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"Electroplating of iron onto copper soldering iron tips"

Current question and answers:

February 26, 2021

Q. I need to plate multiple pieces of Bismuth Shot with Iron or Iron-Zinc coating. much prefer just iron.

What bath, temperature, and pH value do I need?

Could someone help ?

Tim Wei
- Irvine California
^

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February 2021

A. Hi Tim. I give the formulation & operating conditions for one iron plating bath on this page; and other readers offer several other proposals on this page and on 3 other long threads on electrodeposition of iron, viz., topics 9456, 24616, and 25982.

But! ... that sounds like the easy part!   :-)
... because I'm not finding any info about electroplating onto bismuth, and I don't know what pretreatment sequence is required, nor whether there are reactions with other metals which dictate required plating underlayers.

So plating iron (with the aggressiveness of that solution, its propensity for pitting, its requirement for no air agitation, its high stress, its porosity, etc.) directly onto bismuth sounds quite unlikely. If you have achieved success in plating another metal onto bismuth please tell us about it and we can start from there because that should probably be plated onto the bismuth as an underlayer first :-)

Luck & Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
Aloha -- an idea worth spreading
finishing.com - Pine Beach, New Jersey
^


February 26, 2021

Q. Thank you Mr. T. Mooney:
I have been able to plate tin and copper directly onto bismuth shot and onto my other products tungsten shot and lead shot. I have been able to plate them thick, like 15 µm to 35 µm.

Thus, I believe we can consider plating iron onto tin or onto copper. Maybe zinc too (I recall a sub contractor plated zinc onto bismuth for another client of his years ago).

Also, what is iron-zinc plating good for?

I studied at Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa. Lived on Big Island for 6 months too, Aloha Spirit is worth spreading...

Mahalo.

Tim

Tim Wei [returning]
- Irvine California
^


February 2021

A. Hi again, Tim. Thanks for the info on plating onto bismuth -- I'm unfamiliar with it and did not see anything readily on google.

I'm not familiar with iron-zinc plating if the order of the metals implies that you are talking bout more iron than zinc. Zinc-iron plating (much more zinc than iron) is an alternative to plain zinc plating and offers improved corrosion resistance plus enhanced ability to do black chromating on it.

Luck & Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
Aloha -- an idea worth spreading
finishing.com - Pine Beach, New Jersey
^


July 19, 2021

Q. For those with an interest in the history of iron electroplating, this article on the subject was in the Nov 27, 1869 issue of Scientific American. An interesting note is of the addition of a small quantity of gelatin to "improve the texture". Could this suppress pit-forming bubbles?

Scientific American - Electro-Plating with Iron
November 27, 1869
The Hon. Cassius M. Clay, late U. S. Minister to Russia, has recently returned from St. Petersburg, bringing with him some fine specimens of iron electrotypes, done after the process of Prof. Jacobi and Klein. The process was patented in this country through the Scientific American Patent Agency, Sept. 29, 1868. The following description of the process we copy from the patent specification:
"Our invention consists in the application of a practical galvano-plastic process as to the deposits of iron on molds, or any other form, for reproducing engravings, stereotypes, and for other useful or ornamental purposes.
The galvano-plastic bath we use is composed of sulphate of iron, combined with the sulphates of either ammonia, potash, or soda, which form, with sulphate of iron, analogous, double salts.
The sulphate of iron may also be used, in combination with the chlorides of the said alkalis, but we still prefer the use of sulphates. The bath should be kept as neutral as possible, though a small quantity of a weak organic acid may be added, in order to prevent the precipitation of salts of peroxide of iron.
A small quantity of gelatin will improve the texture of the iron deposit.
As in all galvano-plastic processes, the elevation of the temperature of the bath contributes to the uniformity of the deposit of iron, and accelerates its formation.
For keeping up the concentration of the bath, we use, as anodes. large iron plates, or bundles of wire of the same metal.
Having observed that the spontaneous dissolution of the iron anode is, in some cases, insufficient to restore to the bath all the iron deposited on the cathode, we found it useful to combine the iron anode with a plate of gas-coal, copper, platinum, or any other metal being electro-negative toward iron, and which we place in the bath itself.
As a matter of course, this negative plate may also be placed in a separate porous cell, filled with an exciting fluid, as diluted nitric or sulphuric acid, or the nitrates or sulphates of potash and soda.
For producing the current, we usually take no more than one or two cells of Daniels' or Smee's battery, the size of which is proportioned to the surface of the cathode.
It is indispensable that the current should be regulated, and kept always uniform, with the assistance of a galvanometer, having but few coils, and therefore offering only a small resistance.
The intensity of the current ought to be such as to admit only of a feeble evolution of gas-bubbles at the cathode, but it would become prejudicial to the beauty of the deposit if gas-bubbles were allowed to adhere to its surface."

John Erbes
Electroplating Hobbyist - Milwaukee, Wisconsin
^


July 2021

A. Hi John. Thanks for the history.

Plating solutions often (probably usually) have at least two addition agents: a brightener and a wetter. The 'brightener' (or combination of brighteners, levelers, etc.) usually serve the general purpose of being attracted to and 'shielding' the high current density areas to improve the leveling and to promote the formation of more adatoms discouraging the growth of large metal crystals (which creates porosity where the crystals meet). The 'wetter' is usually some sort of detergent that reduces the viscosity, surface tension, etc. so that the hydrogen gas bubbles float free sooner. I can't really say the role of the gelatin for sure, but I believe it probably served as a brightener rather than a wetter.

Luck & Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
Aloha -- an idea worth spreading
finishing.com - Pine Beach, New Jersey
^




Previous closely related Q&A's, oldest first:

2002

Q. How do we do iron coating on copper bits used in soldering irons?

Preet S [last name deleted for privacy by Editor]
- New Delhi, India
^


2002

A. Dear Preet,

Please continue on down this page that you've started, and you'll see good technical answers develop. For a less technical answer, you may be able to obtain a license from a soldering iron manufacturer to use the technology they have developed, or find a supplier of a proprietary iron plating process who will assist you with the application of their process chemistry onto soldering irons.

While waiting for the thread to develop, you might also do a computerized search of the published literature; there have been a few articles on this subject in the journals over the years. Perhaps Metal Finishing Information Service at www.surfacequery.com can assist you with that, or scholar.google.com if you don't have access to such databases.

Or start by telling us what you know and don't know -- that always generates much more enthusiastic responses than a request from a stranger for a unilateral technology transfer. Good luck.

Regards,

Ted Mooney, finishing.com
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha
finishing.com - Pine Beach, New Jersey
^



affil. link
"Quality Hand Soldering & Circuit Board Repair"
from Abe Books

or

2005

Q. I am a hobbyist mainly in the electronic field. I understand that lead-free soldering is the new trend. When I started soldering PCBs with lead-free solder I found the solder iron tip decay rate is very high. Then I referred to the internet and I saw that the high Tin (Sn) content in the lead-free solder is eating the copper tip. Further I understand that lead-free soldering irons have special tips which have been iron plated on the copper bit to prevent this fast decay. My soldering iron has no such bits available in the market and I thought to make and try one tip myself. Therefore, can you describe how to electroplate Iron onto a copper soldering bit (a copper rod)
Thank you.

Gamini C [last name deleted for privacy by Editor]
Hobbyist - Negombo, Sri Lanka
^


"Electroplating"
by Lowenheim
from Abe Books
or

(affil. link)

2005

A. Iron plating is more difficult for hobbyists than some other types of plating, Gamini, because iron has multiple oxidation states. Without proper attention, or with exposure to air, the iron will oxidize to the higher oxidation level from which state it is not longer soluble and can't be plated -- so avoid air agitation.

I think a hobbyist with no plating experience will have a significantly harder time successfully doing iron plating than starting with something else like nickel or zinc, so if you are determined to learn to electroplate, I'd suggest you practice with nickel plating first.

Some plating references don't even cover iron plating because it's rather uncommon, but 6 baths are discussed in Lowenheim's "Electroplating" .

The simplest is probably the
240 g/l FeSO4.6H2O bath operated at
pH of 2.8-3.5 and
temperature of 32-65 °C,
current density 400-1000 A/sq. m.

Good luck!

Ted Mooney, finishing.com
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha
finishing.com - Pine Beach, New Jersey
^


2007

A. I have found a simple and reliable plating solution for plating hard iron onto copper soldering tips:
1 liter Ferrous (II) Chloride 0.86 Molar (11% conc),
240 grams Ferrous Sulphate heptahydrate FeSO4.7H20, and
150 grams Sodium Citrate Na3C6H507.

I use about one cup of solution with a malleable cast iron washer in the bottom as a spent anode. Just hang the soldering tip into to solution as the cathode at about 50-100 mA and plating time and finish will vary with temperature and current. This produces a very hard and durable iron finish at low temperatures.

Michael Guerre
- Claremont, California USA
^


2007

thumbs up signThanks a lot, Michael!

Ted Mooney, finishing.com
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha
finishing.com - Pine Beach, New Jersey
^



2006

RFQ: I am looking for a source for iron plating of copper for custom solder tips we make in-house for our soldering department. various shapes and sizes though the largest is about 4" X 8" piece.

We are looking at individual pieces, but could send 5-20 pieces at a time.

Thanks,

Walt R [last name deleted for privacy by Editor]
Metal Fabrication - Croswell, Michigan
^

^- Sorry, this RFQ is outdated
     View Current RFQs




affil. link
"Modern Solder Technology"
from Abe Books

or

2005 -- this entry appended to this thread by editor in lieu of spawning a duplicative thread

Q. Sir,

We are manufacturers of soldering and de-soldering stations. Since we need long life iron plated soldering bits and de-soldering nozzles we request you to kindly let us know the plating process involved in iron plating on copper.

1. How a plating bath is to be prepared.
2. What is the solution required
3. is there any catalyst required if so what.
4. What is the bath temperature.
5. How to avoid pitting problem.
6. What is the voltage supplied to cathode and anode and the bath.
7. Which kind of iron is to used as cathode and anode.

K. Raghu R [last name deleted for privacy by Editor]
mfrs of soldering and de soldering station - Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India
^


2005

A. Hi K.Raghu,

Iron plating is rather uncommon; the plating of soldering equipment being one of very few applications. The other manufacturers of soldering equipment don't seem to be publishing papers about their tricks, so it is difficult to get really good information and feedback.

We appended your inquiry to a thread which presents two possible plating baths. There are other baths available including sulfate and fluoborate; I don't believe that they use catalysts of any type; they do operate at different temperatures though; wetting agents are used to discourage pitting; high purity Armco Iron is used for the anodes.

The best advice may be to get all of the published information you can find, probably starting with the previously referenced Electroplating by Lowenheim, and the Iron Plating chapter in the Metal Finishing Guidebook; but also to investigate the possibility of buying a proprietary iron plating bath which will have already been proven by the supplier for soldering equipment applications.

You are in the soldering equipment business, yet have no knowledge of this technology? The obvious question on readers' minds then is whether that is because you are having the parts plated by an outside shop, or whether it's because you currently are doing a plating other than iron on the tips? If you are currently doing a different type of plating please tell us about it!

If you are already in fact doing iron plating, please relate your situation and difficulties; your willingness to share may inspire others to do so. Thanks!

Ted Mooney, finishing.com
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha
finishing.com - Pine Beach, New Jersey
^


2005

A. Having performed this very application a couple of years ago, it's indeed very tricky! We used a ferric chloride bath, very hot. It's very inefficient, so gas liberation is big problem leading to, as you guessed, pits. We were only able to get rid of pits by putting a cam on the work bar to raise it up 3 or 4 inches and then drop it on the sides of the tank literally knocking off the pit forming bubbles. The actual bath formulation came from one of the above references. Good luck

milt stevenson jr.
Milt Stevenson, Jr.
Anoplate Corporation
supporting advertiser 
Syracuse, New York

Anoplate banner
^


2005

That's a good point, Milt: iron baths are very subject to oxidation, so air agitation is a problem. Perhaps eductors are workable; but I haven't seen them or tried them in this application.

Ted Mooney, finishing.com
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha
finishing.com - Pine Beach, New Jersey
^


sidebar
2006

I have coated various metals metallic substrates with plasma technology. It should be possible to coat copper with iron.

H.R. Prabhakara - Consultant
bangaloreplasmatek.com - Bangalore Karnataka India
^



2003 -- this entry appended to this thread by editor in lieu of spawning a duplicative thread

Q. I'm looking for some information regarding the coating of a soldering head. I'm looking to put a new soldering machine into production, but the soldering surface has to be a custom shape, so I'm unable to use an off-the-shelf tip. As I understand it, iron is the preferred material, but I'm finding it hard to locate a company in England that performs iron coatings.

Is there an alternative metal/material/process that can be used to protect the copper in the tip from corrosion by the flux? From my research, it seems that ferrous sulphate is the most common electrolyte for plating. Is anyone able to tell me about the practicalities of performing this process in-house, bearing in mind that we are not an electroplating company. I don't think a particularly smooth finish is required, but a reasonable level of join stability is needed, as it is subject to thermal expansion and contraction cycles.

Nickel is often used to prevent the solder from running up the tip, as the solder cannot 'wet' to the nickel surface. Does anyone know if chromium can be used instead of iron for the tip coating, and how does this perform in contact with the solder?

Rupert T [last name deleted for privacy by Editor]
- Southampton, Hampshire, England
^


2003

A. Hi Rupert. You are doing a pretty good job of figuring out what is involved in plating the tips of soldering irons. But if I were in your position I would continue looking for someone to do the plating. Bringing plating into house is not impossible but often subjects companies to an entire new set of responsibilities and harassments they are not prepared for including wastewater treatment, hazardous waste disposal, ventilation systems, employee exposure monitoring, etc.

Something that most potential users who have not been exposed to electroplating since school days may not realize is that in general you don't formulate plating processes from basic chemicals like in school; rather, there is a whole industry of suppliers who have perfected the plating solutions, and offer them as proprietary products. They can provide workable process solutions, and be of great assistance to you in planning for an in-house installation.

Good luck.

Ted Mooney, finishing.com
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha
finishing.com - Pine Beach, New Jersey
^


2003

A. If you are talking about a small number of tips that would be of a medium size tip for electronics and are having grief finding a plating firm in the UK, you might want to take a look at brush plating. Tampon plating in your corner of the world. Talk to vendors in your country (at least 2).

Instead of doing it all with the brush method, do the iron step in a tiny tank. This would not involve more than 50 to 100 ml. This could be used a few times and then stored in a used solution container. If your laws are similar to the USA ones, you can keep the small amount generated for a very very long time and then ship it off for proper treatment. Their smallest rig that is above the plating pen size would do you nicely. Probably would only take 5 amps. Plan on sending a competent person to their school that is typically 2-5 days.

James Watts
- Navarre, Florida
^


2003

A. Iron plating of solder iron tips is still the best finish. Electroless nickel is used for de-soldering. Iron is also plated from an HCl, ferrous chloride solution at 90 °C plating. Not a nice solution to have in a shop. There is also ferrous sulfamate that plates at pH 4, but it is little used mostly because people don't know very much about it.

don baudrand
Don Baudrand
Consultant - Poulsbo, Washington
(Don is co-author of "Plating on Plastics" [affil link to the book on: Amazon or AbeBooks ])
^



September 22, 2015

Q. I found a reference to plating iron (copper, aluminium, etc.) in www.google.com/patents/US630246

I ordered the oxalic acid, ammonium sulfate and trisodium phosphate but I have very little experience in plating. I'll try to make it work, but I would like to hear some experts on it.

John Wilkinson
- Clearwater, Florida
^


affil. link
Practical Electroplating Handbook
by N.V. Parthasaradhy
from Abe Books or
partha book
See our review

September 2015

A. Hi John. That 1899 patent covers a method to activate aluminum for electroplating, and is not where I would have started in attempting electrodeposition of iron. Further, the hydrofluoric acid it employs is probably the most dangerous material used in a plating shop. Or maybe you just gave us the wrong patent number.

Anyway, I'd suggest trying a plating text first. Lowenheim's "Electroplating" [affil. link to book on Amazon] lists 6 iron plating baths. Parthasaradhy's "Practical Electroplating Handbook" offers a number of formulations =>
Lowenheim's "Modern Electroplating" [affil. link to book on Amazon] has a pretty broad chapter on it and might be your best choice. Good luck.

Regards,

Ted Mooney, finishing.com
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha
finishing.com - Pine Beach, New Jersey
^


December 3, 2017

A. I would guess that John Wilkinson means patent US7235165 B2, the reagents he describes are the same as those in the above.

https://www.google.com/patents/US7235165

Jon Light
- County Wexford Ireland
^


December 2017

thumbs up sign  Thanks for unearthing that information, Jon. What is the thrust of that patent though, if you are familiar with it? I've read its claims and don't understand what it is claiming as patentable, or even unusual. Instructions to 3rd-grade schoolchildren about how to electroplate zinc or copper with kitchen ingredients like vinegar and salt also start with no zinc or copper in the solution -- so it can't just be starting with no metal ions in solution :-)

Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
Aloha -- an idea worth spreading
finishing.com - Pine Beach, New Jersey
^


December 4, 2017

A. Iron plates quite well from a simple ferrous sulphate solution.

Your proposed solution appears to contain no source of iron !
You should also know that oxalic acid is highly toxic.

geoff smith
Geoff Smith
Hampshire, England
^

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