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Building Black Powder Cannons

Q. D. King Howitzer, Bronze, Marked 1793, No.1, 70 lb. Barrel, 2.5 inch bore, Any one have information on this cannon barrel?


7278-1c   7278-1d   7278-1b  

May be from Cannon LTD on Ohio.

- Oregon City, Oregon
October 17, 2023

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Q. I have been interested in building a black-powder cannon and have had difficulty in finding plans and the laws on possession and the use of such items if anyone has info. on these subjects I would like to hear from you. Civil war era replicas or the revolution era are what I am most interested in. Small bore, around two inch or so in size. What are the best materials, loads and safe distances, etc.?

Rick Mueller
- Gibbon Nebraska

"Round Shot and Rammers: An Introduction to Muzzle-Loading Land Artillery in the United States"
by Harold L. Peterson

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A. Sorry, I know nothing of replica cannons, Rick. But my son was into model rocketry and I learned that in my state and surrounding states anyone 18 years old or older could buy small rocket engines (which are similar to fire crackers except they burn slowly to power the rocket).

But as soon as he got beyond the size of about a 3" long firecracker he had to get an "explosives license" to buy them.

You might need a similar "explosives license" beyond "toy" size cannons.

Ted Mooney,
Ted Mooney, P.E.
Striving to live Aloha - Pine Beach, New Jersey

A. I have two model cannons which I load with black powder and scare the neighbors and delight the grandkids. There seems to be little restriction on them at this time but that will doubtless change. So you may want to get something now.

Check with and you could look at for information and also sources for cannon barrels.

Might use a search engine and check out "black powder cannons".

D.W. Austin
- Chino Valley, Arizona

Ed. note: Cannonmania is struck out in above posting because it no longer exists.

A. Dear Rick, A good person to get into contact would be G.J. Nikolas, I've seen his 3 footer go off many times. You can contact him at gjn@ He's a "big gun" buff and could give you some ideas.

Jake Koch
G. J. Nikolas &Co.,Inc.
supporting advertiser
Bellwood, Illinois
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A. Dear Rick,

I found your letter today. Generally speaking, black powder muzzle loading cannons are not regulated. The ATF says they are not firearms. What is regulated is the class of guns considered "Destructive Devices", which are those firing an exploding projectile, or those firing "Fixed Ammunition", which is defined as projectile, powder and primer in one piece. This allows for rapid reloading, which poses a threat in the eyes of the ATF.

Good Luck, and keep your powder dry...

Peter Hoyt
The Jefferson Armory - Phoenix, Oregon, USA

A. Dear Rick,

I have built a functional cannon (three foot barrel), and am currently building a 2" howitzer style gun with a seven foot barrel. I think the neighbors will be the only restriction. Try Dixie Gun Works for barrels and related supplies.

J R Lillibridge
- Belfield, North Dakota

A. I build and fire black powder cannons. The laws state that as long as it is muzzleloading, and the projectile does not explode upon impact, it is considered a toy. Not a firearm and not under any restrictions. (unless your town has a noise ordinance).

Most of mine are small bore, between .50-cal and 1.75". I also built a 3.75" Cohorn mortar. The best materials to use would be solid round stock and then bore it in a lathe. But if you are like me I don't have one. So what I use is schedule 180 to 200 pipe and then weld one end solid (at least 1" thick weld!) The black powder cannons are only producing around 26,000 psi chamber pressure, but it's better to be safe than sorry. Your loading data depends on bore size and also strength of barrel. In my .50, max load is 120 gr of FFg and it shoots about 400 yds. In the 1.75", max load is 700 grs, and it will launch a golf ball well over 1000 yds.(A 2.5 lb solid lead ball will go over 2200 yds) So be careful where you shoot and know your backstop. Most gun ranges want you to be at least 50 ft away from anyone else during the firing, for safety reasons. And I recommend that you do the same when you first test your barrel.

Have fun.

James Phelps
- Morgantown, Kentucky

Mr Phelps
Re: pipe for cannons

I have always read that using Pipe for a cannon is dangerous. A man was killed in Billings Mt December 1, 2012. The cannon was made from a 21 inch long pipe with a 3 inch bore, according to the newspaper. You could find an article in the Billings Gazette

There is a record of a civil war Parrott Rifle that had been fired more than 5000 times exploding. The explosion occurred shortly after the civil war if I recall correctly.

Be careful

W. G. Gilbert
- Dillon, Montana USA
December 17, 2012

A. Your cannon needs and questions can be answered through the NMLRA National Muzzleloading Rifle Association, Friendship IN. I believe they have a booklet on the proper loading and the granulation for the size of barrel you will have and the bore size IE. 1"-2" - 3" etc. If they do not have a booklet Dixie gun works will. At Friendship you can usually buy a barrel of approx. 3 feet in length and of a bore around 1 1/2" for around $200.00 so don't get sucked in to one for $500.00 or more. Also our club Ouabashe Valley Frontiersmen purchase Elephant Brand Blackpowder for $5.00 a pound. These people selling it for $9.00 and $10.00 are all wet! The powder can be found on the web for Elephant blackpowder check for the dealer nearest you. You will need granulation size of 1F or cannon powder. This powder comes from 1f to 7f so specify what you need.

Good Luck!

(P.S. nothing impresses the kids at Rendezvous like a good cannon roar.)


Steve (Twoshots) Eckersley
Ouabashe Valley Frontiersmen - Wellington, Illinois

A. I have been interested in building cannons for a long time and have found that each state has its own rules concerning the use of cannons. I have built one and am now in the process of building five more as I have found the material to do so. When they are done they will be the same bore size as the first one of 23/8. I use one ounce of ff black power; it shoots real good at about four hundred yds., but the max range is still up for grabs as we haven't gone out to check for distance.

Michael Morrow
- Virden, New Mexico

Try for free plans for 2 cannons. Worth a look.

david brereton
nelson, New Zealand

Ed. update: We don't know whether they sold the site or just changed the site, but now goes to a company which does fireworks displays, and we see no reference at all to cannons or plans for them.

A. I have built a one half scale model of a Coehorn mortar with steel tube on the internet ordered from Metal Express Inc. My mortar will shoot a soda can filled with concrete a half mile or more depending on the powder charge. I am building a 1.75 inch bore field cannon to shoot golf balls. You can buy finished cannons on the internet from Cannon-Mania.

You can buy up to 25 pounds of black powder on the internet from Powder Inc. with no restrictions except age. UPS delivers. This is a very exciting and legal hobby.

Lots of fun if you have some place (like a farm) to shoot the cannon.

Bill Rice
- Isabella, Minnesota

Ed. update: Cannon-Mania no longer exists.

A. Forget regulations on muzzle loading cannons. The only regulations are common sense on loading and not purchasing over 50 pounds of black powder without a distributor's license from A.T.F. Black powder is getting difficult to find in gun shops but, can be ordered online and shipped to your door. You will probably have to buy a minimum of 25 pounds and pay U.P.S hazardous shipping charges but the cost per pound is still about $11.00 per pound, shipped. Not bad. DO NOT use pyrodex or any form of nitro powder in any quantity! I have enjoyed building the carriages as much as shooting the cannons.

Have fun and stay safe.

James L. Davis
- Leitchfield, Kentucky

Q. If anyone has any instructions or good links to get model cannons please tell me. Thanks.

Note, I don't want a bang cannon.

Mark Sampson
- Morristown, New Jersey

Q. I don't know much about powder cannons but have built several air cannons for those who wish not to get in trouble with the law. My first one was a bazooka that can be shoulder mounted and launches a 2 inch nerf football up to 110 yards. My second cannon was a little more impressive. It has a huge 4 inch barrel that is 6 feet long. This on uses spray deodorant to launch a softball 110-150 yards! and man does it sound cool.
I found this website because I want to use either to launch a golf ball but didn't know if I needed a metal barrel if PVC would hold the explosion or if there are laws against big cannons like this.
If you know of a law against it I would love to know.

Seth Woolston
- Boone, Iowa
August 29, 2010

A. I make civil war black powder cannons. Brass and rolled steel. Mortars, mountain howitzers, Carronades. I have a lathe, mill and big band saw. So far seven this year, 116 all toll. Calibers from 1.18" down to .177" they all shoot.

Tom B.
- Salado, Texas, USA
February 17, 2011

Q. I am in a metal working class at school and I am building a cannon. This an on is a mini .50 cal. Cannon with a... I'm guessing a 1 or 1 1/2 inch thick barrel. Now here is where the main question comes in, my teacher said I can't make it fire able and so he said to make it out of steel so I want to know if it will either fire or if I can just shove black powder and a piece of cloth to just make it have a loud bang.

(I tried to look on internet and could not find answers)

Dan Hessler
- N/A Pennsylvania United States of America
March 24, 2017

A. If making a black powder cannon out of steel, it is pretty easy to make it strong enough to safely fire a projectile. Either bored from solid bar stock or very heavy wall seamless tubing. As with any firearm, max chamber pressure is seen during the first part of movement so you will want the rear portion of the barrel thicker for safety and it also looks better that way as well. Never stand directly behind or to the side of the barrel when firing. A heavy projectile will use less powder than a light one. There is a lot that goes into it but that is some of the basics.
Good luck and play safe!

Matt Parkes
- Gilbert Arizona USA
June 5, 2017

Need Help Building a Cannon Barrel

Q. I'm building a Black Powder Cannon out of a 16" long 2 3/4" diameter chunk of solid steel bar stock with a 3/4" bore (.75 cal) drilled 12" deep.

Here are my list of questions.

1. Should I drill a powder chamber?
(I plan on shooting a 3/4" ball bearing from it.)

If the answer is "yes, I should use a powder chamber"...
(a) How much powder can I safely use with and without Projectile?
(b) What should the dimensions of the powder chamber be?
(c) What should the distance between the butt of the cannon barrel and the chamber be?

2. Vent hole size? (I plan on using a 3mm cannon fuse)
(a) What size hole do I drill?
(b) What angle should it be drilled? (should it be drilled directly on top or to the side)?
(c) How far from the back of the chamber should the vent hole enter?

3. Windage?
(a) How much? (what size drill bit should I use)
(b) How deep should should the bore be? Figuring a 12" bore: What should be the distance from the butt
end (fuse side) of the cannon barrel and the bore be?

4. Trunnions?
(a) Diameter?
(b) Welded, threaded, or both?
(c) How to find the balance?
(d) Should it be ass heavy or tip Heavy? (I plan on using a leveling system)

Disclaimer: By answering these question and or giving your advise will you nor anyone you know or who you are associated with in any manner hold any liability for their involvement in the building and or the use of this cannon whether it be users, spectators, or any persons or property injured or damaged during the use and or the construction of this cannon.

August 20, 2017

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