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AMS2488 Type II Anodizing Of Titanium Q&A

ti anodizing  russamer labs banner

Q. Hello,

I work in the Aerospace repair industry and our shop currently has a full plating shop (Chrome, Cadmium, Nickel, etc) and looking to add AMS 2488 Type 2 Titanium Anodizing capabilities.

Can someone recommend a consultant or company that has expertise in this process?

Thank you!

RR Esrada
- Miami, Florida
October 19, 2023
    privately respond
to this RFQ   ⇧

Ed. note: As always, gentle readers: technical replies in public and commercial replies in private please (huh? why?)

A. Hi RR,
Adv: Russamer Lab [a supporting advertiser], can certainly offer you that service;
others can reply to you in private. Good luck.
Luck & Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

⇩ Related postings, oldest first ⇩

Q. I am setting up a titanium anodizing line to meet AMS 2488 type II requirements. What is the correct chemical solution and operating parameters for the anodizing tanks (chemicals, concentration, pH value, temperature, voltage, amperage, timing etc). I have a stainless steel tank (316) of about W 2.5 inches x L 30 inches x H 21 inches in size with a chiller with heat exchanger made of titanium and a rectifier of 250A/100V.

What happens if I am performing anodizing on titanium parts? What material is most suitable for the racks as also for the cathode), the electrolyte is of pH 13 or more). Someone told me lead to use titanium rack and lead plate as cathode. What is your opinion?

Pang Choon, TAN

A. Hello, Tan. Unfortunately, just because there is an AMS spec for something doesn't necessarily mean the process isn't trade secret :-(

You might want to check into that before setting up the line, and make sure you don't require information that you can't get. Good luck. Regards,

Ted Mooney,
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

Q. In fact, this is precisely what I had encountered. I had tried to get help and information from some of existing sources doing titanium anodizing but was not successful.

Unfortunately, I need this process and indeed I had already setup the physical line and tanks.

Do you know of any related information or any specialty suppliers that I could contact?

I had read the brochure from a company in the states called "TIODIZE" process which seems like titanium anodizing but do not know how to get contact with them.

Pang Choon, TAN [returning]

A. I obviously can't speak for the company you named, but twice in the last year I inquired of them if their process was licensable and was told that it's strictly for their own in-house use. But find them on the web and inquire yourself; maybe they will have greater interest in the offshore opportunity you can offer them than the ones I brought -- plus intentions change.

While I said you should check into the trade secret situation, I was only saying that you should check into it; I wasn't implying that it is impossible to conduct AMS 2488 without violating a patent or trade secrets -- I don't believe that is the case at all. There are consultants you can retain who will give you the knowledge to do AMS2488. Good luck!

Ted Mooney,
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

Q. Need information on the Watervliet Process, chemical composition & other operating parameters.

Jim Chan
- Granger, Indiana


A. Hi Jim. Watervliet Arsenal is a major army installation so they have probably done more than one investigation of titanium anodizing, and I don't know exactly what "the Watervliet Process" means to you or others, but they did do a pretty exhaustive study of titanium anodizing -->

Luck & Regards,

Ted Mooney,
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

Q. Hello;

Does AMS 2488 standard include the chemical solution that should be used to get a type II product? Or is it just about something else?


Anil Özmen
- Turkey
October 30, 2008

A. Hi, Anil. As I recall, it says "alkaline"; it may specify "pH > 13" but I can't remember. You really need to have the spec in your hands if you are considering offering that process. It may contain provisos that you can't meet for some reason.

But what we were trying to explain is that the spec tells you some things that you must adhere to, but it doesn't tell you all the things you need to know to successfully alkaline anodize titanium. It's like a cookbook that says: "To make this cake you must use eggs no more than 1 week old, and sift the flour through a OOO sieve", but doesn't tell you the other ingredients or the baking time and temperature :-)

Good luck.


Ted Mooney,
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey


April 6, 2009

A. We have developed both: alkaline and acid-based methods for anodizing titanium (titanium type II anodizing). Both methods develop strong titanium oxide layer for anti "cold-welding" and for corrosion protection. However, based on testing we think that acid-based titanium oxide is thicker and better for corrosion protection.

Contact us for more information.

Anna Berkovich
Russamer Lab
supporting advertiser
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
russamer labs banner

Q. Is there any update about Tianodize process. Even this week we had an enquiry for this process and we have no clue about this process. What is this all about? Is the substrate Titanium and needs to be coated with other oxides like MMO or other substrates which needs Ti coatings?

Ramesh Kumar
- Singapore
June 19, 2009

A. Hi, Ramesh. No one on this site previously used the word "Tianodize", and Google doesn't find that word. Are you using this word as a shortcut for "titanium anodize" or did you want to know more about the specific company "Tiodize"? If you asking whether the trade secret information involved in alkaline anodizing has become public, no, it hasn't.

AMS 2488 alkaline anodizing of titanium builds a corrosion resistant and gall resistant oxide surface on titanium; the best-known provider of that treatment is Tiodize, but other companies like Titanium Finishing Co. also specialize in it, and a few general plating jobshops offer it.

If I did not answer your question, please clarify exactly what you want. Thanks!


Ted Mooney,
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

Q. We would like to expand our knowledge in these processes...specially when it is applied to titanium parts. Usually I find information on aluminum base processes. I'm looking for a Color and Type II Titanium Anodizing Seminar.

Mercedes Torres
- Humacao, Puerto Rico
January 7, 2013

A. The titanium type II hard anodizing according to AMS 2488D is discussed frequently on finishing forums. Many companies who sell production lines, claim that multiple parts can be easily anodized in a single load. However in reality it becomes difficult to prove. After selling the equipment, the supplier withdraw from any help to the customers under the reasons like "you use the racking that is not delivered by us", or something similar. The reason is: multiple parts anodizing in simple sodium hydroxide solution is extremely difficult.

The companies who do in-house processing keep the additives and special regimes strict secret.

Not anymore: watch the YouTube video of simplicity of the titanium anodizing process, that can be installed in any small shop. Russamer Lab has developed the proprietary anodizing technology, fool-proof. Moreover it is no need to use sandblasting to remove unwanted "fur" coat after anodizing.

titanium anodized parts

Contact us for more information and samples.

Anna Berkovich
Russamer Lab
supporting advertiser
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
russamer labs banner
January 10, 2013

Q. Good afternoon,
I was wondering if someone can point me in the right direction for type 2 Ti anodization. I've read that it requires an alkaline solution for the anodizing tank, but I'm not sure if my distilled water and lye solution would be sufficient (since it is over pH 8). Also, I wanted to know the voltage and current specifications since I know that Type 1Type 3 requires different voltages to achieve the different colors.

Emma Ge
- Miami, Florida, USA
August 7, 2013

A. Hi Emma. Type 1 is a special high temperature type; I'm pretty sure you're thinking of Type 3, which is a very thin translucent oxide coating which gains its color from the same diffraction process you see in carnival glass, or when a drop of oil falls into a puddle of water. The coating is a fraction of a wavelength long and favors a particular color depending on its thickness. By varying the voltage you can control that thickness. Many hobbyists practice it, and there are few secrets.

But type 2 is thick anodizing for wear and anti-gall purposes, rather than decorative value -- and how to do it well is a trade secret. Your options are:
1. to farm the work out to shops who operate the process and know how to do it,
2. to license the technology from firms like Russamer,
3. to retain a consultant who knows how to do it and will help you install it,
4. to start from AMS 2488 and perfect your own process.

The fifth option, getting someone to reveal those trade secrets to the world on the internet for free as a favor, simply isn't available. Sorry.


Ted Mooney,
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

Q. Does anybody know what is the maximum area approved for touch up a titanium part that has titanium conversion coating per ams2488, Type 2?

Mariana Toma
Purchasing Mgr - Placentia, California
August 26, 2021

A. AMS 2488 does not appear to have rework criteria. You may want to consider measuring the part before and after rework using a micrometer to ensure that the Type II coating is still there.

Lawrence Lau
Manufacturing Engineer - Monroe, Washington

A. Mariana,

In the medical industry, you may want o look at the agreements you have with your customers, because a lot of medical companies don't allow you to rework type 2 anodizing since it is very difficult to remove and if you don't remove all of it you can get a blister on the type 2 which can get into the blood stream and cause a stroke, so be very careful.

mark battles
Mark Battles
Plymouth, Minnesota

Current density & Voltage for Type 2 anodizing of titanium

Q. Seeking specific info regarding current density required for Type 2 anodizing of titanium ( AMS2487 / AMS 2488) and resulting voltage when using a sodium hydroxide anodizing electrolyte.

Larry Chseterfield
- Indianapolis, Indiana
April 3, 2023

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