finishing.com -- The Home Page of the Finishing Industry
A website for Serious Education, promoting Aloha,
& the most FUN smiley you can have in metal finishing

HomeFAQsSuggested
Books
Help
Wanteds
Advertise
on this site
FORUM
current topics
topic 3606, p2

Black Chrome Plating



1       2



A discussion started in 1999 but continuing through 2018

October 29, 2010

Q. Hi,

Regarding the black chrome plating, what would happen if I only do a 1 minute nickel strike (instead of a proper bright nickel plating) before I have my workpiece go into black chrome?

We've tested 1000 pieces samples and have 20% of them defected with peel-off problem.

Is that the main cause of such high volume of NC?

Thanks

John Wolf
- Malaysia


October 31, 2010

A. Hi, John.

No, I don't think that is the problem. Heavier nickel plating produces more brightness and reflectivity, but the thickness of the nickel plating should not affect the adhesion. You haven't yet described the substrate, the pretreatment, the other layers of plating, etc., and I think the problem is elsewhere. When the plating peels, what do you see on the inside of the blister and on the substrate underneath the blister?

Regards,

Ted Mooney, finishing.com
Teds signature
Ted Mooney, P.E.
finishing.com
Pine Beach, New Jersey


November 1, 2010

Q. Hi Ted

I was amazed by your quick response, and yes, I should give more details.

Here's my process :

1. Ultrasonic soak clean
- UDYPRxx 110 = 55~65 g/l
- Temp = 60 ~ 70'c
- Duration = 5 min

2. Normal soak clean
- UDYPRxx 110 = 55~65 g/l
- Temp = 60 ~ 70'c
- Duration = 5 min

3. Cathodic clean
- A-CLxxN = 10~15
- Sulfuric ACID = 10~12%
- Temp = Room temp
Duration = 30 sec

4. Acid dip
- HCl Acid = 10~12%
- Temp = Room Temp
- Duration = 30 sec

5. Nickel Strike
- Ni Chloride = 200~220 g/l
- HCl Acid = 60~90 g/l
- Voltage = 3~5v
- Temp = Room Temp
- Duration = 45 sec

6. Activation
- Chromic Acid = 3gm/l
- Duration = 20 sec

7. Black Chrome
- Chromic Acid = 400~430 gm/l
- B400 = 25~35 gm/l
- Voltage = 5~8v
- Temp = 18~24'c
- Duration = 7 min

8. Hot water rinsing
- Temp = 70~80'c
- Duration = 5 sec

* there are 2~3 water rinsings after each process

I hope this should help

John Wolf
- Malaysia


November 2, 2010

A. Hi, John. This sounds like a robust treatment cycle. I am not an expert in your treatment cycle, but I don't understand why the nickel plated parts are "activated" in chromic acid. It would seem to me that a dip in an oxidizing acid would tend to passivate the nickel rather than activate it. Also, your "cathodic clean" step is a bit unusual (depending on the substrate) -- most treatment cycles would have an alkaline electroclean step instead. What is the substrate you are plating onto? Thanks.

Regards,

Ted Mooney, finishing.com
Teds signature
Ted Mooney, P.E.
finishing.com
Pine Beach, New Jersey


November 9, 2010

A. 1. The activating step in 6 using chromic acid would seem to passivate the nickel. I thought so too at one time. But (for conventional bright chrome plating) I've dipped my parts in the first drag out of the chromium tank (10 secs), followed by regular chromium plating, seems to somewhat improve the chrome coverage.
2. Yes. The acidic cathodic clean seems a bit unusual to me as well.
3. The woods nickel strike in 5 , suggests a high probability of a substrate of stainless steel.
4. I've plated black chrome directly on stainless steel using below process sequence with water rinses in between :
a. Soak Clean
b. Anodic Clean (VERY IMPORTANT)
c. Acid Dip (HCl)
d. Black Chrome

SK Cheah
- Penang, Malaysia


January 31, 2011

I've got a black chrome raleigh burner. Here's a pic --

black chrome plating 5

Alan harwood
- Lowestoft, U.K.



April 27, 2012

Q. I am looking at purchasing some parts for my truck that I would eventually like to get black chromed. The 2 finishes the products are now available in are either polished stainless steel and powdercoated carbon steel.

Which would be more conducive in terms of longevity (against chipping/flacking/peeling/rusting/etc) and which would be easier/cheaper to get black chromed?

Any other advantages or disadvantages with stainless vs carbon steel?

Much appreciated!

Christopher Grotjahn
- Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S.A.


November 14, 2012

A. Hi Christopher.

Getting the powder coating 100% off might be an issue, so if you are intending to one day apply black chrome, I'd go with the stainless steel. Stainless should also prove very corrosion resistant. Good luck.

Regards,

Ted Mooney, finishing.com
Teds signature
Ted Mooney, P.E.
finishing.com
Pine Beach, New Jersey


November 13, 2012 -- this entry appended to this thread by editor in lieu of spawning a duplicative thread

Q. We are a small arms manufacturer and are looking for coatings for a conceal carry gun. I have been told to try black Chrome but cannot find any info on it.

Jim Bruchas
- Pevely, Missouri


November 14, 2012

A. Hi Jim. We appended your inquiry to a thread about black chrome plating which should answer most of your early questions. Feel free to follow up with further questions.

Regards,

Ted Mooney, finishing.com
Teds signature
Ted Mooney, P.E.
finishing.com
Pine Beach, New Jersey


April 7, 2013

Q. I was just wondering why black chrome isn't seen more on auto parts, besides wheels. Would it work okay on vehicle bumpers?

Cameron Latham
- Abilene, Texas, USA


April 8, 2013

A. Hi Cameron. I have seen black chrome plated decorative trim on automobiles, although I don't recall seeing a black chrome bumper. There was a time, back when I first started driving, that bumpers were bumpers, and expected to occasionally kiss, so a scratch in a black chrome bumper, which revealed shinier nickel plating under it might have been a problem. Today, it seems that cars are never expected to touch each other, and reimbursement of damage is expected if they do; so "bumpers" is an oxymoron today, and black chrome bumpers are probably acceptable.

But color matching may be another issue, as black chrome ranges from a very subtle smokiness to quite dark.

Regards,

Ted Mooney, finishing.com
Teds signature
Ted Mooney, P.E.
finishing.com
Pine Beach, New Jersey


September 27, 2013

Q. Hi I just stumbled across your forum, I have a Black Chrome problem. If you can help me it would be gratefully appreciated.
I have restored a classic 80's motorcycle and have an original Black Chrome exhaust, it has been rubbed or polished out in an approx. area of 170 mm x 120 mm so the coating has lifted and the lighter coat is showing through. This is really bugging me; if you have any suggestions or advice it would help me sleep at night.
Thanking you in advance.

Frank

FRANK JONES
Printing - Hertfordshire, England


September 27, 2013

A. Hi Frank. Short of sending it back to a plating shop, trying a very light spray of high temperature paint is probably your only fix.
But if your sleep is being disturbed, maybe it's a streetlight reflecting off the lighter area and shining in your eyes; drawing the shade might be a third option :-)

Regards,

Ted Mooney, finishing.com
Teds signature
Ted Mooney, P.E.
finishing.com
Pine Beach, New Jersey


September 30, 2013

thumbs up signThanks Ted I thought as much I best leave it alone, over in England we don't seem to be big on black chrome plating. I appreciate the reply

All the best.
Frank

FRANK JONES
Printing - Hertfordshire England



Black chrome plating on stainless steel

3606-7
May 9, 2014

Q. Please suggest me the successful procedure to do Black Chrome on stainless steel parts. With little bit wear resistance property and consistent and uniform color.

Complete step by step procedure will be better for my understanding. Also tell me the testing criteria of Black chrome.

shafi mirza
manufacturer - sialkot, punjab, pakistan


May 2014

A. Hi cousin Shafi.

In principle, you clean the parts, activate them with a Wood's nickel strike process, bright nickel plate them, then chrome plate them in a chrome plating solution that has been deliberately contaminated with materials that cause the deposit to be black.

The testing methods are not arbitrary, but are done to try to insure that the finish will meet your needs, and we're not sure what those needs are: Are you trying to make internal optical parts for binoculars, telescopes, & cameras, or are you trying to impart a decorative look to automotive or bicycle components? Are they interior automotive parts or exterior? Why is wear resistance important -- is it a machine part, or do you just want reasonable resistance when people touch it? Generally a CASS accelerated corrosion test is run, informal adhesion tests like bending sheetmetal around a dowel to look for peeling and/or more formal adhesion testing is usually done, and there are wear tests like Taber abrasion, but they may be more severe that the chrome can withstand or needs to withstand.

Although this site has hundreds of friendly & knowledgable readers who would like to help you, your request for "complete step by step procedure" is not reasonable. Chrome plating books run well over 200 pages (which of those pages is it safe for them to omit in their answer when you've asked for 'complete' info?). People who have read those books and have years of practical plating experience still come here for help because they are having problems :-)

A general guideline for answerable metal finishing questions is that if you want an answer that can be given in fewer words than your question, you'll probably get it here; but if you need an answer that takes more words than your question, people may not be able to answer it, and a book is usually a better approach. My honest advice is, if you don't already have substantial plating experience, try to find someone in Pakistan who knows how to do black chrome plating and retain them, or you're looking at months of work to get anywhere at all. Best of luck!

Regards,

Ted Mooney, finishing.com
Teds signature
Ted Mooney, P.E.
finishing.com
Pine Beach, New Jersey



July 20, 2014

Q. I am restoring an '82 Suzuki and it has what I thought was black chrome on the exhaust pipes, however I bought a genuine old stock new exhaust heat guard to replace the one missing on the bike. The finish on it looks like some sort of black dye. It is definitely not paint.

3606-8a 3606-8b

The whole exhaust system has been done the same way so the coating is able to tolerate high heat temperature. Do you know what this coating is and how can it be replicated?

John Irvine
- Christchurch, Canterbury, New Zealand


July 2014

A. Hi John. Going just from appearance, while ruling out finishes that are not suitable for exterior automotive application, my guess is that it is indeed black chrome plating.

Regards,

Ted Mooney, finishing.com
Teds signature
Ted Mooney, P.E.
finishing.com
Pine Beach, New Jersey



September 10, 2014

Q. Hi,

I'm looking to get some Black Chrome plating done of some high-powered rifle cartridges, made of brass. Is it possible to apply this coating to brass parts? And is it possible for me to do it? (I have a fairly good grip of inorganic chemistry), if so, I imagine I'm going to need to read a book or two about it, so do you have any pointers of where I might be able to go to acquire the information I will need to plate these cases?

Thanks

Kieran Chambers
- Perth, WA, Australia


September 2014

A. Hi Kieran. I don't know whether nickel + chrome plating is appropriate for rifle cartridges, both as a finish that will function properly, and as one which will not embrittle the brass.

Further, while nothing is impossible, and a determined artist or hobbyist can achieve wonders, I also don't want to leave you with the false impression that black chrome plating is a casual hobby; it's an industrial science that involves carcinogenic processes, and the whole world is working to minimize or eliminate it :-(

I don't think anyone can even tabulate all the millions of dollars that have been spent by the aircraft industry and the U.S. military in working to find less toxic substitutes for it. Good luck.

Regards,

Ted Mooney, finishing.com
Teds signature
Ted Mooney, P.E.
finishing.com
Pine Beach, New Jersey


September 29, 2014

A. If you are seeking the black for cosmetic reasons, there are blackening agents that will color/oxidize the brass for you. Otherwise, like Ted said, the process for nickel and black chrome plating is rather not safe.

Justin Brooks
- Rock Island, Illinois USA


September 30, 2014

A. You could blacken them a lot easier by just dipping them, after cleaning, in some liver of sulfur solution. What effect this would have on the firearm I don't know - but the coating (unlike plating) is of negligible thickness and won't change the dimensions of the cartridge much.

dave wichern
Dave Wichern
Consultant - The Bronx, New York


October 3, 2014

A. Hi Kieren

When a cartridge is fired, the neck expands to seal the chamber against the high pressure gasses. As the bullet leaves the muzzle, the pressure drops and the neck contracts to allow easy extraction. The spring properties of brass is ideally suited to this which is why it is universally used. Chrome plating is hard and cracks easily under stress which explains why the few 'silver' coloured cartridges are nickel plated.

Ted and others have pointed out the hazards of chrome plating but not the expense of setting up, disposal of used chemicals etc.. It gets worse. A cartridge is a small deep bottle shape and will fill up with each station of the process and transfer contaminating chemicals to the next stage ( there are several!)so each must be plugged (including the primer pocket) and then jigged to get current to each.

I would go with Dave and use a sulfide process - but do make certain the cases are really clean. That is chemist clean not engineer clean!

geoff smith
Geoff Smith
Hampshire,
       England



November 25, 2014

A. Kieren, may I ask why you want to plate your brass? If you do your own handloads, that entire process may result in scratching the finish. Cleaning your cases by tumbling will polish raw brass. What will happen with a plated part? It's a known fact that nickel plated cases, like some .357 cartridges I have, show scratches when you resize. When you re-trim your cases to the proper C.O.L. of .010" under maximum length as prescribed by SAMMI specs, you're going to remove any plating at the edge of case mouth. Crimping while bullet seating; if you do that, could also remove some of the plating.

Plating build up in the primer pocket may add enough material to make primer seating an issue, too, provided the plating process will throw enough into that area. It isn't true "blind hole", hence no air pocket to impede flow of the plating bath.

Depending on the rifle, you may even find a definitive scratch at the case mouth from what I believe is caused by the extractor. My Ruger American does this but my Springfield '03-A3 doesn't. Then there's the embrittlement issue that's been brought up previously. Brass cases have enough problems, split cases through work hardening from repeated uses, without introducing a plating process.

But, hey, this is my humble opinion after I checked a bunch of my recent brass that's gone through my tungsten carbide dies maybe 4 times already. Of course, I have no experience with black chrome. When I was in the military connector industry, we used zinc, gold, cadmium, electroless nickel and anodizing on all those connectors you'll find in Boeing aircraft.

Bob Tlapa
- Lombard, Illinois USA



April 24, 2015

Q. Hi everyone
I have a small workshop in handgun maintenance with nickel and gold, and I want to add black chromium because customers usually ask for it.
I want to ask about black chroming formula and procedures.
Thanks.

goldnickle ali
- Muscat , Oman


Chromium Plating
by Weiner & Walmsley
from Abe Books

or

April 2015

A. Hi Ali. To my knowledge most black chrome plating is done with proprietary formulas. One of the better known is Econo-Chrome BK, originally from Macdermid / Canning, with operating conditions described in "The Canning Handbook" style= [link is to info about book at Amazon]. I think, however, that multiple vendors now offer that process.

If you are restricted to generic processes, there are at least some starting points in Weiner & Walmsley's "Chromium Plating" =>
There are also some simple formulas in the digital version of the Metal Finishing Guidebook, although that site might go off the air at any time since the magazine is defunct -- so you might want to get a hard copy of the Guidebook.

These black chrome processes involve hexavalent chrome plating, which is toxic and carcinogenic, and may not be appropriate to a small gunsmithing operation. Good luck.

Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
finishing.com
Pine Beach, New Jersey
Striving to live "Aloha"

September 10, 2015

thumbs up signWow, I started this discussion in 1999, what great answers/information. Thanks everyone for your input.
Plan is to Black Chrome EVERY piece of regular chrome on a 427 Cobra that will be painted black with pearl blue ghost stripes.

Wayne McAllaster
Medusa's Monsters - Atascadero, California USA



October 5, 2015

Q. What is the process or additives (i.e., other metals) that cause the color to change between normal color chrome and black chrome?

roy Wilson
engineering - tampa, Florida, usa


November 2015

A. Hi Roy. Many shops rely on proprietaries from the major plating process suppliers, and we naturally could not tell you exactly what those proprietaries are, but letter 10818 is concerned with generic additives and operating conditions for black chrome plating. Good luck.

Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
finishing.com
Pine Beach, New Jersey
Striving to live "Aloha"


November 12, 2015

Q. I'm in the process of building a VW Trike. I'm using coil-over shocks on the rear. All I can find are chrome plated on the springs. I'd like to replace it with black Chrome. Can you help me out on the process. I'm hoping it's possible!

Michael Pipe
- Mt.Clemens, Michigan USA


November 2015

A. Hi Michael. If the finish you want on the springs is not commercially available you would have to send them for stripping and replating to a plating shop which offers black chrome plating. Good luck.

Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
finishing.com
Pine Beach, New Jersey
Striving to live "Aloha"


February 16, 2016

A. Just a humble opinion offered in good faith. I own a 2001 Harley Davidson FXDX Superglide motorcycle. 13 years ago I ordered a set of Mufflers from Cycle Shack in black chrome. Had to send in exhaust pipes and heat shields to match. 13 years later they still look like brand new shotgun barrels. When getting caught in wet weather up in the great northwest, the pipes will turn a blue gray after a few miles of wet roads and rain. Applying WD-40 to a rag and wiping to clean the pipes restores the glossy black properties of the black chrome to it's original sheen.

An inquirer in the Bay area was looking for black chroming. After three weeks I located M&M Metalizing Sales [a finishing.com supporting advertiser] in Westminster, Ca. and they do strip chrome and apply black chrome. No job too big or small. I'm replacing a front exhaust pipe, heat shield and both mufflers after a minor tumble. Thanks for providing this page for lost gypsies who ride like they stole em.

Art Duff
Retired - Battle Ground, Washington



Black chrome exhaust pipes for Harley?

March 29, 2016

I have had my HD Softail Slim for 1 year, it's a smoke gray with plenty of black shiny accents, I call it black patent leather. Headlight & plate, cross bars on handlebars, other misc. parts, more of this than chrome. Pipes are chrome & putting on the normal black pipes would not do this bike justice with shiny & then dull that most of those are. I've been asking a lot of people how do I get black chrome pipes, and am being told it's not possible. Reading this I'm hearing it is? Or only shields for the pipes? Appreciate all the knowledge share on here!
Thanks much Patti

Patti Mohan
- Milwaukee Wisconsin USA



May 27, 2016

Q. Hi,
I am just enquiring as to what is blackened chrome? I see a lot of car wheels (rims) and they are chrome but a black chrome. Is blackened chrome really a thing? I know you can get chrome rims which are the mirror finish but can you get the two-toned rims in chrome, the silver mirror finish and a blackened chrome? The blackened chrome can sometimes look a brownish colour. The new wheels (rims) flooding the market in all their designs is confusing. Any information on blackened chrome would be helpful.
Thank you. Kind regards,

Nicole Knight
- Gold Coast, QLD, Australia


May 2016

Hi Nicole. Black chrome is the subject of the thread so I'm not sure how to answer your question without simply repeating what has already been said : black chrome is chrome plating which has been modified to produce a gray to black tint to it. There is no technical reason that bright chrome and black chrome cannot be combined on a single rim, although it would be more costly because of the need for masking and processing in two different tanks. But I don't know whether the rims flooding the market in all their designs include any that actually combine the two finishes and, if so, whether it's done in a way that would please you. Good luck.

Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
finishing.com
Pine Beach, New Jersey
Striving to live "Aloha"



January 11, 2017

Q. Hi Ted,
I just don't understand how people recommend black chrome paint for solar water still ?
Isn't it life threatening ?
I understand the use for normal heat collection but for stilling ?

br,
Maged

Maged Mohamed Hafez
researcher - Cairo, Egypt


January 2017

A. Hi, Maged. You used the word "paint" but I assume it was a typographical error and you actually meant "plating"? (Chrome plating and "chrome-look paint" are completely different things).

To my knowledge conventional chrome plating is harmless; it has been used in kitchen utensils for many decades (compounds of metals, like chromic acid, are a very different thing than the metal itself). Exactly what contaminant is causing the black coloration, however, might vary... and I've seen black chrome that ranged all the way from a slightly smokey color to a lamp black look. Personally, I would not be much alarmed about black chrome plating in a still but I would want to know more about it like what is causing the discoloration and whether it is tightly adherent.

Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
finishing.com
Pine Beach, New Jersey
Striving to live "Aloha"


January 11, 2017

A. Because black chrome is very, well, black, and not very reflective.

Unlike a paint, it is part of the surface, and is going to conduct heat a little better.

dave wichern
Dave Wichern
Consultant - The Bronx, New York


February 12, 2017

Hi Maged
The black coating is to absorb solar energy. It is most unlikely that it would be used on the internal surface of the still.

geoff smith
Geoff Smith
Hampshire,
      England



January 9, 2018

thumbs up sign  I just google searched black chrome out of curiosity and found this ancient thread that is probably older than me (if I knew the month it started I could tell more accurately). Hello from 2018.

Zlatan Ibrahimović
- Bijeljina, Bosnia and Herzegovina

----
Ed. note: The thread started on October 5, 1999, Zlatan :-)



February 8, 2018

Q. Hi, learning lots from this post! I've got an Aluminium part that we've been asked to produce in Black Chrome, is this possible through a Trivalent process or would it be hexavalent (and subsequently banned in the EU). Any advice would be handy. Appreciate there is likely to be variability on finish, what are the key factors affecting this? Thanks!

Huw Jenkins
Lighting - London, UK


February 2018

A. Hi Huw. The black chrome finish is usually done in a hexavalent chrome plating tank, but the finish is not banned anywhere in the world to my knowledge -- since the finish is metallic (zero-valent) chromium metal regardless of what was in the plating tank. However, you might be right that you can't get such a finish done in the EU.

You might investigate whether your customer would be satisfied with black anodizing, since this would be cheaper, more available, and probably just as robust.

Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
finishing.com
Pine Beach, New Jersey
Striving to live "Aloha"



Corrosion resistant coating for 1018 Steel motorcycle parts

March 26, 2018

Q. Hello. I am looking for a better alternative process to coat motorcycle bar ends in a black finish. I've been using powder coating, but that process makes it difficult to achieve a repeatable high quality finish due to the features on the parts. It has also become expensive. I was looking at black oxide, but the corrosion resistance of that finish concerns me. Black zinc seems promising, but I am wondering if it will produce a black enough finish. I could also fabricate these parts in stainless if there is a finish that would work well for that. Thanks for your help.

Steffen Hagene
Designer - San Jose, California USA
  ^- Privately contact this inquirer -^


March 2018

A. Hi Steffen. I think you are clearly right to dismiss black oxide; that sounds inappropriate for the tough environmental situation which motorcycle parts will face.

Zinc plating is sort of a decorative finish, but perhaps not decorative enough for use on motorcycles; it probably depends on what kind of parts we're talking about. I suspect that you already realize from this thread that black chrome plating is very expensive.

I don't know what features on your parts are making repeatable high quality powder coating difficult; electrocoating would probably solve that particular problem, but if powder coating is too expensive, this might not help because I would suggest electrocoating followed by powder coating rather than as a standalone finish.

You know more about the cost sensitivity of your product line than I do, but as an old guy I remember so many inexpensive types & brands of accessories that are long gone, replaced by higher quality and far more expensive ones. Speaking of highly visible auto accessories for example, the first few car-top carriers I bought were 'no name' from K-Mart for $19.95 or less; the only ones I see anymore are Thule, costing 10X as much and up. I think the long term trend for most accessories is upscale.

Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
finishing.com
Pine Beach, New Jersey
Striving to live "Aloha"


March 29, 2018

Q. Thanks for the response, Ted. Expensive is a relative term. The issue for me is that there is only one powder coater in town that will tackle my parts and even he has only one guy that can get the quality level I seek. If he goes away then I'm shut down. I liked that the black oxide process is really repeatable and the finish was acceptable. I understand that I can clear coat with possibly an epoxy paint and that should solve the corrosion problem, but how does black oxide hold up under prolonged UV exposure? I looked at black zinc locally this week. They say the corrosion resistance would be good but that it tends to fade to an olive drab color over time. How is black chrome in that respect ignoring the cost issue? Thanks again.

Steffen Hagene
- San Jose, California USA


April 2018

A. Hi Steffen. Some black zinc uses a silver-based black chromate, which is indeed light sensitive. My understanding is that the chromate on zinc-iron alloy plated parts is silver-free and thus not light sensitive. I wouldn't imagine that inorganic, non silver, processes like black oxide or black chrome would be light sensitive.

Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
finishing.com
Pine Beach, New Jersey
Striving to live "Aloha"



This public forum has 60,000 threads. If you have a question in mind which seems off topic to this thread, you might prefer to Search the Site

ADD a Q or A to THIS thread START a NEW THREADView CURRENT TOPICS

Disclaimer: It's not possible to diagnose a finishing problem or the hazards of an operation via these pages. All information presented is for general reference and does not represent a professional opinion nor the policy of an author's employer. The internet is largely anonymous & unvetted; some names may be fictitious and some recommendations may be deliberately harmful.

  If you need a product/service, please check these Directories:

JobshopsCapital Equip. & Install'nChemicals & Consumables Consult'g, Train'g, SoftwareEnvironmental ComplianceTesting Svcs. & Devices


©1995-2018 finishing.com, Inc., Pine Beach, NJ   -   About finishing.com   -  Privacy Policy
How Google uses data when you visit this site.