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How to Darken Copper, Brass or Bronze

Q. I am trying to figure out how I can darken metals of copper, brass or bronze in a relatively safe manner. I know that this can be done using selenious acid, but would like to find a way to do it with more "user friendly" chemicals, do you have any suggestions?


Paul D [last name deleted for privacy by Editor]
- San Leandro, California

Hello all..yes we have such a chemical patina which is sold in kit form to do just this. Please find our Copper Patina Rescue kit at We offer two sizes based on area. Quick and easy to use. Using a hairdryer will speed up the process to dark. Good luck

Barry Feinman
Barry Feinman
supporting advertiser
Carlsbad, California

A. You can try Jim Watts' favorite sulfide from egg formula (see topic 1178 or 12714)

tom & pooky   toms signature
Tom Pullizzi
Falls Township, Pennsylvania





- Cambridge, Ontario

Q. I recently read a response by Ray Delorey regarding chemically blackening copper. Ray recommended a 1% room-temperature dip of "zinc purifier" that is used in a "cyanide zinc process" as a non-wipe system for this blackening process. I would appreciate help in locating a source(s) for this "zinc purifier".

Thanks much,

- Springfield, Missouri, USA

Q. From this site I've read that "Zinc Purifier" is an easy and safe way to turn copper to BLACK. I'm good with Google searches, but can't find a source anywhere that I could find to purchase... If this is not a product easily purchased, what is the chemical make-up (formula) and I will make my own batch.

I'm having a similar issue with trying to find Sodium PolySulfide which I have read here, also will turn copper black.

I want to blacken the engraving on a copper piece ... polishing the surface, and have the black engraved letters remain.

I do not want to use Liver of sulfur (due to the smell) but am open to any other suggestions ... I was hoping to obtain something very cheap that also has some sort of shelf-life (most cost-effective). The pieces I am engraving/etching are an oval of 1/2" x 1"

Thank you

Chuck Van Dien
- Port Saint Lucie, Florida, USA
December 4, 2017

A. Hi Chuck. "Zinc purifier" and sodium polysulfide are probably pretty much the same thing. If you google for "plating process supplier" or "plating chemicals" with your location you will probably find distributors of plating chemicals who can offer zinc purifier to you. If you'd rather look for sodium polysulfide, topic 1109 discusses the sources for that in depth. Good luck.


pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

Liver of Sulfur

on eBay or


(affil links)

A. Use liver of sulfur liver of sulfur [on eBay or Amazon] . It will turn copper or silver from brown to black . You can order it from Gesswein. This is an excellent product and works great. Although it does smell like rotten eggs.

Ed Kassery

A. Selenium dioxide is a fantastic chemical for blackening copper and brass. In fact, it is the chemical trophy engravers use on a laminated brass plaque to make the lettering black (the lettering cuts through the lacquer). It's totally jet black and very hard. The product they use is called Gravoxide or oxidizer.

It's more readily available in Birchwood-Casey Gun Bluing [on eBay or Amazon]. It's advertised as a blue/black oxide finish for steel but it is very effective on brass/copper. Brasso [on eBay or Amazon] polish does not readily remove this finish.

I'd recommend an acid pickle to remove existing oxide or whatever method you have to get the metal very, very clean first.

Danny Miller
Austin, Texas

A. To darken brass, you must first strip any varnish on it.

Surprising, one of the most commonly available household chemical you can use to darken brass is Palmolive dishwashing liquid [affil links]. Look at the label and see if it contains sodium bisulphite and other sulfur derivatives. These are very similar to the chemicals in Liver of sulfur.

Apply the dishwashing liquid with very little water to the bare brass and keep rubbing till you get the color you want. This will take only a few minutes. When you get the color you want, wash off the dish washing liquid.

Hong Lim
- Avondale, Arizona
June 25, 2009

Hi, Hong. My Palmolive Dishwashing Liquid does not list its contents except to say that it is phosphate-free and do not use with chlorine bleach.


Ted Mooney,
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

thumbs up signPalmolive dishwashing liquid [affil links] actually worked. Can't believe it. A few minutes and it looked like it aged months - and a nice brown. Thanks for the great tip!

Jeff Mucci
- Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
January 25, 2010

Q. Regarding Hong Lim's suggestion to darken brass with Palmolive Dishwashing Liquid, what would I use first to strip the varnish from a brass chandelier?

- Grand Rapids, Michigan
February 9, 2010

A. Hi, Ellen. If the coating is brass lacquer, you can remove it with with lacquer thinner [on eBay or Amazon]. If it's a more durable coating, you can probably remove it with Aircraft Stripper which will not hurt metal, but is really noxious stuff absolutely demanding goggles [on eBay or Amazon], rubber gloves [on eBay or Amazon], and truly excellent ventilation (be sure to consult recent EPA releases before deciding whether to use it).


Ted Mooney,
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

Q. We are lasering brass with a YAG laser and then using Gravoxide to turn the lettering black. It looks fine for a few days but then gets fuzzy looking (spider webs out from the text) because the Gravoxide isn't neutralized (maybe?) and keeps working. Does anyone have any ideas about another chemical to use or how to stop the Gravoxide from staying active?

Joe Midkiff
awards industry - Statesville, North Carolina

Q. I am etching brass washers to make jewelry and would like to know of a relatively safe and economical way to do this. I have some directions that call for brass darkeners (Brass oxidizer) comes in a pint size container...I don't need anywhere near this amount.

Kathryn Adams
teacher - Easley, South Carolina

Ed. note: brass darkening solution [on eBay or Amazon] is available in 2 oz. bottles as well as 8 oz. and larger bottles. You are wise to not buy far more than you need. Good luck.

Q. Can someone tell me a simple kitchen formula for turning copper or bronze to green? I have heard something like vinegar [in bulk on eBay or Amazon] and ammonia plus a third ingredient, but have no idea of the proportions. I want to know because I want to stain my concrete floor. I used silver, gold and copper powder from Daniel Smith on wet concrete and got a beautiful green and black coloration, with a little brown. Now I am working with dry concrete and I want to try the copper powder again, and spray on a solution that will oxidize it. Then I will apply a clear concrete finish. Thank you.

Jane Seymour
hobbyist/artist - Freeland, Washington

A. Well, more of a bathroom formula than a kitchen formula for turning copper to green: urine. Conservators of old paintings often use this method to create verdigris for mixing paint.

Lee Boychuk
- Saanichton, British Columbia, Canada

A. For the person asking about a green finish:

Green Patina Formula:

2 parts white vinegar
1 1/2 parts non-detergent ammonia
1/2 part non-iodized salt

Clean fixture with Windex Commercial Line [on eBay or Amazon] type cleaner.

Premix patina solution in Windex-type spray bottle
Spray Windex cleaner on fixture to break surface tension, leaving it on when you apply patina solution.
Apply patina solution by spraying onto fixture, preferably in the early evening on a high humidity night.
Allow to set for 1 hour, then reapply solution observing where you missed applying on the first coat. If there seems to be oil that is repelling the patina solution, clean it off with the Windex cleaner.
Allow to sit overnight. In low humidity desert areas, use a plastic bag to create a tent over fixture (without making contact with it) to help keep the humidity high during curing. If there is low moisture in the air, the solution will dry out without creating the patina effect.
The result will be a bright green powdery patina. Do not rub off. In time (and re-applications) this finish will become permanent. The brightness will fade with time. To reduce green, cut back on the salt content. Color and effect is greatly affected by application ambient temperature and humidity.

Scott at Redstone Manor
- Keymar, Maryland, USA
June 16, 2010

Q. I have a house built in 1963 and all of the kitchen cabinets and drawers have hammered copper pulls that are no longer bright and shiny. I would love for them to be black, but I don't want to just spray paint them a flat black. Is there anything I can do to make them oxidized to a black finish? I hope that this makes sense because I have never had any experience with metals.


Lauren White
consumer - Toccoa, Georgia

A. Hi, Lauren. If they are real copper (check with a magnet first to make sure they're not steel), and there is no lacquer or clear coat on them, what you have read on this page should work. Good luck


Ted Mooney,
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

Q. My daughter is moving into a new house. Her fixtures all have the appearance of oil rubbed bronze. I have a lovely chandelier that is perfect for her dining room, except it has a shiny brass finish. Is there any way to paint or otherwise refinish it to give it a darker, duller look?

Terry Foster
crafty mom - Columbia, Missouri

Q. I have a lovely chandelier that has a shiny brass finish. I would love to tone down that shininess. Actually I would love to find a way to refinish it with out taking it down and taking it apart? I know that is a lot to ask. But, that would really be a pain.

Is there a way to do this?


Laura Nygaard
hobbyist - Rancho Santa Margarita, California
April 18, 2008

A. Hi, Terry; Hi, Laura

If you know the chandelier to be real brass, you can try to remove the lacquer from it with acetone [on eBay or Amazon] or lacquer thinner [on eBay or Amazon]. Then you can darken it as above. But easier and safer, if not as permanent, might be a Rub'N'Buff [affil links]. Good luck.


Ted Mooney,
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

A. I would try to coat the surface of the chandelier with a dark glaze. The result would be a delicate finish, but a Chandelier doesn't get much handling and would look great for a long time to come. You could purchase some water based glaze and add extremely dark water based paint (found in craft stores) until it is the color you like and paint it on the brass with a small brush. This will make it look "antiqued". You can do several coats depending on how dark you want it to look. It will also tone down the shine.

I have also painted brass chandeliers white or off-white, or even a color! They look gorgeous! Just make sure you have cleaned it well and spray it with white paint.

Angela Burns
- Chester, New Jersey

Q. We own several lamps and lights that are Brass Plated. Can you please tell me how to tarnish the plating so that it appears darker? Is there a simply product that can be purchased to accomplish this? If so, can you please tell me where to buy such product? Thanks!

Tim Edwards
home owner, hobbyist - Clarkston, Michigan
June 20, 2009

A. Hi Tim. If something is 'brass plated' instead of real brass, and you want to patina or darken it rather than paint or wax rub it, but all you can do is cross your fingers and hope -- often the brass plating is too thin, worn or porous for good results. Further, a lot of modern 'brass plating' is not brass at all, but nickel plating followed by a brass-toned translucent lacquer; so when you remove the lacquer to attempt the patination, the brass color is gone too :-)


Ted Mooney,
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

Q. I am working on a "shadow box" for someone who is retiring from the Navy. The shadow box holds a flag and all of the member's medals. Inside the shadow box is a brass plate with all of the tours of duty. Unfortunately it is very hard to read the etching, is there any way to darken the plate so the etching is easier to read?

Shannon Van Meter
Buyer - Ridgecrest California
September 3, 2009

Q. I want to match a new panel I am making with a hammered copper sink already in the room. How can I get the new copper to darken and what kind of wax is best for the finish? I called one company and the process they use on the sinks is "secret".

Lois Campbell
hobbyist - Oswego, New York
September 30, 2009

Q. Hi there, I have a lot of jewelry brass backings and would like to turn them black, but use a safe product so it can be worn against the skin and clothing,
Thanks so much for your help.

Debbie Brown
jewelry maker - New Zealand
August 17, 2010

Q. Hello, I need to darken brass for my work (lamps), but I don't have easy access to the darken-it like products.
Even Palmolive washing liquid is not available here (Indonesia) and they never write the components on detergents.

I tried eggs with very little success and I am looking for some simple way to reach.
Please help me!

FX Hoffman
product designer - Bali, Indonesia
September 28, 2010

Brass Lacquer
on eBay or


(affil links)

Q. Hello ,
Does a blackened brass with Brass Darkening solution hold up in a outside weather environment? Thanks!

Ike Sin
- newton, Pennsylvania USA
January 23, 2011

A. Hi, Ike

No, it will probably not hold up outdoors. But you can apply brass lacquer after the darkening, and then it should be okay.


Ted Mooney,
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

Q. Thank you for the info! A follow up question, is there anything that will darken brass and survive outdoors? Thanks Ike

Ike Sin [returning]
- newton, Pennsylvania USA

A. I'm not sure that we understood each other, Ike. If you blacken it and then lacquer it, it will hold up outdoors for a couple or a few years. The lacquer is easily stripped and replaced.

There are dark "Lifetime Finishes", which you may have seen on door hardware. But these require very expensive PVD (physical vapor deposition) machines, and are applied by OEMs not by consumers.


Ted Mooney,
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

Q. I have a chandelier made of steel and tubular steel and painted in a pewter color (cold grey/blue tones) with a highly lacquered finish. I'd like to change the finish to bronze (warmer tones) and I have some professionals telling me that it cannot be done over the high lacquer. Do you have any suggestions? Would auto paint cover? It is a detailed fixture and cannot be sandblasted b/c of the wiring.

I appreciate any suggestions.

Lisa Gold
homeowner - Orange, Connecticut
March 18, 2011

Rust-Oleum Oil Rubbed Bronze

(affil links)

A. Hi, Lisa.

Simplest, easiest, cheapest would be the Wax Rub if it works, so I'd try that first. If not, you can try removing the lacquer with lacquer thinner [on eBay or Amazon]. If that doesn't work you can remove it with the far more powerful Aircraft Stripper, but only outside with good ventilation, not in place. Then you can use one of the fancy paints like American Accents.


Ted Mooney,
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

Q. Hi ! I am remodeling and bought wonderful doors at a salvage place. The handles were gold plated. I had the plating and underlying zinc removed leaving very bright brass. I would like to make the brass appear darker with a rosy tone to compliment a chandelier in the room. Is this asking too much ? I would appreciate any advice. Thanks !

Diane Valine
- Rancho Palos Verdes, California, USA
December 14, 2011

Rub 'n Buff Sampler

on eBay or


(affil links)

A. Hi, Diane.

A wax rub is probably the fastest and easiest route to the color you want while maintaining a real metallic look.

but the durability of that approach is quite questionable depending on exactly what you mean by "handles". Good luck.


Ted Mooney,
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

Q. I have a couple of reproduction ancient bronze rings, and would like to put a dark brown patina on them similar to if they were dug up. I have tried liver of sulfur, the liquid form but after wearing them a day or two the patina starts to wear off. Did I not use it correctly, or is there another method to oxidize them?

William Summe
- Griffin, Georgia, USA
April 30, 2012

Q. Hello everyone I read the thread before asking my question. And it was really informative & helpful. My question is how to create a shading effect on Gold Jewelry. One particular one I remember seeing it was a gold flower necklace & the petals had this shading effect from bright gold to dark brown. Any kind of help will be appreciated. Thank You

Viral Soni
- Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
May 16, 2012

Q. Hello everyone,
I have a brass brass plate with lots of holes drilled into it that I would like to get really black. Some of the beams in the plate are as thin as 0.1 mm. We already tried to leave the plate in a solution of 250 g Copper-Hydroxycarbonate and 1 liter of ammonia [on eBay or Amazon] for 3 hours and overnight. 3 hours wasn't sufficiently dark and the overnight treatment ate away a lot of the fine beams. Could you point me to other treatments or variations which are milder than this but also lead to a strong black? A black deposit on the plate would also work, but I do not know of a process to do this right now.
Any help would be appreciated.

Thanks a lot and best regards,


Andreas Frölich
- Karlsruhe, Germany
July 10, 2012

Q. How to get the black color on brass using chemicals?

Reza Karimkhan
- Tallahassee, Florida
December 27, 2012

Q. I have a copper weathervane (of a Labrador Retriever) what has turned nearly black, from being outdoors over 4 years. I would like to lighten it and preserve the lighter finish. The surface is 18" x 12", so copper cleaner is taking too long. The natural color is not shiny copper, but somewhat antiqued. What do you recommend? Should I just leave it dark brown?

Jim Carlisle
- Colleyville, Texas, USA
February 18, 2013

A. Easy method for darkening brass:

I wanted to darken my antique brass hardware that had a finish on it. I needed to get the finish off first which I did with fine steel wool after sand blasting. I guess you could use acetone [on eBay or Amazon] or some kind of paint or finish remover. I tried Palmolive but it didn't work. I ended up using ammonia and it was really simple. I put all my hardware face up on a cookie sheet inside a plastic trash bag. Lay the trash bag on the counter and slide the cookie sheet in. Fill a glass bowl with a couple cups of ammonia. Place the bowl of ammonia in the center of the cookie sheet. I also place a heavy drinking glass upside down in the center of the ammonia bowl to keep the bag up and away from the hardware. This way the fumes from the ammonia was able to circulate. I then tied up the bag and left it over night. In the morning the hardware was perfectly aged. It looks A bit dry so I am going to rub a little polish on it to just liven it up a bit. This method was simple and quick.

Nancy Lucier
- Holland, Massachusetts

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