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The below was a proposed technical program for an event and may not represent the final program, nor the contents of the Conference Proceedings for that event. If you are seeking a particular paper, contact the event's sponsor to make sure it is an actual part of their Conference Proceedings before ordering them.

The American Electroplaters and Surface Finishers Society, Inc.

AESF Week Programs

The 17th AESF/EPA Pollution Prevention & Control Conference
February 5-7, 1996

Monday, February 5 - Session 1A
9 a.m. - Opening Session

Session Organizer & Chairperson: Teresa Harten, Pollution Prevention Research Branch, U.S. EPA, Office of R&D, Risk Reduction Engineering Lab, Cincinnati, OH

9 a.m. - Welcoming Remarks & Announcement of "Best Presentation" & "Best Paper" Awards
for the 16th (February 1995) AESF/EPA Pollution Prevention Conference
Brian Manty, AESF President, Concurrent Technologies Corp., Johnstown, PA
Ted Witt, CEF, AESF Executive Director, Orlando, FL
Peter Gallerani, CEF, Organizer Industry Speakers, 17th AESF/EPA Conference, Integrated Technologies, Inc., Danville, VT

9:15 a.m. Opening Remarks & Introductions
Dr. Robert Huggett, Assistant Administrator, Office of Research and Development, U.S EPA, Washington, DC
E. Timothy Oppelt, Director, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, Cincinnati, OH

9:30 a.m. Invited Keynote Speakers
The Honorable Carol Browner, Administrator, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC
Sheila Copps, M.P., Office of the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Environment, Hull, Quebec, Canada
Julia Carabias Lillo, Secretary of Environment, Natural Resources & Fisheries, Mexico City, Mexico

10:45 a.m. The Common Sense Initiative: How's It Working?
Robert Huggett, Assistant Administrator, Office of Research and Development, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC
David Gardiner (invited speaker), Assistant Administrator, Office of Policy Planning and Evaluation, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC
Robert Benson, Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC
Diane Cameron, Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC

Noon - 1 p.m. Lunch (Provided by Conference)

Monday, February 5 - Session 1B
1 p.m. - Agency Speakers (cont'd.)

1 p.m. National Metal Finishing Resource Center
William Sonntag, Director of Government Relations for NAMF/AESF/MFSA, National Environmental Strategies, Washington, DC

1:30 p.m. Metal Products & Machinery Effluent Guidelines
Sheila Frace, Deputy Director, Engineering & Analysis Division, Office of Water, Washington, DC

2 p.m. Stormwater Update
William Swietlick, Chief, Stormwater Section, Office of Wastewater Management, Office of Water, Washington, DC

2:30 p.m. The Common Sense Initiative Environmentally Responsible Transition
Karen Morley, Special Assistant to the Office Director, Office of Site Remediation & Enforcement, Washington, DC

3 p.m. Break in the Session Room

3:30 - 5 p.m. Panel Discussion, Government Agency Representatives

Monday Evening
5:30 - 7:30 p.m. Exhibit Preview & Reception

Tuesday, February 6 - Concurrent Session 2A - 8:30 a.m.
Strategic Environmental Management Systems

Session Chairperson: Dr. John Lott, DuPont Electronics, Research Triangle Park, NC

8:30 a.m. An Overview of ISO 14000; Will It Work for My Company?
Dr. John Lott & Barbara McGuinness, DuPont Electronics, Research Triangle Park, NC
This presentation will give an overview of the ISO 14000 suite of standards being developed for environmental management, auditing, labeling, performance evaluation, and life cycle assessment. The management standard will be compared to ISO 9000, and it will be shown that existing environmental programs at most companies can be upgraded to fit ISO 14000. DuPont's corporate approach to implementation will be reviewed. Finally, the pros and cons of an environmental management system will be discussed, including links to government programs that offer lower fines and lower likelihood of prosecution.

9 a.m. Implementing ISO 14001 at a PWB Facility
Gayle Woodside, P.E., CSP, IBM Austin, TX
The document entitled "Environmental Management Systems Specification with Guidance for Use," ISO 14001, is and was meant to be the most important standard in the ISO 14000 series. It lays out the elements of the management system that organizations are required to conform to if they seek ISO registration. The five key requirements of ISO 14001 will be discussed, including management commitment and policy, planning, implementation and operation, checking and corrective action, and management review. Other key concepts within the document, such as the commitment to the prevention of pollution and continual improvement will be discussed, because these concepts can easily be misinterpreted by those unfamiliar with the intentions of those who drafted the ISO 14001 standard. Also included will be a description of information systems used at IBM-Austin that allow for conformance to specific requirements of communication, documentation, monitoring and measurement, preventive action, and auditing.

9:30 a.m. TBA
Curtis Wales, Motorola, Austin, TX

10 a.m. Break in the Exhibit Hall

10:30 a.m. How Pratt & Whitney Incorporates EHS Concerns into Product Designs & Operating Practices
John Zavodjancik & Matthew Falco, Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, CT
A comprehensive team structure has been created to address environmental, health and safety concerns that impact Pratt & Whitney. Motivation has been provided by a desire to improve EH&S; performance, minimize regulatory pressures, avoid increasing management costs, and satisfy customer requirements. The teams have solid support from senior management, extend into all business aspects product design, manufacture, and repair operations and include participation of hourly and salary employees. This paper will discuss the Pollution Prevention Team structure and issues, such as elimination of ozone-depleting chemicals and cadmium-containing materials, that are being addressed.

11 a.m. Key Legal Issues Concerning Environmental Auditing
Deborah Marson, Esq., The Gillette Company, Boston, MA; & Michael J. Meagher, Esq., Burns & Levinson, Boston, MA
This paper will analyze certain key legal issues that a company should consider when setting up an environmental auditing program. It will cover the requirements and benefits of policies issued by the U.S. EPA and the question of audit privilege. The environmental auditing program set up by The Gillette Company will be used as an example of how one company has addressed those issues. The paper will also cover how Gillette's participation in the EPA's Environmental Leadership Program has affected its environmental auditing program.

11:30 a.m. TBA

Noon 1 p.m. Lunch in Exhibit Hall

Tuesday, February 6 - Concurrent Session 2B
8:30 a.m. - Alternative Process Developments I

Session Chairperson: Derek Vachon, Wastewater Technology Centre, Burlington, Ontario, Canada

8:30 a.m. Source Waste Minimization in Electroplating Plants Through System Optimization
Yinlun Huang, Dept. of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI
One of the quickest ways to comply with increasingly stringent environmental regulations is to improve existing electroplating processes through system optimization. The optimization can determine an optimal operation mode for each unit in the process, in terms of plating quality, waste reduction, and cost reduction. Unlike conventional optimization technology, this optimization is incorporated by fuzzy logic that reflects a variety of experts' experience. As a case study, a zinc-acid plating process is optimized. This gives rise to the reduction of the quantity and toxicity of wastewater streams from the process. The optimization approach is being embedded into the intelligent decision support system, WMEP-Advisor, which is developed for in-plant waste minimization in electroplating plants.

9 a.m. Polymer Filtration: A New Technology for Selective Silver Recovery
Barbara F. Smith, Thomas W. Robison, Michael E. Cournoyer, Chemical Science & Technology Div., Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM
A new technology is under development to selectively recover silver ions from electroplating rinsewaters. The silver ions are recovered in a concentrated form, with the appropriate counter ions ready for return to the original electroplating bath. The technology is based on the use of specially designed water-soluble polymers that selectively bind with silver ions in the rinse bath. The polymers have such a large molecular weight that they can be physically separated using ultrafiltration technology. The advantages of this technology are high metal selectivity with no sludge formation, rapid processing, low energy, low capital costs, and small size.

9:30 a.m. Influences of Rotation of Cathode on the Recovery of Nickel from Waste Streams by Electrowinning
Chein-Ho Huang, Soochow University, Shih-Lin, Taipei, Taiwan
The pH control of electrolyte, weak acid-weak base and/or their salt were used to increase the cathode current efficiency and limiting current density for electrowinning of nickel wastewater. The pH at the cathode-electrolyte interface decreased with increased rotation speed of the cathode. The relation between the rotation speed of the cathode and the amount of the acid-base and salt is discussed in this paper. The morphology of the deposits is also presented.

10 a.m. Break in the Exhibit Hall

10:30 a.m. Chromate Conversion Coating Elimination from 5000 Series Aluminum
Laura Barbero, J. Peter Ault & Keith Cramer, Ocean City Research Corporation, Alexandria, VA
Red River Army Depot reworks and repairs light tactical vehicles. Before painting, each vehicle is pretreated with chromate conversion coating (CCC) to resist corrosion and promote adequate adhesion of the coatings. CCC generates hazardous waste, and chromium is a hazardous air pollutant (HAP). Ocean City Research Corp. identified an environmentally safer alternative for CCC with a clean and adequate surface profile. The alternative process was implemented at the Depot in February 1995.

11 a.m. A Combination of "Point Source Control" & "Electrocoagulation" Shows the Way to Low-cost Pollution Control & Zero Discharge to Sewer
Robert M. Burford, CEF, PASCO Water Pollution Control, Kennett Square, PA
A close examination of your finishing operations can result in various modifications that will reduce rinsewater consumption, recover some valuable chemicals and recover rinsewaters for reuse, without altering the process footprint. The process has broad applications and is adaptable to most metal finishing operations. Existing systems have substantially lowered the cost of pollution control over traditional technologies. Many users have eliminated all discharge to sewer.
This paper will discuss the importance of solids removal, as well as various equipment to accomplish the desired results.

11:30 a.m. Issues on the Reliability of PWBs Metallized by a Graphite-based Process
Michael Carano, Electrochemicals, Inc., Maple Plain, MN
In the past few years, a new wave of direct metallization technologies has been introduced to the printed wiring board industry. And, while interest in its technology is high, questions on the long-term reliability of printed wiring boards manufactured by direct metallization (DM) arise. This paper will address those issues in detail. Performance data obtained from thermal cycling, thermal stress DELCO-testing, component rework simulation interconnect integrity, plating adhesion, etc., will be presented. Process capability for small hole plating (blind and buried) and exotic materials will be discussed. Sufficient background into the development of the patented process will be given, as well as the environmental attributes of the system.

Tuesday, February 6- Concurrent Session 3A
1 p.m.- Remediation of Surface Finishing Facilities

Session Chairperson: H. Lee Martin, Westinghouse SRC, Aiken, SC

1 p.m. Site Remediation of Hexavalent Chromium in a Plater's Sump Heavy Metal Chemical Fixation: A Case History
George K. Burke, P.E.; Alan Furth; Derek Rhodes, P.G. & Kevin Walls, MARCOR Environmental, Hunt Valley, MD
A sump at an active military depot plating facility contained significant quantities of heavy metal contamination, particularly hexavalent chromium. The bulk waste material within the sump and the underlying concrete floor were removed. Significant concentrations of total chromium and hexavalent chromium were found in the underlying soils, with hexavalent chromium detected to depths of 10 ft below the sump floor. Because of the toxic leachability characteristics of hexavalent chromium, remedial action was required to prevent further migration of the leachate within the underlying soils. To maintain facility operation, in-situ chemical fixation was selected as the remedial alternative. Mechanical soil mixing was selected as the in-situ process of reagent addition for full-scale remediation.
This case history discusses regulatory involvement, analytical characteristics and process technology. Associated costs and applicability of the technology at plating facilities are also discussed.

1:30 p.m. Heavy-Metal-Contaminated Soil Remediation: A Bronx, NY, Case History
Paul W. Redding & Michael J. Wyatt, MARCOR Environmental, Hunt Valley, MD; Jeffery Newton, Advanced Chemical Treatment, Cockeysville, MD
A proprietary reagent mixing operation has been successfully implemented at a full-scale, 185,000-yd3 remediation project, with total lead concentrations exceeding 70,000 ppm and leachable lead >2,200 ppm. The reagent was selected for its ability to maintain the soil pH and soil consistency, provide treatment on contact, and pass the TCLP, SPLP, MEP and Cal Wet testing. These end-use characteristics allow for the beneficial reuse of the treated soil on-site, as opposed to creating a solid monolith or landfill waste. The reagent has been used in an ex-situ continuous-flow operation to treat heavy-metal-contaminated soil at an active firing range. Mechanical removal of lead bullet deposits, in concert with the chemical fixation reagent, removed the source of pollution while simultaneously incorporating the existing lead leachate into a complex molecule, inhibiting future leaching and rendering the soil non-hazardous by current regulatory standards. This presentation describes the actual full-scale 250-ton/hr production process and results during remediation.

2 p.m. Turning Brownfields Into Gold
William L. Penny, Manier, Herod, Hollabaugh & Smith, Nashville, TN
The Clinton Administration's "Brownfields Action Agenda," which was announced January 25, 1995, could have a tremendous effect on industry redevelopment plans, but is particularly suited to the metal plating industry. "Brownfields" are contaminated, under-used or abandoned, former industrial or commerical sites where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination. According to the U.S. EPA, environmental clean-up will become a "building block" to economic development. The idea is to attempt to revitalize these brownfield facilities. Often, a metal plating business could prosper at an old location if it did not also assume the environmental liability.
This paper will describe the EPA initiative, as well as similar initiatives in some states. It will describe how the metal finishing industry can take advantage of new prospective purchaser guidance in relocating to abandoned metal plating shops or other types of facilities. In addition, the session will help provide a blueprint for the industry to use with its respective states in working on brownfields legislation and policy.

2:30 p.m. Break in Session Room

3 p.m. What to Expect When You Modernize Your Aging Captive Shop
Gregory W. McCarrel, Pacific Propeller, Inc., Kent WA
Many captive plating shops are small, unwanted "step-children" of larger organizations that don't consider themselves in the plating business. This relationship frequently perpetuates neglected, mediocre facilities. Eventually, environmental and economic concerns demand a larger commitment to the plating aspects of the business. This paper will chronicle the challenges of a small Seattle, WA, area aviation propeller overhaul and repair facility (60 employees) that finally came to grips with its wastewater pretreatment and soil remediation issues. Managers, platers, lawyers, environmentalists, consultants, architects, engineers, contractors, waste disposers, inspectors, suppliers, etc., all provided the answers to a very complicated set of questions.

3:30 p.m. Remediation Applications/Considerations with a Proprietary Microfiltration SITE Technology
Dr. Ernest Mayer, E.I. DuPont de Nemours, Inc., Wilmington, DE
Previous work demonstrated the utility of a proprietary microfiltration Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) for treating metal-bearing plating wastes, wastewater, and groundwaters (Mayer, 1994 AESF/EPA Conference). This technology has since been successfully applied to a variety of wastewaters because it can produce ppb metal removals and stabilized solids for landfilling all in one simple operation. It has not been extensively applied to remediation projects, however, because of contractors' unfamiliarity with new technology. As a result, a concerted effort was made to educate some contractors. This paper will describe successful remediation projects where this metal removal stabilization technology has been applied.

5 - 6:30 p.m. Preview & Reception in Exhibit Hall

Tuesday, February 6 - Concurrent Session 3B
1 p.m. Emerging Trends in Pollution Prevention & Control I

Session Chairperson: Lyle Kirman, Kinetico Engineered Systems, Newbury, OH

1 p.m. In-line Waste Stream Treatment Using Chemical Fixation: A Case History
Jeffery Newton, Advanced Chemical Treatment, Cockeysville, MD; Jeffery Treske, Industrial Waste Treatments, Inc., West Allis, WI & Kevin Walls, MARCOR Environmental, Inc., Hunt Valley, MD
A waste stream with high concentration of various heavy metals is treated with chemical fixation. A mid-western production facility with a conventional wastewater treatment process found limited success in consistently producing filter cakes that, without exception, have leachability characteristics below federal standards for TCLP metals. This particular jobshop has a heavy-metal waste stream, which is inconsistent with respect to types and concentration of metals that enter the waste treatment plant, and over which it has no control. To avoid testing every filter cake prior to landfilling or disposal, and to ensure that metal leachability is not out of compliance of current federal standards, a proprietary chemical formulation is introduced into the waste after the conventional waste treatment chemical process, but prior to the de-watering process (filter press operation). Addition rates of this proprietary chemical formulation are in a 3 10 percent ratio by weight of the slurry prior to de-watering. After treatment, volume expansion of the filter cake is essentially non-existent. All filter cakes comply with federal TCLP standards.

1:30 p.m. Carbonate Removal System Leads to Cyanide Waste Reduction
Marie C. Reiner, CEF, Apollo Metals, Ltd., Bethlehem, PA
For years, the most widely used methods for carbonate removal from a cyanide plating system were dilution, freezing out, and precipitation. These methods can be difficult, time-consuming, costly, and ultimately all generate hazardous waste. A unique system patented in 1972, utilizing ion exchange, is also available. This process removes carbonates from the solution by using an acid ion exchange resin and liberating off the carbon dioxide gas formed. It is clean, efficient, and generates no more waste than some rinsewater not incorporated back into the plating bath. This ion exchange process results in an easy carbonate removal system that works in your waste minimization program.

2 p.m. Chromium Purification Using Ion Exchange in a Gravure Printing Operation
Paul Pajunen, Eco-Tec, Pickering, Ontario, Canada; & Ole Solberg, R.R. Donnelly Ltd., Casa Grande, AZ
As an integral part of the gravure process for publication and package printing, copper cylinders must be routinely hard-chromium plated to ensure proper protection. The hard chromium plating solution that is utilized will, over time, become contaminated with cationic species, such as copper, iron and trivalent chromium. If not removed, the solution degrades and must be, at considerable cost, hauled away or conventionally waste-treated on-site. A unique ion exchange process will be described that was implemented at such an operation to purify the chromium solution for reuse. Details concerning design considerations, advantages over alternative purification processes, operating performance, economic evaluation, and ensuing quality improvements in the plating process will be presented.

2:30 p.m. Break in Session Room

3 p.m. Metal Recovery with a Novel Process That Integrates Electrowinning & Ion Exchange
C.D. Zhou, E.C. Stortz, E.J. Taylor & R.P. Renz, Faraday Technology, Inc., Dayton, OH
Metals are used in a broad range of industrial processes and products. Because of the toxicity of heavy metals, metal-containing wastewater must be adequately treated. A new proprietary process integrates electrowinning and ion exchange into one unit to economically treat a large volume of wastewater from high concentration to low concentration. The process combines the advantages of electrowinning and ion exchange. A prototype unit has been installed and is in operation at NSWC-Crane to treat copper plating rinsewater.

3:30 p.m. Waste Treatment of Electroless Nickel
David W. Hill, Wheelabrator Clean Water Inc. Memtek Div., Billerica, MA
Electroless nickel is becoming more and more important in today's metal finishing market. As the performance of electroless nickel baths increases because of new chemical formulations, the spent baths have become more difficult to waste-treat. This paper describes an electrolytic system that has been used to treat spent electroless nickel baths. The nickel is recovered as a solid metal, with removal levels to compliance levels. In addition to performance data, economics also will be presented.

Tuesday, February 6 - Session 3C

3:30 p.m. Roundtable Discussion IPC/U.S. EPA Design for Environment: Evaluating Alternative Processes in the Printed Wiring Board Industry
Katherine Hart (project co-chairman) U.S. EPA, Washington, DC; & Chris Rhodes (project co-chairman), The
Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits (IPC), Northbrook, IL

Tuesday Evening
5 - 6:30 p.m. Reception in Exhibit Hall

Wednesday, February 7 - Concurrent Session 4A
8:30 a.m. Emerging Trends in Pollution Prevention & Control II

Session Chairperson: Kevin Vidmar, Stanley Fastening Systems, East Greenwich, RI

8:30 a.m. Key Regulatory Issues Regarding Electroplating:
Production Line Process Wastewater; Secondary Containment Hazardous Waste or Within the Wastewater Exemption; & Does the Wastewater Exemption Apply to "Zero Discharge" Facilities?
Daniel R. Kopplin, S.K. Williams Co., Milwaukee, WI & Donald P. Gallo, esq., Michael Best & Friedrich, Milwaukee, WI
In recent years, several electroplating facilities have experienced state and federal RCRA inspections that raise issues relating to secondary containment, storage of hazardous waste, the RCRA hazardous waste regulatory exemption for wastewater treatment and elementary neutralization tank systems, whether or not the RCRA wastewater exemption should apply to a "zero discharge" facility, and how a "zero discharge" facility should be regulated. Liquid and solid materials that accumulate in the secondary containment area of a plating line may be hazardous waste. If this material is sent to an on-site pretreatment facility, does the material now fall within the RCRA wastewater exemption? Can a zero discharge facility take advantage of the wastewater exemption, or is the exemption void because the treatment system is now viewed as a RCRA Part B hazardous waste treatment facility? This paper addresses these issues and discusses common sense practical solutions.

9 a.m. Implementation of Resource-saving Technology in the Polish Plating Industry
Allan Herrstedt Jensen, B.Sc., & Johan Chr. Gregersen, M.Sc., Institute for Product Development (IPU), The Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark; & Dr. Marek Kieszkowski, Institute of Precision Mechanics, Warsaw, Poland
Three Polish plating shops have been analyzed regarding material flows and resource consumption. The subsequent layout elaborations and calculations of rinsewater needs have formed the basis for the final rebuilding and modernization. The rinsewater needs are easily calculated by the use of a spreadsheet program elaborated by IPU. The final results of the rebuildings are presented, with focus on saved resources. The sludge problem is minimized and the shops are now able to fulfill regulatory requirements. The economical gains in terms of saved water and saved metal are calculated.

9:30 a.m. Initiation of a Pollution Prevention Project in the Metal Finishing Sector
Pauline Brown, Brian LeClair, Anita Li, Bruce Gillies, Bart Titcomb, Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
In the past, improvements to the environment have been made by controlling pollution through enforcement of regulations. The Canadian and Ontario governments have recognized that voluntary actions to prevent wasted resources are an efficient and cost-effective approach to improve both the environment and business. The Metal Finishing Pollution Prevention Project is an initiative in which governments, industry associations and member companies have agreed to work cooperatively to promote pollution prevention planning in metal finishing facilities. Recognizing the need to provide assistance to facilities in developing and implementing these plans has resulted in the development of a Pollution Prevention Guide, training courses, information-sharing workshops, and on-site technical assistance.

10 a.m. Break in the Exhibit Hall

10:30 a.m. Survey of Heavy Metal Wastes from Selected Metal Finishing Facilities in Southwestern Ontario
Bert Titcomb, Environment Canada; Derek Vachon & Dan Dolan, Wastewater Technology Centre, Burlington, Ontario, Canada
At the request of the Industrial Sectors Branch of Environment Canada, the Wastewater Technology Centre conducted a survey of the metal finishing industry in Ontario. The primary focus of the 1994 survey was on major heavy metal dischargers in Southwestern Ontario, with additional data collected from some selected facilities in two other provinces. A total of 37 finishing companies responded to the survey, of which 31 were located in Ontario.
The objective of the survey was to focus on the 20 percent of metal finishers that produce 80 percent of the waste discharges. Discharges of cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel and zinc were determined, with total discharges of these metals estimated for the metal finishing industry situated in Ontario. Tables and graphs for the various waste classifications will be presented.
Also included in the survey was the industry's acceptance and use of water reduction techniques and resource recovery technologies. Examples of the applications of a number of these pollution prevention techniques will be discussed, as well as benefits and drawbacks of these technologies. The opinions of the metal finishers on the applicability of these technologies will also be included in the presentation.

11 a.m. Phosphoric Acid Recovery & Purification
David W. Hill, Wheelabrator Clean Water Inc. Memtek Div., Billerica, MA
Phosphoric acid is an important metal finishing chemical, as well as an expensive chemical to purchase and to waste-treat. This paper will describe an electrolytic system that was used to recover and purify phosphoric acid economically. The phosphoric acid is recovered, purified, and concentrated from dilute rinsewaters, while closing the rinsewater loop. When parts are not being cleaned, the concentrated phosphoric acid cleaning bath is treated with the same system to remove metal impurities, such as copper, lead, tin, zinc and iron, which eliminates the need for bath replacement. In addition to performance data, economics will also be presented.

11:30 a.m. Water Reuse Design & Implementation
Stratton G. Tragellis, Wheelabrator Clean Water Inc. Memtek Div., Billerica, MA
This paper presents design considerations in maximizing water reuse in a metal finishing shop. The facility specializes in the corrosion protection of prototype metal products. Their wastewater is generated from zinc plating and chromate conversion of base steel parts. The wet processes include alkaline and acid cleaners, alkaline zinc, zinc chloride, clear, yellow and black chromating. The wastewater treatment and recycle system consisted of ion exchange, combined with microfiltration. The company was able to reuse more than 70 percent of its process rinses, resulting in a significant savings in water and sewer use costs.

Wednesday, February 7 - Concurrent Session 4B
8:30 a.m. Responsible Care of Surface Finishing Facilities

Session Chairperson: Dr. Rebecca Spearot, P.E., Clayton Environmental Consultants, Novi, MI

8:30 a.m. How Product Stewardship Can Improve Risk Management & Product Value
Dr. John Lott, DuPont Electronics, Research Triangle Park, NC
The goals of a product stewardship program can include not only risk management, but also value enhancement. Product stewardship, as defined under the Chemical Manufacturers Association's Responsible Care program, has many elements. A step-by-step review of these elements, using the DuPont Electronic materials program as an example, will demonstrate how such a program can be implemented. Examples from other businesses will also be used to illustrate the various aspects of the program, including both tactical and strategic implementation. Elements to be reviewed include testing protocols, links to product development, product trails, auditing and product stewardship reviews.

9 a.m. IPC/U.S. EPA Design for Environment: Evaluating Alternative Processes in the Printed Wiring Board Industry
Katherine Hart & Deborah Boger, Office of Pollution Prevention & Toxics, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC
Implementing "responsible care" includes incorporating information about health and environmental risks into process design and redesign. The Design for Environment Printed Wiring Board (PWB) Project is identifying opportunities for pollution prevention and risk reduction in the industry. The data generated in the project can then be used by PWB manufacturers and others to make informed decisions about process design. Specifically, the EPA and IPC are working voluntarily and cooperatively with PWB manufacturers, research organizations, public interest groups, and other governmental agencies to evaluate the risk, cost and performance of alternative technologies for making PWB holes conductive.

9:30 a.m. Is Your Shipping Ship-Shape?
Larry Strange, Benchmark Products, Inc., Indianapolis, IN
Congress has authorized the U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) to control certain aspects of the shipment of hazardous materials. Included in this authority is the right to conduct inspections of those who offer hazardous materials for shipment in interstate commerce. This paper will define a haz-mat employer, identify what could trigger an inspection by U.S. DOT, and describe what typically happens during an enforcement inspection.

10 a.m. Break in the Exhibit Hall

10:30 a.m. TBA
John Brigance, Chemical Manufacturers Association, Washington, DC

11 a.m. New Chemical Product Development Process Includes Product Stewardship; One Company's Experience Under Responsible Care
Kristin Lampert, Nalco Chemical Company, Naperville, IL
Today, the whole process of designing new chemical products has undergone a change to incorporate certain principles of product stewardship. When the Chemical Manufacturers' Association announced these initiatives, one specialty chemical company deployed policies and procedures to support the goal of continually improving industry performance in health, safety, and environmental quality. The goal must be accomplished in ways the public recognizes as being responsive to its concerns. Implementation covers all aspects of a chemical product's life from initial research through manufacturing, distribution, use and disposal.

11:30 a.m. TBA

Wednesday, February 7 - Concurrent Session 4C
8:30 a.m. Pollution Prevention Research & Technology Roundtable

Session Co-Chairpersons:
Teresa Harten, U.S. EPA National Risk Management Research Lab, Cincinnati, OH; &
Jack Dini, Lawrence Livermore Labs, Livermore, CA

Wednesday, February 7- Concurrent Session 5A
1 p.m. Air Quality Management for Surface Finishers

Session Chairperson:
Azita Yazdani, P.E., Pollution Prevention International, Inc., Brea, CA

1 p.m. Comparison of Methods for Estimating Process Air Emissions & the Impact on Process Design
Jeffrey R. Lord, The Black Company Environmental, Copley, OH; Philip Pouech, BFGoodrich Aerospace, Vergennes, VT; & Peter Gallerani, CEF, Integrated Technologies, Danville, VT
Estimating process inputs and outputs are keys to effective process design and optimization activities. Tools are available for estimating raw materials usage, such as water, energy, chemical consumpton, and waste emissions. Estimating process emissions can be difficult, especially when investigating the emissions of air toxics. These are generally emitted in small amounts relative to the concentration in other waste streams. Stringent air regulatory requirements from both the U.S. EPA and OSHA and the associated costs of control technologies make it extremely important that effective estimates of process air emissions are developed. Better emission estimates translate into more cost-effective implementation of systems to reduce emissions and minimize exposure to hazardous substances. This paper will focus on the various methods available to estimate process air emissions, investigate the basis of commonly used factors, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each.

1:30 p.m. Tank Ventilation Technologies for OSHA Compliance
Thomas E. Miles, Conserve Engineering, Laguna Beach, CA
Tank ventilation technology for compliance with the proposed 100-fold decrease in the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for hexavalent chromium will be discussed. Case studies demonstrate that indoor air concentrations below 0.5 micrograms per cubic meter can be achieved in plating facilities with properly engineered ventilation systems. Recent developments in push-pull tank ventilation can result in a 66-percent reduction in exhaust air volumes, thereby reducing the size and cost of emission control equipment. Case histories documenting pull-pull ventilation will also be presented. Descriptions of mist-generation mechanics and particle size distribution will be discussed. Indoor air modeling to estimate ambient chromium concentration from plating and anodizing tanks will be presented. Case studies will include rationale for equipment selection, installation and operating costs, indoor air monitoring tests, and risk assessments.

2 p.m. Tank Ventilation & Emission Control Technologies for OSHA & EPA Compliance
Thomas E. Miles, Conserve Engineering, Laguna Beach, CA
Case histories documenting push-pull ventilation with best achievable control technology for toxics (T-BACT) emission control systems for OSHA and EPA compliance will be presented. Case studies will include rationale for equipment selection, installation and operating costs, indoor air monitoring tests, stack test results, and risk assessments.

2:30 p.m. Break in Session Room

3 p.m. Air Pollution Control Technologies for Cleaning Solvent Emissions
Robert E. Kenson, PhD, Met-Pro Corporation, Harleysville, PA
Solvent-based cleaning systems have specific advantages in cleaning particular objects not obtainable when solventless cleaning technologies are used. In order to continue use of solvent-based systems, air pollution control may be required. For chlorinated cleaning solvents, activated carbon fiber-based adsorption and recovery systems are very cost effective. As an example, trichloroethylene cleaning of a toner cartridge is discussed. For non-chlorinated solvents, catalytic oxidation systems are very cost effective. As an example, isopropanol cleaning of aerospace parts is discussed. Where to use which technology and the advantages/disadvantages of each will also be evaluated.

3:30 p.m. Ventilation Designs for Controlling Toxic Air Emissions
David D. Dicks, KCH Services, Inc., Howe, IN
Every year there is increasing scrutiny by the U.S. EPA and other regulatory agencies of toxic air emissions. This scrutiny has caused the design approach toward exhaust systems to become more technical and advanced. This paper will discuss two control devices the wet packed scrubber and the composite mesh pad mist eliminator. Also discussed will be the control velocities of various emissions and how they affect the system design.

Wednesday, February 7 - Concurrent Session 5B
1 p.m. Alternative Process Developments II

Session Chairperson:
John Zavodjancik, Pratt & Whitney, Hartford, CT

1 p.m. Non-cyanide Silver Plating
J.W. Dini & D.R.Pacheco, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA; & R.J. Morrissey, Technic, Inc., Providence, RI
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Technic, Inc., have entered into a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) with the goal of providing industry with an environmentally benign alternative to the currently used silver cyanide plating process. Results from the first six months of this project have been quite promising. The main objective deposition of deposits as thick as 125 m (5 mils) has been met. Property data, such as stress and hardness, have been obtained and the structure of the deposit has been analyzed through metallography and X-ray diffraction. These results will be presented in this paper, along with plans for future work.

1:30 p.m. Environmental Impact of a New Ni-W-B Alloy As an Alternative to Chromium Plating
G. Graef & A. Palazoglu, Dept. of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA; G. Croopnick & J. Donaldson, Amorphous Technologies International, Laguna Niguel, CA
A ternary alloy of Ni-W-B has been suggested as an alternative to hexavalent chromium plating. The alloy deposit exhibits very attractive performance characteristics, such as hardness, corrosion resistance and a shiny finish. This study will focus on the environmental impact of the Ni-W-B plating process and compare it with typical chromium plating processes. Plating bath properties, as they relate to rinsing and drag-out performance, as well as misting, will be discussed. Recovery and recycle of Ni and W will be addressed as part of the bath regeneration. Experimental results will be presented, and potential benefits of a computer simulation model in determining optimal operating conditions for the plating process will be discussed.

2 p.m. Organic Sealant for Anodized Aluminum Corrosion Protection Without Chromate
Garson P. Shulman & A.J. Bauman, Alumitec Products Corporation, Torrance, CA
Isoteric, acid-based organic sealants function by forming water-repellant soaps on the aluminum oxide surface and filling the pores with the free acid. Salt-spray exposures over 2000 hr for 2024 aluminum alloy, over 3000 hr for 7075, and over 4000 hr for 6061 are obtained following room-temperature application of 100-percent liquid acid. The sealant may be used over water-soluble dyes. A 10-percent emulsion can be applied over water-soluble inks and dyes without smearing, but with only 480-hr salt spray life. Sealing by immersion through a layer of acid floated on water can be used to lower the initial cost of filling tanks.

2:30 p.m. Break in Session Room

3 p.m. Evaluation of Cadmium Plating Alternatives
Keith Cramer, J. Peter Ault & Lisa Whiting, Ocean City Research Corp., Ocean City, NJ; & Beau Brinckerhoff, NAVSEA
Several different types of alternatives for cadmium plating have been proposed. In a research project sponsored by NAVSEA, alternative inorganic coatings, organic coatings and base materials were examined. The selection of candidate systems was limited to those that did not create any recognized environmental hazards themselves, according to current and proposed regulations. Systems examined included: Zinc and zinc alloy platings (without chromate coatings), metallic-ceramic coating, inorganic zinc, powder coating, and pretreatment and epoxy systems, as well as stainless steels and titanium 6 Al -4 V. Several different tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of the alternative systems, including lubricity, wear and corrosion resistance tests on appropriate systems. Marine atmosphere exposure was conducted at an exposure site at Sea Isle, NJ, that is within 100 ft of the mean high tide of the Atlantic Ocean and experiences temperature variations from below freezing to above 100 F throughout the year. Past OCRC work on cadmium plating alternatives will be used to supplement testing discussed in this paper.

3:30 p.m. A Non-dumping Water-based Cleaning Process Not Requiring Any Rinse Is Now a Working Alternative
Mats Westerlund, AWM Ytteknik AB, Valbo, Sweden & Lars Clarin, The Swedish Institute of Production Engineering Research, Kungsbacke, Sweden
Non-dumping, rinse-free, water-based cleaning is today a real alternative to solvents and standard cleaning processes prior to plating and hot-dip galvanizing. A cleaning process with biological separation has been used in Sweden for several years. This paper presents a new system based on nonyl phenol-free tensides. The process operates at low temperature (100 105 C) and low pH (8.8 9.2). Metals such as aluminum, zinc, copper and iron can be treated without etching effects on the surface. The low pH makes it possible to move the racks and barrels straight from the cleaner to the following process (e.g., pickling or electrocleaning) without rinsing. Removed oil will be decomposed in a bacteriological process and the remaining products, including bacterias, decomposed oil, particles, etc., are continuously separated from the cleaning solution as a sludge. This paper will describe the system and its theory of operation. Several cases showing the system's performance are presented, along with the economic justification for its use.

Wednesday, February 7 - Session 5C
4 p.m. The National Metal Finishing Resource Center (NMFRC) Roundtable Session

Moderator: George Cushnie, CAI Engineering, Oakton, VA

The NMFRC has been instituted to provide companies with access to comprehensive information on regulatory compliance and pollution prevention. The Center was established under a program jointly funded by the U.S. Commerce Department's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Industry partners are the American Electroplaters and Surface Finishers Society (AESF), the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), the National Association of Metal Finishers (NAMF) and the Metal Finishing Suppliers Association (MFSA). The initial capabilities of the Resource Center will be demonstrated and discussed during this roundtable session. Attendees will be briefed on the progress of the Center, and will be given a demonstration of its electronic information sources, which can be accessed through the World Wide Web on the Internet. This connection will enable users to browse through technical libraries, query the Center's assistance providers, and post questions to other subscribers. A discussion of these capabilities will then be conducted, with the objective of increasing the utilization and effectiveness of the Center.

Wednesday, February 7 - Concurrent Session 5D
5:30 p.m. Operator Forum

Moderator: Thomas Martin, CEF, Delta Chemicals & Equipment, Indianapolis, IN
Frank Altmayer, CEF, Scientific Control Laboratories, Chicago, IL
Lyle Kirman, Kinetico Engineered Systems, Newbury, OH
H. Lee Martin, Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC
Dr. Clarence Roy, CEF, Vortex Water Systems, Inc., Stuart, FL

Wednesday, February 7 - Concurrent Session 5E
5:30 p.m. Health & Safety Forum

Moderator: Martha Martin, CEF, Delta Chemicals & Equipment, Indianapolis, IN
Todd Baldwin, Universal Fasteners, Inc., Lawrenceburg, KY
Robert Lee, CEF, Rogers Corp., Rogers, CT
Philip Platcow, C.I.H., Sedgewick James of New England, Boston, MA
Jane Lemke, UMR Systems, Inc., Burlington, Ontario, Canada
Dr. Paul Piplani, CEF, TTX Environmental, Sturgeon Bay, WI