement Plating (April 10)
50837. Walls of vacuum chamber became discolored (March 3)
34185. Hammered copper sheeting for table top is lifting (February 26)
45646. What is the silvering and plating process for audio LP vinyl records? (February 22)
57025. Why chromium plating generates so much fumes (February 20)
60929. Plating the ID of a mm ID stainless steel tube open Q. (January 29)

    6c. K-12 SCIENCE PROJECTS, GRAMMAR & HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT QUESTIONS

04134. Copper sulphate reaction with steel wool (May 6)
27653. How long does it take for pennies to corrode? (April 24)
26899. What metals rust the fastest (April 18)
47743. How long does it take for copper and steel to rust? (April 9)
11608. Science project: Turning pennies gold color (actually brass) (February 23)
21771. HCl concentration effect on rust removal (January 17)
19022. Student copper plating issues (January 8)
17977. How to make bronze (December 7)
17976. Cleaning pennies for science project (December 1)

7. DRIFTED OFF FINISHING, BUT INTERESTING TO SOME OF US :-)

12373. Zinc oxide production by French process open Q. (May 20)
13393. Preparing sea shells for crafts or display open Q. (May 17)
21381. How to test the Aimpon to find out it if it is fake? (May 9)
44362. Swallowed Sodium Hypochlorite during root canal (April 24)
00283. Is my Kenrick brass door knocker a counterfeit? camera (April 20)
02754. Hanson Van-Winkle Munning (H-VW-M) memories & memorabilia open Q. (April 18)
52212. Cleaning blackened bank notes (March 30)
52413. Can lead anodes be used in hydrogen generator open Q. (March 24)
04902. Sun reflection from windows is melting plastic siding on neighbor's house! camera (March 17)
03096. Shielding your home from a power transformer open Q. (March 17)
17903. Tile contractor's muriatic acid corroded our stainless steel appliances camera (March 10)
13807. Need very high friction non-pneumatic wheel coating for Bonneville Salt Flats car (March 9)
18884. Old HOYT cast metal ingots camera open Q. (March 6)
33365. Shafting and bronze bushing/bearing issues (March 4)
24359. Barber Chair Restoration Q&A's and Successes camera open Q. (February 27)
15190. Tree stump killer open Q. (February 18)
53795. Want a chemical that heats up when mixed with water open Q. (February 17)
25152. Bending thinwall aluminum tubing without damage? (February 16)
20033. Did my dog discover that my fireplace stone contains gold? (February 6)
14057. Mill Scale Uses and Applications (February 5)
17560. Bottle cap table hopelessly warped camera (January 26)
29544. Washer machine drain hose overflows open Q. (January 25)
54552. Why Don't Electric Fences Kill Us? (January 24)
22201. Killing roots with copper sulphate camera (January 21)
60920. Glazed and polished porcelain tiles open Q. (January 20)
49464. Cleaning up cement dust from sanding of concrete floor (January 13)

legend:

(    )= Date in parentheses is most recent posting on the thread
open Q.= Thread currently ends with a question or the editor-curator's inconclusive musings
opinion!= Comments may raise blood pressure
silly :-)= For those with a sense of humor
video= Contains embedded video
camera= The inquiry has photos / graphics
pdf= Contains embedded pdf
vip= Inquirer often helps others, so especially deserves our help
spanish= Thread is partially in Spanish

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