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Metal finishing Q&As since 1989

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Ion Exchange / DM plant calculations

adv.: ResinTech banner


Q. Sir, How to design the 50 KL & 100KL Demineralisation Plant with Mixed Bed for the following analyze report:
SAC, DG, SBA, MB

All units are in Mg/l

Appearance when analyzed after filtration: Turbid clear
PH Value @ 25C: 6.88
Color : 30.0
Odor : Agreeable
Turbidity : 6.40 NTU
Electrical conductivity @ 25 °: 820
Total Suspended solids: 45
Total Dissolved solids : 460
Total Hardness: 320
calcium hardness: 200
magnesium hardness: 120
calcium as ca : 80
magnesium as mg : 29
phenolphthalein [on eBay & Amazon (adv.)] Alkalinity : Nil
Total Alkalinity : 36
Chlorides : 55
Sulphates : 9
Total Iron: 1.10
Silica (reactive) as SiO2 : 49.0
Carbonate hardness : 320
non carbonate hardness: nil
Free residual chlorine : <0.2

Please teach me how to design the dm plant.

Thanks in advance

Venkatesh Nathaniel
- chennai, india
April 29, 2023


thumbs up sign Hi Venkatesh
Although I can probably work certain simple calculations, designing a whole demineralization system and protocol requires a level of experience I don't have :-(

While we await someone who can get you started, please reply to a couple of the open questions on this thread, as it will serve so many purposes: It will answer the posters' questions, it will be a great learning experience for you, it will reduce the number of open questions and thereby increase the odds that a reader will help you rather than one of the people waiting in line ahead of you, and it will show potential helpers what you know and don't know so they're better able to understand your needs :-)
Luck & Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
Striving to live Aloha
finishing.com - Pine Beach, New Jersey


Q. DM plant calculations for 3m3/hr design capacity sac, sba and mb acid and caustic calculation.

JAYESH PATIL
- Surat/ Gujarat
September 6, 2023


A. Hi JAYESH. Please find a DM system provider and have them quote you. No reader without a vested interest is at all likely to undertake such a task. But if you send full details on the raw water quality we'll at least add them to your posting.
Luck & Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
Striving to live Aloha
finishing.com - Pine Beach, New Jersey




⇩ Related postings, oldest first ⇩



Acronyms for readers new to the lingo:
DM = dimineralization
OBR = output between regenerations

Q. We are operating DM plant of 2 streams of capacity 2740 m3 OBR (137 m3/hr * 20 hrs). Presently our ionic load is lower by 40% than design. We have increased the output to 3500 m3 per regeneration by increasing the run length to 26 hours instead of the design 20 hours. This is being done for one month. The output water quality has not changed. Please let us know will there be any adverse effect by this prolonged run length on the resin. Also please tell us how to calculate the optimum output from a DM plant.

DEVU PARVATEESWARA PRASAD
petroleum refinery engineer - DIGBOI, ASSAM, India
2004


A. Dear DEVU,
By doing the above you will not have any problem as you have already reduced the ionic load then you will not have any problem.
Regarding the optimum OBR you can contact your supplier, as while designing the which resin he has taken we do not know.

Hemang Parimal Mehta
- Vadodara, India
March 19, 2009




Q. WE HAVE STARTED A BUSINESS FOR WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS. WE WANT TO KNOW THE STANDARD AND METHODS FOR CALCULATION OF D. M. PLANT. 1] HOW CAN WE SUGGEST THE SIZE OF THE D. M. PLANT? 2] HOW CAN WE CALCULATE THE RESIN QNTY. ? 3] HOW CAN WE CALCULATE THE REGENERATION PERIOD ? ONE OF OUR CLIENTS HAS GIVEN US THE FOLLOWING DATA TO CALCULATE THE D. M. PLANT . 1] T.D.S. : 2500 PPM 2] HARDNESS : 1500 PPM NOW, WE HAVE TO SUGGEST THEM D. M. PLANT. WE REQUEST YOU TO HELP US FOR THE ABOVE STATED PROBLEMS ? WE WOULD APPRECIATE YOUR HELP.

THANKS,

HITESH RATHOD
- BARODA, GUJARAT, India
2005


"Advances in Water & Wastewater Treatment Technology"
by Matsuo Tomonori (Editor)

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"Water Treatment: principles and Design"

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A. To calculate the ionic load of water, first check the total dissolved solids, and then calculate resin proportionally.

If your ionic load is less then the time of design , then you can take more water for demineralisation but you cannot change the rate of input or rate of output. Because proper time should be given to exchange ions, for that you have to change the height of column , then you can increase the feed rate with same quantity of resin if your ionic load is less then design.suppose at the time of design , ionic load was 50.0 kg then you need 1000 ltrs anion resin. Now your load is about 25 kgs then you can get double production with same resin with design feed rate. For that you cannot change the feed rate, but you can produce double water with same feed rate of design.

Rakesh
- Baroda, Gujarat, India

Ed. note: Welcome! Please feel free to visit anonymously! But this is a forum with a 35-year legacy of camaraderie & warm aloha incompatible with anonymity; please post only with your full real name and location.



Pretreatment of resin to increase exchange capacity in dm plant & exchange capacity calculation.

Sudip das
- kanpur, India
2005


Ed. note -- Apologies, Sudip, but we can't figure out if this is your answer to a previous question or you are posing a new question. Please provide a couple of paragraphs :-)
Thanks.



Q. WE HAVE STARTED A BUSINESS FOR WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS. WE WANT TO KNOW THE STANDARD AND METHODS FOR CALCULATION OF D. M. PLANT. 1] HOW CAN WE SUGGEST THE SIZE OF THE D. M. PLANT? 2] HOW CAN WE CALCULATE THE RESIN QNTY. ? 3] HOW CAN WE CALCULATE THE REGENERATION PERIOD ? ONE OF OUR CLIENTS HAS GIVEN US THE FOLLOWING DATA TO CALCULATE THE D. M. PLANT . 1] T.D.S. : 2500 PPM 2] HARDNESS : 1500 PPM NOW, WE HAVE TO SUGGEST THEM D. M. PLANT. WE REQUEST YOU TO HELP US FOR THE ABOVE STATED PROBLEMS ? WE WOULD APPRECIATE YOUR HELP.

S.Ananthbabu
- Chennai, India
2006




Q. We are having a Ion Exchange make DM plant of rated OBR 600 m3 but plant is delivering a maximum of 350-400 m3 DM water in one stretch after regeneration. Either this SBA Unit SiO2 goes high or the conductivity crosses the limit.

Please give your comment or suggestions for improving the OBR

VISHAL KUMAR
captive power generation - Renukoot, (U.P), India
2007


A. Dear VISHAL KUMAR
Please check the following
1) Feed Water quality previous and present
2) If regeneration is properly done or not
If you find above both point are ok, Then
3) Take the sample of the resin and do the Exchange capacity test at outside from reputed Lab.

Hemang Parimal Mehta
- Vadodara, India
March 19, 2009




Q. HOW TO CALCULATE EXCHANGE CAPACITY AND IONIC LOAD FOR INCREASING OBR

RAKESH SARAN
- RENUSAGAR DISTT SONEBHADRA (UP). India
2007


A. Rakesh,

As you ask about DM design & resin volume... It will depend upon the resin exchange capacity. What resin you are using for the ion exchange process? There is method of the calculation of resin volume, waste water calculation, regenerant chemical required everything but for all things you have to fix the resin type & exchange capacity.

Anuja Badheka
- indore, India
September 8, 2009




Improving a DM plant by calculation

Q. Dear Sir,

We have DM Plant of capacity 180 M3/hrs (Three streams with 90 M3 each capacity) with SAC, SBA and MB. Our Raw Water PH will be Above 7.5. Plant is designed for 2000 M3 of OBR, but now plant is running at 1200 M3 only.HOW TO CALCULATE EXCHANGE CAPACITY AND IONIC LOAD TO INCREASING OBR. Outlet pH is coming down with MB's. Whether MB's can be bypassed or not. Please advise to get good results.

Thank you

RAJASEKHAR KALEKURI
DEPUTY MANAGER - VISAKHAPATNAM, A.P., India
February 14, 2008




Q. 1) We want the calculation of DM plant OBR.
2) If the resin quantity of cation is 1600 little and anion is 940 little, the feed water TDS is 300 ppm and Hardness is 150 ppm, what is the output in one regeneration?
3) We required 600 M3 OBR, how quantity required of resin?

Sukhadeo Jagadale
buyer - Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India
March 16, 2009


A. Dear sukhadeo Jagadale
The data given is insufficient, and also hardness of water would never be half of the TDS. Please check properly or send it to outside lab.

Hemang Parimal Mehta
- Vadodara, India


----
Ed. note: Thank you so much for generously answering so many questions on this page, Hemang. Yeoman work!




ACRONYMS:
WAC = weak acid cation
WBA = weak base anion
SAC = strong acid cation
SBA = strong base anion
MB = mixed bed

Q. Can you tell me when WAC and WBA needs to be used (WAC-SAC-WBA-SBA-MB) versus when SAC-SBA-MB will be sufficient?

RAMAN M
- CHENNAI, India
May 10, 2010




Q. I want to know how can we calculate the amount of acid or caustic is needed to regenerate the resin.

Suresh Jawalkar
regulator - Bellary, Karnataka, India
October 28, 2011




Q. How to calculate OBR for mixed bed?
How to calculate resin exchange capacity?
I just want to know how to calculate the valance for compound.

Srinivasan Subash
- Thanjore, Tamilnadu, India
December 20, 2011




Q. WE WANT TO KNOW HOW TO DESIGN DM PLANT AS OBR, RESIN QUANTITY, REGENERATION ACID & BASE QUALITY & QUANTITY.

NEERAJ KUMAR
- New Delhi, India
December 31, 2011


A. To get the OBR of D.M. Plant, use the formula:

resin quantity * ion exchange capacity/ionic load

example: - 100*33/200 = 16.5 m3

T.D.Joshi
- Kathmandu, Nepal




Q. We are having semiautomatic DM plant of 3 streams of 80 m3/hr.capacity; our lba and lbc design is 278 & 135 ionic loads with 22 hrs, run with output 1760 m3 OBR. Problem is we are getting more output than designed as the ionic loads are 50 % less than designed -- shall we continue this? One more thing is for every regeneration we are backwashing lbc with lbc water and lba with lba water, getting excellent results. Can we continue this? Is there any adverse effect on resins?

PGKRAJU
PAPER - RAJAHMUNDRY, AP, India
February 14, 2012




Q. Hello Sir !
I am doing a project on increasing the efficiency of D.M. Plant. So how can I do the work and what should I do for the solution for increasing the efficiency?
And should I go for the design analysis of the mixed beds and resins or any other part?
Please suggest for me the best way for my final year project ...
How can I work for D.M. Plant in design way?

Thank you,

Nirav Varia
- Vadodara, Gujarat, India
March 3, 2012


A. Hi cousin Nirav. I am not an expert in that topic -- but still it is easy to spot the basic problem with your project: you want to "increase the efficiency" without a clear definition of what that means to you. You'll have to think that through as your first step :-)

Do you want to get a greater OBR, or to replace worn-out resin less frequently, or use less acid & caustic for the regeneration, or reduce the backwash volume, or what? Please tell us exactly how you will judge whether the efficiency has been improved? Then someone may be able to guide you how to achieve that requirement. Good luck.

Regards,

Ted Mooney, finishing.com
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha
finishing.com - Pine Beach, New Jersey




Q. Can I know how cation and anion reaction will be there in mixed bed exchanger in DM plant?
I want to know about chemical formula of cation and anion resins exchanging their free positive and negative charged ion, please guide me.
Can you tell me about water chemistry of DM water, raw water (unblended water) and blended water?

KETAN MISTRY
- Dubai, UAE
March 20, 2012




Q. Dear sir,
We have two DM plants of capacity 60 m3 and 40 m3. My question is how can we calculate the ionic load/ion exchange capacity?

regards
rahul

RAHUL GUPTA
- kanpur, up, India
July 26, 2012




Q. Design Anion Load FMA = 190 ppm as caCO3 and Silica 80 ppm as Sio2 Co2 is 5 ppm as CO2.

When silica is in high level normally we do the design with WBA+SBA Throughfare regeneration.

But one of my client is asking to do the design with SBA type - II resin followed by Type I Resin with the Throughfare regeneration.

It is possible to do the design as above said. The system will work and give the rated capacity and guaranteed parameters.

If possible kindly suggest the design guidelines ASAP.

KarthigaLakshmi
- Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
July 30, 2012




Q. sir,
We have DM Plant, it's cation & anion resin capacity is 400 lit. So I want to know Quantity of HCl & Caustic for regeneration?

Venkatesh Bhalekar
- Aurangabad, Maharastra, India




Q. What are the steps to reduce sodium and silica slippage from SAC in DM plant

Sreedhar Goturu
- Andharpradesh
January 13, 2013




Q. My Question
We have 2 DM water plants of capacity 6 m3/hr at 200 m3 OBR and 10 m3/hr at 400 m3 OBR. Both plants have sac-De gas tower-sba-mb, as per design mb OBR is less.
And coming to the point air is entrapped during operation in mb column. Due to this, OBR is fluctuating. So can you help me the reasons to air entrapment (air pockets)

D.N.S MURALIKUMAR
pharma company - Andhra Pradesh, Visakhapatnam
April 26, 2013




Q. Kindly let me know how to calculate or estimate the quantity of regenerant required.
Please advise which is the preferred method of regeneration? How does CPU (condensate polishing unit) differ from DM plants?

Thank you.

vedavyasan coimbatore
- Chennai, Indiav
May 6, 2013


----
Ed. note -- this is a forum where readers offer their in-kind efforts in return for the help they seek ... but this topic has too many questions and not enough answers :-(
Those lacking the background to help on this particular topic can go to the "Current Q&As" page where you'll see hundreds of current questions on broadly varying topics: every reader can surely find one or two they can help with in return for the help they seek. If they lack the time for in-kind effort, every corner of the world also has water treatment consultants they can pay :-)



Q. Hi
Please tell me how to size a MB unit for RO based DM plant, when you we only know TDS of of the outlet permeate. How can we arrive at the resin volumes required?

Thank you,

Tajuddin Shaik
- Chennai, India
September 28, 2013


ACRONYMS:

MB = mixed bed
RO = reverse osmosis
DM = demineralization
TDS = total dissolved solids

A. One- I do not know what a "MB" is. If it is ion exchange used with an RO unit, I would assume that you would use the RO unit first as it is more cost effective than resin. The resin becomes a polishing unit.

James Watts
- Navarre, Florida


A. The volume of resin is determined by the maximum flow rate, total water usage per day and also by how often you want to exchange the resin.

Typical flow rates are less than or equal to 3-8 gallons per minute per cubic foot of resin, often much lower.

You can estimate the volume of DI water the resin will produce between regenerations or replacement if you know the conductivity of the permeate.

Lyle Kirman
consultant - Cleveland Heights, Ohio




Q. DOES THE OBR OF MIXED BED GET INCREASED AFTER ACID WASH?

S.A.GOWTHAM JAIN
- Chennai, TN, India
October 15, 2013


A. Hi Jain. Hopefully another reader will understand your question but, sorry, I don't. I suggest that invest more words into describing your situation.

Regards,

Ted Mooney, finishing.com
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha
finishing.com - Pine Beach, New Jersey




Q. Dear Sir / Madam,

DM plant OBR is calculated by knowing the following things.

1.Total ionic load; this can be found in raw water quality.
2.Total exchange capacity of resins
3.Quantity of resin in ion exchange vessel vessel
4.Flow of water

Please suggest to me how to calculate item 1,
"Total ionic load; this can be found in raw water quality".

Toufiq .M. Hattarakihal
- Satara, Maharastra, India
October 5, 2013


Q. DEAR SIR / MADAM ,

FIRST, THANKS FOR ADVISING REQUIREMENT FOR OBR.

NOW, PLEASE, ADVISE ME HOW TO CALCULATE IONIC LOAD OF THE RAW WATER, OR ANY PROCEDURE TO CALCULATE THE IONIC LOAD .

WAITING FOR YOUR RESPECTED REPLY. I HOPE YOU DO THIS FOR ME.

Toufiq .M. Hattarakihal [returning]
- Satara, Maharastra, India
October 25, 2013


A. The usual method is to sum all of the cations and all of the anions separately in units of either equivalents per liter, or in mg/L as calcium carbonate.

The main cations are Na+, Ca++, and Mg++, and there may be traces of metals and ammonia. The main anions are SO4=, Cl-, HCO3-, CO3=, and silica.

If the two sums are unequal, use the higher number in your calculations.

Alternatively, for a rough estimate of the total mg/L as calcium carbonate, simply divide the conductivity in microsiemens by 1.6.

Lyle Kirman
consultant - Cleveland Heights, Ohio


Q. Dear Sir or Madam,

My raw water parameters are as follows :

pH : 8.3
tds : 306
ca - hardness : 40.48 ppm as CaCO3
mg - hardness : 7.48 ppm as CaCO3
total hardness : 132 ppm
collidal silica : 8.62
reactive silica : 0.924
Anoin Exchange Capacity : 1.91 milliequivalent /g
Cation Exchange Capacity : 3.22 milliequivalent /g
resin make : doshion
RESIN - CATIONIC (TYPE:CSA 9H+) : 1538 ltrs
RESIN - ANIONIC (TYPE:ASB 108 OH-): 1692 ltrs
MB Flow : 24 m3
Please, provide me OBR of MB as per mentioned above parameters.

Toufiq .M. Hattarakihal [returning]
- Satara, Maharastra, India
November 26, 2013


Q. DEAR SIR / MADAM,

PLEASE GIVE SOME PRACTICAL INFORMATION ON JAR TEST FOR RAW WATER AND ITS CALCULATION. PLEASE SUGGEST THE HANDBOOKS TO REFER TO RELATED TO WATER TREATMENT.

WAITING FOR YOUR REPLY.

Toufiq .M. Hattarakihal [returning]
- Satara, Maharastra, India


A. The resin capacities that you list appear to be catalog data of capacity at complete exhaustion.

Operating capacity is usually much lower than the capacities listed on the resin specification sheets for several reasons. One reason is that, in service, the resin is regenerated at initial breakthrough, not at complete exhaustion. Another reason is that after a typical regeneration there are still some ions remaining on the resin, so it is not 100% regenerated.

Also, if you are running until there is a silica breakthrough, then the high concentration of colloidal silica will be a problem. Colloidal silica can be removed by ultrafiltration before the MB resin.

Lyle Kirman
consultant - Cleveland Heights, Ohio




Q. HOW TO INCREASE MB OBR?

AJAY PATEL
- SURAT, GUJARAT, India
December 13, 2013


A. Hi Ajay. T.D. Joshi has posted on this page that
OBR = "resin quantity X ion exchange capacity/ionic load",
so you have to adjust one of the three factors. You probably cannot reduce the ionic load, and adding more resin seems more straightforward than searching for a replacement resin with higher ion exchange capacity.

Regards,

Ted Mooney, finishing.com
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha
finishing.com - Pine Beach, New Jersey




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