What are the effects of additives on hardness of Sulphamate Nickel?(2001)
Q. What is the difference between Anti-pitting agents, Grain refiners, and Brighteners (if there is a difference) in a sulfamate nickel bath? How does each effect the hardness of the plating?Ryan Fancher
- Wenatchee, Washington, USA
Anti-pitting agent is nothing more than a compatible soap or wetting agent, it works by helping to wash away gas bubbles that form in the plating process. Grain refiners and brighteners are basically the same and work by making the grains very small and thereby rendering a brightened surface. These additives generally induce a compressive stress in the deposit but it can be controlled if it is a problem.
- Danbury, Connecticut, USA
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