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Alkaline Zinc Plating Q&A's, Problems & Solutions

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"Plating slows at higher temperatures"

"Yellow chromate is stained, dull, inconsistent"

"Blue works, but green chromate turns blackish"

"Groove/gouge line caused by plating"

"Brown spots develop in storage"

"Iridescent passivation peels off"

"Yellowish zinc deposit"

"Effect of Temperature"

"Part is smaller in diameter after plating"


"Shiny edges and dull centers"

"Chemical flow in welded area"

"White Tarnish, White Corrosion"

Q. Hi!

I have a process of cyanide-free alkaline zinc process and I have a problem with this piece.

This piece is with white passivate and organic seal, and after some days, the piece has a formation of dust in a high-density area, which is easily removed with a cloth, I don't know what the problem is due to and this is generating rejections with my client.

Albert Castillo
- Mexico/ Guanajuato
March 18, 2022

A. Hi Albert. As you see we added your inquiry to one of several treads about similar problems in alkaline zinc plating. Pictures sent to for posting here would help, but even still here can be several causes for any given plating problem. My first guess would be that you are drying at too high a temperature. The high current density areas (corners, edges) are also the area that will overheat first in a hot dryer. If the parts are not overheated during drying, my next guess would be 'burning' which just wasn't noticed earlier.

Luck & Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

38877-13a   38877-13b  

Albert Castillo [returning]
- Mexico/ Guanajuato
March 19, 2022

A. Hi again. The pics are too small and from too far away to see any detail in high current density areas. But the unsatisfactory plating seems to be in random areas, which is hard to explain other than poor cleaning or poor plating bath composition/operation.

As always, Hull Cell panels can reveal whether the problem is on the plating tank. Good luck.

pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

Q. Hello
I have a wire drawing workshop and I had bought basins for continuous electro zinc coating because our market is limited. I decided to use non-cyanide alkaline zinc and I did an experiment in a plastic basin using sodium hydroxide 120 grams per liter and I used distilled water and 10 grams of zinc and I experimented on a low carbon wire with a diameter of 2 mm


Yahya saleh
Shop - Iraq/erbil
June 7, 2023

A. Hello Yahya.
You didn't ask a question, but apparently you are showing us unsatisfactory plating.

I have never heard of continuous alkaline zinc plating of wire myself, although hopefully other readers have. Even so, the idea of doing satisfactory plating at all, let alone in continuous fashion, using just a zincate solution doesn't sound promising, let alone easy. If possible, I think you should try to get access to Geduld's "Zinc Plating" [on Amazon, AbeBooks], perhaps through a university library, and meet with someone familiar with alkaline zinc plating and someone with wire plating experience. There is sometimes a tendency to believe that plating can be learned in 15 minutes, and solutions made up from raw commodity chemicals, but in truth it's probably about as complex and demanding as wire manufacturing and drawing :-) Luck & Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

Q. Hi
It's like this
8m HCl
2m water
12m electroplating
2m dryer
I was going with acidic zinc solution
But the materials are not available in my market
So I'm going now with alkaline non-cyanide bath

Yahya saleh [returning]
- Iraq/erbil
June 7, 2023

A. Hi again. What about alkaline cleaning before the HCl? What about chromate conversion coating after the plating? 8 minutes in HCl sounds excessive to me.

Luck & Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

Q. Hello,
I am Anand, I am working in fasteners unit. We operate a non-cyanide alkaline zinc bath. We have facing problem of non coating in shank bolts only.

38877-14b   38877-14a

We maintain:
Caustic - 130 gms/ ltr
Zn - 9 gms / ltr
Pickling - 20%

Anand Vengadasalapathy
- Chennai, India
October 11, 2022

A. Hi Anand.
In addition to the problem of lack of plating on the shank, the plating on the head is chipped off badly, and we can see from the cracks and lack of adhesion that it will soon be even worse. My first suspicion is that the problem isn't your plating bath but the fact that the bolts are not prepared suitably for plating -- possibly not truly clean, possibly still with scale on them.

Can you blast a few and tell/show us what result you get when you plate them?

Luck & Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

A. Dear sir,
Please increase the concentration of HCl pickling from 20 % to 40 %. This cause occurs due to cleaning of parts not properly done. The bonding of metal and zinc not in proper way -- that was this defect occurring. I think these parts look like tempered, and high carbon scaling on parts. That's why I recommend to increase the HCl concentration in tank.

Jasveer singh
- ludhiana punjab

Plating slows at higher temperatures

Q. Hi Ted and Popat ,

I work in a research company on metal finishing. I recently studied the effect of temperature on the plating of alkaline zinc. You mentioned in your post that the plating speed is higher at higher temperature. While in my study, I tested barrel plating at 5 ASF at three different temperatures (21, 32, and 43 °C). Surprisingly I found that at higher temperatures (32 and 43 °C) the initiation period is much longer than that at room temperature (21 °C), which makes the total plating time at higher temperatures (32 and 43 °C) is around 20 minutes slower than at room temperature (21 °C). Do you know the reason behind this? I'm confused and thank you very much.

Jenny Ma [returning]
chemist - Charlotte, NC
May 9, 2022

A. Hi Jenny. Most chemical reactions occur faster at higher temperatures due to the greater mobility of the ions, but for this case the experimental results are what they are. Hopefully someone else can explain them.

Luck & Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

thumbs up sign Thank you very much for your quick response, Ted!

Jenny Ma [returning]
chemist - Charlotte, NC

A. At the higher temp, particularly at 43 °C, you were making carbonate faster and carbonate slows down the plating rate.

robert probert
Robert H Probert
Robert H Probert Technical Services
supporting advertiser
Garner, North Carolina

thumbs up sign Hi Robert,

Thank you very much for shedding light on this topic.

Jenny Ma [returning]
chemist - Charlotte, NC
May 11, 2022

A. Keep in mind that the operating characteristics of the brightener additives changes significantly once above 35 °C, e.g.,coverage issues arise in LCD areas first. Perhaps this may be playing a part of the decrease in efficiency.

Boris Siljanoski
- Western Australia
January 26, 2023

⇩ Closely related postings, oldest first ⇩

Yellow chromate is stained, dull, inconsistent

Q. I have problems with alkaline zinc plating because the performance of its product (plated) is not bright, and yellow stains. About the clear coat/top coat's hardness is less, or easy to be broken and the colour is yellowish/yellow stain. Do you have any advise for me about it? Maybe the properly timed oven, or kind of clear coat, and chemicals/treatment used in plating? Thank you very much.


plating - Indonesia

A. Dear Ms. Anggraeni,

Have you checked with "Hull cell" the performance of the solution whether is it okay or not?

Your problem can be the additive system or lack of control of the additive and has other contamination like water hardness, do you use Demineralized water for the plating solution and might be rinsing before entering plating bath?

You did not tell properly what kind of Chromating that you are using now, either Hex-Blue or Trivalent Blue.
In my opinion, Trivalent Blue is more sensitive to be yellowish blue and non uniform for Alkaline Non-cyanide Zinc (I presumed) that has Iron contamination inside the solution.

Try to treat the solution by using zinc dust [on eBay or Amazon] treatment and consult with your local supplier.

Good luck.

Best regards,

Tony L. Chandra
- Jakarta, Indonesia

A. Dear Anggraeni,
You have not given any details about your process and other details about what kind of items you plate.
Kindly give details:

Process used: Alkaline Zinc, Cyanide or non cyanide:
Vat or Barrel plating:
Bath capacity:
Work being plated:
Metallurgy of the product plated :
amperage per sq. ft. applied:
Plating time:
Details of addition of all additives:
Details/intervals of regular maintenance carried out:
Details of regular treatment carried out:
Do you analyse your bath:
From your letter I think your bath is not properly treated or maintained. The additives and the constituents are imbalanced. Please give clear details to get clear suggestions.

t k mohan
T.K. Mohan
plating process supplier - Mumbai, India

Blue chromates work well, but green chromates turns blackish


ELECTROPLATING - Kolkata, West Bengal, INDIA
March 26, 2012

A. Hexavalent olive green passivation is dark green with blackish shade, which is okay. If you still want green, then change pH to higher side this will work.

Ramchandra Talwande
- India

Groove/gouge line caused by plating

Q. Deep like marks up to 4 micron observed on the non-cyanide alkaline Zn electroplated steel article. The article is a case hardened and tempered 16MnCr5 steel processed through sheet metal stamping route.
Plating is done by Rack method and there are no such marks observed on the article before plating. Hexavalent Cr passivation is done on the article.
Plating thickness is evidenced over the line mark and there is no discoloration observed.

marks on the non-cyanide alkaline Zn electroplated steel

Request the experts in guide me how this kind of deep mark is possible?

Srinivasan Rajagopalan
- Bangalore, India
July 14, 2013

A. Hi Srinivasan. I certainly don't claim to have seen everything, and I cheerfully welcome a contrary opinion . . .
But having never seen a problem like that resulting from a plating operation, I tend to disbelieve the evidence that the mark was not there before plating. I suppose it's possible that parts were racked in such a fashion that an interrupted contact could cause a bipolar effect that dissolved the component along this line . . . but again I have to doubt it.
Can you tell us anything about frequency, whether the line runs the same direction each time, etc.?

Ted Mooney,
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

Q. Thank you for the feedback. The frequency of defect is 3 to 10 percent in every batch. The direction of loading is always in the same way. Find attached the jigging photograph.


Request your feedback.

Srinivasan Rajagopalan
- Bangalore, India
July 23, 2013

Brown spots develop in storage

Q. Zinc plating with surface discoloration after storing for a period of time. Hi, I am Peter, a plating chemical supplier. Recently my customer faced a big problem. He plated iron parts with non-cyanide alkaline zinc + iridescent passivation (no sealer). The parts originally show iridescent color after plating but would discolor and show brown spot when stored for a period of time (about 2~4 weeks). Not all of the parts discolor, but only a small portion of the parts. And it would happen randomly and continuously perplex him. He has plated the parts for 4 years and discolored in the last three months. Anyone have same experience and know what happened? Thank you!

surface discoloration on zinc plating

Peter Liao
Chemical supplier - Hsinchu, Taiwan
June 12, 2013

Q. Hi,
My site also facing the same problem too.

Jeremy Tan
- Klang, Malaysia
July 12, 2013

A. Hello Peter and Jeremy,

Please give some information:

Passivation (Chromate conversion coating): Hex chrome or trivalent chrome?

Bath: Jeremy, you have the same problem with an alkaline or acid zinc bath?

Thickness: Is it uniform? Is it above 5 microns? Are there scratches or chipping of the surface?

Storage conditions: Is it humid? The parts could be exposed to fogs or sprays?

Well, this is all I recall as important now. If you can give some more information, we may be able to help you both! Regards and good luck!

Daniel Montañés
- Cañuelas, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Q. Hey Daniel,
Mine is alkaline zinc bath, trivalent yellow, thickness is 8-15 micron. Discoloration happens after 2-3 weeks later. After analysis chromiting bath: Fe 27 ppm, Zn 12-15 g/l and pH 1.6 -1.8! (new chromiting bath 3 months). Thanks.

Jeremy Tan [returning]br> - Klang, Malaysia
July 17, 2013

A. Hi Jeremy,

Jeremy, the trivalent chromating bath generally works from 0 to 8-10 g/l zinc concentration. 15 g/l is very high, and the chromate must be very thin in this condition. I would suggest you to change, at least partially, the chromating bath.

Then, if this effect (discoloration) has always been there, I would see if the storage is done in humid conditions, if there could be some spray or fogs in the storage room or near the packaging, if the parts are exposed to light...

So, I hope we can help you too! Regards,

Daniel Montañés
- Cañuelas, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Q. Trivalent iridescent chromate, zinc<9g/L
thickness : 5-15µm
storage condition: 25-33 degree, sometimes raining, but it has stored in same condition for 4 years.
I analyzed the part with EDS and found higher carbon and oxygen in the surface compared to normal part.
I also found they used water with unstable pH and flow out resin fragment randomly. This water is also used to make up passivation solution.
I have asked them to stop using the water recently.
Do you have any suggestions for this situation?
Thank you!

Peter liao
Chemical supplier - Hsinchu,Taiwan
August 5, 2013

A. Hello Peter,

First, if the storage hasn't changed, it isn't the cause... But you should keep the parts away from the rain!

On the EDS result, if has some more oxygen and carbon I cannot say that it is different, they are elements present in dust and in sample preparation could be some variations that could increase the carbon and oxygen proportion. If you have iron content, then you should worry!

I didn't understand the water situation, with the flow and resin. Could you explain what you mean? pH in the chromate process is very important, you should maintain the pH value in ± 0.5 points from optimum pH value for a good corrosion resistance, and trivalent chromates need a good quality water for preparation. If you define your process with more detail we could help you more!

Good luck!

Daniel Montañés
- Cauelas, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Q. Hi Daniel

Thank you for your concern.I have checked the EDS of the discolored parts again and found no difference compared to normal parts. I use tap water now and still found discoloration happened randomly. The tap water pH around 6.5-7.5, current conductivity<10us/cm, TOC<2 59205ppm iC

Peter Liao [returning]
Chemical supplier - Hsinchu, Taiwan
August 19, 2013

A. Hi Peter,

Do you control the pH in your chromate conversion bath? It is very important to maintain this value stabilized. The nominal value (in standard chromates, you should ask your vendor in this case) is 2,0. Please check this up! If the chromate has 2 steps, check both steps have controlled pH.

I haven't understood the resin situation yet, what did you mean with "flow out resin fragment randomly"? The chromate has a resin part?

Good luck!

Daniel Montañés
- Cañuelas, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Q. Hi,Daniel

Thank you! I have checked the pH and this was fine. My customer's pure water system contains resin and follow out. But now they have fixed it. Will discoloration come from zinc solution? I have tried every possible parameter after zinc solution tank and now I focus on zinc solution. My customer has tried other supplier's water purifier (to reduce Ca, Mg) and said it seems it can reduce discoloration. But the plating line has regularly added the conditioner (reduce Ca, Mg) already. I think this should not be the course, What do you think? Thank you!

Peter Liao [returning]
Chemical supplier - Hsinchu, Taiwan
August 28, 2013

A. Hello Peter!

Ca and Mg are a problem in some chromate formulations and are a problem in zinc electroplating bath always. For alkaline baths you have some conditioners that improve bath performance with the presence of Ca and Mg by getting them out the way, but you should try to avoid to replenish your bath volume with this "hard" water.

You should try preparing your chromate with another water (not hard, maybe demineralised) and see if you have some change in your process. If this improves your result of "discolored" parts, you have some problem there. If there is no change, then you have some problem elsewhere...

Hope you can solve this issue! Keep us informed and maybe we together can sort it out :)


Daniel Montañés
- Cañuelas, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Q. Hi Daniel:

Recently, my customer find a way to detect the discoloration in two days and no more have to wait for two weeks.They put plated parts into high temp/moisture oven and enhance the aging. So, we found the discoloration always happens on Monday. They will maintain the plating line on sunday. The maintenance include change rinse water and wash the tank. Besides, the zinc solution also be pending during maintenance. Will the pending cause any organic crack or metal be absorbed on anode? I think it would be something wrong during the maintenance or pending zinc solution. Please give me some suggestions.Thank you!

Peter Liao [returning]
Chemical supplier - Hsinchu, Taiwan
September 6, 2013

A. Hi Peter,

That the zinc plating solution is still and not working during maintenance is not a problem. Is this what you refer as "pending"?

If they always do maintenance on Sunday and you have problems with the parts plated on Monday, there must be a connection between the maintenance routine or the Monday startup and this. I can't tell what could be wrong in this, but if you know what is the routine for maintenance, startup and normal work, the differences between them are possible causes...

Hope you can solve this! If you do, please share what you found with the community :)


Daniel Montañés
- Cañuelas, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Q. Dear Sir,

We have alkaline zinc plating tank, and we use the HNO3 for yellow dip approx 2-3 ml/ liter , and also we use the H2SO4 for color maintaining. Now it's improved.

We are facing a problem in cleaning now; we are doing pretreatment (cleaning) process in HCl , but component shine is not coming, so please give us the cheap and good suggestion so that we can get shining on component.


Sanjeev Yadav
- Delhi, India
September 18, 2013

A. Hello Sanjeev,

That your parts shine, or your parts brightness, could depend on how you clean your parts or how you plate your parts... If you have a cleaning problem, you should see if you are loading fully degreased parts, that your HCl is in correct concentration, if you use or not a wetting agent (if you don't, you should, I think it is very helpful, and cheap), if you use or not an electrolytic degreaser...

If you answer most of these questions with "yes", then you must tell us more about your process in order to help you. If not, you should see if you can make that happen.

We (at least I) can't say anything else to help you if you don't specify more what is the defect, what are you doing, and in which conditions.

Hope this helps! Best regards,

Daniel Montañés
- Cañuelas, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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