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Refining of Palladium and making its salt

Hello. I have several pounds Pd, Rh, gold, silver, mix. I need help to drop out palladium. I'm originally from Mn.

cheri myers
- central city Colorado
July 17, 2022

⇩ Closely related postings, oldest first ⇩

Q. Dear Sir,

I recover palladium from dragouts by electrolytic method, as a result this palladium contains traces of nickel, copper and Iron. Kindly suggest how to refine this palladium and convert to "di nitro di amine palladium" salt.

Note: please don't ask me to refer to refiners. Expecting a genuine answer from worthy candidates.

Panjala Mukesh
Panjala Mukesh
fashion jewelry mfgr.
Hyderabad, India


Q. If anyone could help in making p-salt from the palladium metal.

Kumar Shah
manufacturer - Mumbai, Mahrashtra, India


DEAR SIR, I just know how to refine gold, but I'd like to expand my knowledge to refine platinum and palladium. PLEASE, any helps or tips that SIR can provide is appreciated.THANK YOU.


A. Hey there!

My father owns a precious metal refining company down here in Sydney Australia. I have been working there for 2 years now and only in the last 6 months have we started to refine platinum and palladium.

Best way is to dissolve the platinum and palladium in an Aqua Regia (4:1 Hydrochloric:Nitric) and set to simmer for about 2 hours. Platinum and Rhodium will not dissolve at room temperature. Once completed neutralize the nitric by adding a scoop of urea (add slowly!) and once frothing stops transfer into crystallization dishes and set to boil till liquid is down about halfway. Add ammonium chloride and stir and you will see a red/orange mud precipitate. That's your palladium/platinum. Of course it's not as easy as it sounds but those are the basic steps.

Hope I helped a bit.

Elan Bension
- Sydney, Australia

"Refining Precious Metal Wastes"
by C. M. Hoke

on AbeBooks

or Amazon

(affil links)

"Recovery and Refining Of precious Metals"
by C.W. Ammen

on AbeBooks

or eBay or


(affil links)

A. Put your dirty Palladium in a bath of nitric acid (1 quart sulfuric to 1/2 cup of Sodium Nitrate [affil links] if you want to make your own weak Nitric acid =30%) Once thoroughly bathed pour off the acid into a new container leaving the rest to be discarded, add Sodium chlorate to the acid and the Palladium will drop out looking yellowish then turn a blue/green. You can also drop it with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) out both Nitric and Aqua Regia...but it hard to find and really expensive.

I don't know if this what you are looking but it's what I know to do.

Damon Hunt
- Vancouver BC Canada

Platinum specifically is very dangerous to refine/recover. One small drop of solution to your skin and you will get a disease called Platinosis. It has no known cure and is essentially a really horrible asthma like allergy. You can also get it through breathing in any gasses made from reactions (such as HCl + calcium hypochlorite) or just the fumes of refining (melting) the metal. I suggest to either stay away from it or definitely invest in the proper PPE (good respirator, lab coat, chemical gloves, fitted goggles, and either build or buy a fume hood).

- Minneapolis
August 22, 2021

Q. Hello everyone,

I am working as a Chemist in one of Philippines precious metal refinery. I'm just 3 months hired but then our lab has no manual of analysing many things. I really have problem with the standard method of analysing palladium. Can anyone point me to a site or just send me a document that will enable me to really understand how to assay palladium.


Nathan MF
- Cebu, Philippines
April 7, 2008

A. When recovering Pt & Pd from spent Aqua Regia do not add urea as Platinum does not precipitate completely in the presence of nitrogen compounds, the classic method of boiling the acid to syrup to expel the nitric is the only way for a small scale operation to completely recover the platinum. As far as the Pd from dragouts the best method to quantitatively collect the Palladium is to digest the impure Pd in 50% nitric acid and selectively drop out the Pd with dimethylglyoximide.

Rick Hoff
- Hicksville, New York
September 18, 2008

Q. I am looking to learn how to separate palladium from raw ore. Can someone guide me in the right direction? please.

Mary Chavarin
- San Diego, California
June 1, 2009

A. I saw a post saying a small scale operation needs to boil the acid to expel all the nitric acid to recover all the platinum, however I refine precious metal, and have been told that the platinum will not drop out of aqua regia unless there is a powerful oxidizer (i.e. nitric acid). We simply salt the aqua regia with ammonia [on eBay or Amazon] chlorate to precipitate platinum.

Craig Hirschey
precious metal refiner - St. Paul, Minnesota
June 4, 2009

A. I am an amateur refiner; I have been refining gold for several years; recently I have started to recover Pt from AR after the gold is precipitated. I do this by pouring the spent AR into a bucket and add some Al sheet metal. The Al will be absorbed into the solution and will precipitate all other metals in the solution, including a large quantity of Cu. I wash and dry the mud that I get from the AR then boil it in HCl. Wash and dry again then treat with AR. You will now see a quantity of Platinum Chloride (Red Foam) scoop the foam from the top and collect the red mud in the bottom dry and melt. There will be a very toxic smoke to be expelled when melting. Breathing the smoke can result in Platinosis. When melting there will be a lot of residue with small beads of Pt which will accumulate and render a larger bead. This process is a little tricky but it works. Pt melts at about 3000° f. I use Propane and oxygen which only gets to 3500f so I am not able to melt the Pt to a point where it will flow, but I can melt it enough to get very soft and bind together. One can wash the red mud with water; which will result in the Platinum Chloride turning to Platinum oxide and will go from red to black. Just dry and melt. It works for me. don't BREATH THE SMOKE!

Bruce Hannan
- Maryville, Tennessee
August 10, 2009

Q. Please help me I have recovered palladium but I can't refine it. please any one help me.

M Bilal M Madni
- Rawalpindi, Pakistan
April 8, 2010

Q. Dear sir,
Sir, I just want to know that I have a palladium in liquid state which is dissolved in nitric acid together with some other metal like silver, copper. Please tell me how can I make palladium separate from others, please do help me out of it.

Jitendra Rastogi
student - Meerut, U.P, India
January 3, 2011

Ed. note: Readers -- Please recognize that internet forums are giant one-room schoolhouses where schoolchildren and highly experienced post-doctorate chemists can view the same page. Jitendra posted his inquiry as a "student project" question, and it is important for people in his situation to recognize that while this page may describe some of the theoretical steps & formulas & reactions involved in refining palladium, as an aid to understanding chemistry, it is certainly not meant as an instruction page for untrained students to attempt these experiments!

Q. Dear Sir,
Sir, please tell me how can I make separate dissolved palladium from nitric acid in very fine purity.
Please tell me the process to make palladium salt and separated from other dissolved metal also in that liquid solution . I will be thankful to you

Jeet sharma
jobshop employee - delhi
January 12, 2011

Q. Dear Sir,

How to recover Pd from nitric acid which contains Cu and Palladium?

Sara Sharala
Chemist - Malaysia
October 21, 2011

A. Dear Sara, Boil the PMG (Platinum Group Metals) that are in HNO3 solution with continued additions of HCl, Boil to almost dryness then add more HCl. After the third time start testing with starch/iodine paper. When all the NOx is gone (TAKE YOUR TIME), reconstitute the solution with water. If you have Pt in solution, recover it first. Use a saturated solution of Potassium Chloride. The Pt will come down as a yellow precipitate K2 Pt Cl4 Filter and wash this with cold saturated Potassium Chloride solution, it is slightly soluble. There are several ways to recover the Pd. The easiest is to ammoniate the solution with concentrated Ammonium Hydroxide in small additions, the Pd will first go to a Pink salt then with a further addition or two this will redissolve. How the Pd can be dropped by slowly adding HCl.At pH 3-4 (HN4)2 Pd Cl6 an orange yellow salt will precipitate. Filter and wash with cold saturated Ammonium Chloride solution, it is also slightly soluble. Save all your wash solutions and test for PMGs before discarding. DO NOT try to melt the salts, huge PM losses. Reduce in solution with Hydrazine, then melt. Bruce

Bruce Stewart
- West Grove Pennsylvania USA
October 28, 2011

March 14, 2012

A. Here are three low tech ways of separating copper and palladium:

1) Use Silver.

Silver is above copper, but below palladium, on the electromotive series, so adding silver to the copper/palladium solution will precipitate the palladium and leave the copper in solution. Remove the precipitated palladium and add sodium chloride to the remaining copper solution, and the silver will be recovered as silver chloride. This can be reduced back to metallic silver by various methods. Silver is expensive, and some will be lost in each cycle, so you will have to decide if this method is feasible for you.

2) Use Oxygen.

Use zinc or aluminum to drop both the copper and palladium from solution. Wash this several times and dry. Spread both metals on a non-reactive surface and heat. Copper oxides at fairly low temperatures to copper oxide. Remove this with dilute hydrochloric acid, leaving the palladium.

3) Use ammonium hydroxide.

Add sodium hydroxide to the copper/palladium solution. This produces blue green copper hydroxide, and a dark colored palladium hydroxide. The copper hydroxide is soluble in ammonium hydroxide, leaving palladium hydroxide, which, with heat, will decompose to palladium oxide and finally to palladium.

You can find the physical and chemical properties of these reactions on line, along with such things as oxidation and decomposition temperatures.

No matter how carefully you process the two metals, some copper will always remain, so be prepared to repeat the refining process until you reach the purity which you require.

Gary L Kissler
- Kooskia, Idaho, USA

Q. I have many gallons of expired liquid Pd/Sn plating activator in an HCl solution and I wish to extract the Pd from it. I've located some similar procedures but nothing specific to PGMs containing Sn. Has anyone forum reader seen a procedure for this?

Peter Dylazo
- Vancouver BC
December 6, 2011

Q. Dear sir ,
I am interested to recover palladium from copper, nickel, lead, tin electronic scrap. The content of copper is around 35% and that of Pd 10%

With regards

Debabrata Mohanty
precious metal refining company - Mumbai, Maharastra, India
November 16, 2012

Q. Hi all...
I'm new here and found this useful site where I can find my answers.
So, I've got a huge amount of powder in which palladium and iron is involved.
Now I want to separate the palladium from that powder.
I don't know what to use and what's the process.
Please somebody help me.

Safin Khan
- India
January 21, 2013

Q. I am looking to learn how to produce palladium nitrate [Pd(NO3)2] from palladium metal. Can someone guide me in the right direction? please

Mahboobe Asadi
- Tehran, Iran
August 3, 2013

A. Refining platinum and palladium is a process that requires patience. I recover platinum, Palladium and rhodium from catalytic converters. The process is as follows:

After de-canning the substrate material, I drop the substrates into a drum of hot soapy water and allow them to soak for about two hours (this helps to remove some of the sulfur and excess hydrocarbons). Next, using a water hose and nozzle I rinse the substrates which removes the carbon and sulfur. I then shake out the excess water and allow the substrate to dry for two days. The substrates are then crushed in a small ball mill to a fine powder and I roast these powders in a brick oven at 400 °C, which burns off the remaining hydrocarbons and sulfur. After cooling, the powders are placed into a fermentation barrel and I cover them with a 50/50 mixture of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 32% hydrochloric acid. I add about 100 ml of houshold bleach [adv: bleach/sodium hypochlorite in bulk on eBay or Amazon] , cover and then agitate the barrel every few hours for about a week adding bleach every other day. I then filter the liquid into a beaker [beakers on eBay or Amazon] and heat to a low boil which removes excess chlorine and reduces the solution. After cooling you can precipitate leached PGMs with zinc, keep adding zinc in small amounts until the solution is clear. Your PGMs will precipitate as a black powder. Siphon off the solution leaving the black powders; wash the powders first with water, and then with HCl 32% to remove excess zinc. Afterwards, dissolve the black precipitate in a small amount of Aqua regia and again precipitate the black PGMs with zonce, repeat washes and re-dissolve in AR a second time.

Now you are ready to separate the metals. First precipitate your platinum salts with Ammonium chloride. Filter the yellow salts and save the solution, you can test the solution for palladium with DNG test solution, precipitate with zinc again and wash. Redissolve the palladium in AR and precipitate with sodium chlorate or chlorine gas to produce the brick red palladium salts. Again save the solution.

Your Platinum and palladium salts should be heated to 800 °C to make the sponge (separately, of course). To produce the Platinum and palladium metals from the sponge will require heating to 1800 °C. The metals produced are .999 pure and can be poured into graphite moulds to produce coins or bars, your choice. Hope this helps. Be careful and be safe. always work with a fume hood or outdoors -- the fumes are deadly.

David Singleton
- Tibro, Sweden
January 23, 2014

Q. Hello sir, myself Vivek. Sir, if we add sodium formate in aqua regia on hot plate, palladium is precipitated or not? Sir please help me.

vivek vig
shri krishna metal refining - jagadhri haryana
June 21, 2014

A. You'll have to eliminate the nitric acid from the Pd aqua regia solution before precipitating the red Pd salt with sodium chlorate. This is usually done by evaporating the solution to a syrup, then adding a small amount of HCl. This is repeated until all the nitric acid has been removed, usually 3 times. While evaporating, use low heat towards the end or the solution will splatter.

Chris Owen
- Nevada, Missouri, USA
June 24, 2014

A. Vivek,

I apologize. I thought you said sodium chlorate instead of sodium formate. Using sodium chlorate is the most common way of dropping Pd. I haven't used sodium formate, but I would think you would still have to remove the nitric first. I may be wrong.

Chris Owen
- Nevada, Missouri, USA
June 25, 2014

A. Dear vivek Vig,
Palladium dissolves in nitric acid, no need of aqua regia.

bhupesh mulik
cac admixtures - Mumbai, India
July 18, 2015

Q. Anyone tell me that how can I separate palladium from liquid? And what chemical I use?

Muhammad Yaseen
- Karachi,sindh,Pakistan
August 17, 2014

A. Use dimethyl glyoxime or hypophospurus acid for palladium precipitation.

bhupesh mulik
mumbai, Maharashtra, India
October 5, 2014

Q. I have metal mixture of palladium silver and copper. How to recover these metals separately? Please guide me.

mehtab ali
- ahmedabad, gujarat, India
October 7, 2014

October 2014

"Refining Precious Metal Wastes"
by C. M. Hoke

on AbeBooks

or Amazon

(affil links)

"Recovery and Refining Of precious Metals"
by C.W. Ammen

on AbeBooks

or eBay or


(affil links)

? Hi Mehtab. Can you please try your best to phrase your question in terms of the answers already provided? I don't know much about that subject, but it looks like you are re-asking a question that has already been repeatedly answered in pretty good detail more than half a dozen times already. Please try to tell us what you are not understanding. Thanks.


Ted Mooney,
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

A. Hi mehtab.
You have a metal mixture of palladium (Pd), copper (Cu) & silver (Ag). All these dissolve in nitric acid, so dissolve it in nitric acid and then recover it from liquid giving preference to which metal is more in your mixture.

bhupesh mulik
- Mumbai, India
November 23, 2014

Q. I have a colloid solution red in colour with platinum nanoparticles in it at 40%. I want to get the platinum out; I need an answer in laymans terms -- some say it's not complicated, others say its dangerous. Help is needed please.

shaun claremont
- croydon, surrey, england
June 10, 2015

A. Dear shaun,
If possible, you first concentrate your red colour solution nearly half in quantity by volume. Check the pH, add slowly saturated solution of ammonium chloride in it. You will get yellow precipitate of platinum sponge.

bhupesh mulik
cac admixtures - Mumbai, India
July 18, 2015

Q. Hi, thanks. When you say concentrate I assume you mean heat it up so some of it boils away -- how do I find the pH of what's left? This yellow sponge. Do I then heat this up and turn it into a platinum ingot

shaun claremont [returning]
- croydon, surrey, england
July 23, 2015

A. Dear Shaun,
You have a solution which contains Pt. You heat this solution nearly half meaning if you have 4 liter solution, concentrate by boiling & make up to 2 liters. Then using ph paper sheet you check whether pH is acidic or not. Then add ammonium chloride in it to get yellow precipitate of platinum sponge.

bhupesh mulik
cac admixture - Mumbai, India
July 26, 2015

Q. Hi bhupesh, thanks. Great. Now I have a platinum sponge can I put this in a crucible and melt it into a button?

shaun claremont [returning]
- Bletchingley, surrey, england
July 27, 2015

A. Dear shaun,
Put all the yellow ppt in porcelain crucible; burn it at around 850 to 900 °C. It becomes like a gray ash. Then melt that gray powder in ceramic crucible at around 1850-1900 °C; you will get pure platinum.

bhupesh mulik
cac admixture - Mumbai, India
July 31, 2015

thumbs up sign Hi bhupesh,
Thanks for all your help; now going to try -- let's see what happens.

Shaun Claremont [returning]
- Bletchingley, surrey, england
August 10, 2015

Making Palladium Chloride

Palladium chloride

Hi. Please anyone tell me how I can prepare palladium chloride from palladium metal for catalyst. 99.99% purity.

shruti patel
business - rajkot, gujrat, India
June 18, 2015

"Platinum-Group Elements; Mineralogy, Geology, Recovery"

on AbeBooks

or Amazon

(affil links)

Q. I have platinum soil mixed with copper dust; I'd like to know what method or acids must I use to separate these two?

Joseph Ramphomane
- Johannesburg, South Africa
July 13, 2016

Q. I was having some amount of palladium on carbon 10% powder and I wanted to take palladium out of carbon powder so I made aqua Regia solution with HCl and HNO3 at ratio of 3:1 and put the palladium carbon powder in my aqua Regia solution and boiled it for 30 mins and more and after filtration I got very dark brown or dark red solution and I tried to precipitate palladium with the help of sodium metabisulphite, but it doesn't work and my solution is still in same color and it's been 2 days I have kept it in a borosil beaker.
So please anyone experience person who can suggest me that how can I precipitate palladium out of my aqua Regia solution with which other types of chemicals and how?
Please anyone help me, your kind suggestions will be appreciated by my side.

Thanks and regards

Imran Choudhary
Choudhary Traders - Mumbai, India
April 1, 2018

A. Hi Imran,
I have an answer to your questions. You can use DMG or H3PO4 to precipitate palladium.

Bhupesh Mulik
CAC admixtures - Mumbai, India
July 31, 2018

Q. Hi my name is Mark; I'm a small miner in Arizona and have achieved a separation of palladium and have converted it to palladium oxide at 1800 °F and now I'm trying to smelt in my induction furnace but cannot achieve above 400 °F with the oxide. The induction furnace will achieve 3800 °F according to manufacturer. I've seen the process done on youtube but they don't show how they started the melting process, just kept adding more oxide into the melt. Does anyone have knowledge of why the furnace is not harmonized for the oxide?

Mark Spradling
- Gilbert Arizona USA
January 7, 2019

A. Hi, mark,
for melting palladium sponge you have to add a small amount of palladium metal before melting process, then slowly add your palladium sponge.

Bhupesh Chandrakant Mulik
CAC admixtures - Mumbai, India
February 8, 2019

Q. Dear Sirs,
I have palladium-nickel alloy rejects from which we wish to reclaim the palladium with chemical precipitation. Could you kindly advise. Thank you.

Kelvin Ching
- Bangkok, Thailand
June 3, 2019

Q. I have PT-PD alloy of prop. 925-75. To recover both metals I am doing aqua regia and then concentrating with HCl to remove nitric, then adding ammonium chloride to precipitate platinum sponge. Then calcining the sponge and melting.
The final metal consists 0.25% PD.
what can I do to remove this content at initial stage?

Armaan Joshi
- Mumbai, Maharashtra , India
June 6, 2019

A. Hi armaan,
How did you detect 0.25% Pd still remains? Which assay did you do?
Pd ppt using DMG complex formation.

Bhupesh Chandrakant Mulik
CAC admixtures - MUMBAI, India
June 19, 2019

Q. Hi Bhupesh,
I do XRF to check the same.
I doubt if ammonium chloride is precipitating some palladium or XRF is interpreting something false.
From my PT-PD mix dust I have to refine 3 times to get pure PT because every time I get a small proportion of PD in refined PT.

Armaan Joshi [returning]
- Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
June 28, 2019

⇦ (tip: readers rarely show interest in abstract questions, but people's actual situations usually prompt responses)   smiley face

Regarding below Answer, I just want to clarify if Pd can be separated with use of silver in nitric solution only or Pd can also be separated if Pd and Cu are dissolved in aqua regia solution.

"Here are three low tech ways of separating copper and palladium:

1) Use Silver.

Silver is above copper, but below palladium, on the electromotive series, so adding silver to the copper/palladium solution will precipitate the palladium and leave the copper in solution. Remove the precipitated palladium and add sodium chloride to the remaining copper solution, and the silver will be recovered as silver chloride. This can be reduced back to metallic silver by various methods. Silver is expensive, and some will be lost in each cycle, so you will have to decide if this method is feasible for you."

Please clarify above.

Javed afzel
- lahore Punjab
February 19, 2021

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