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Ion Exchange / DM plant calculations

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Q. We are operating DM plant of 2 streams of capacity 2740 m3 OBR ( 137 m3/hr * 20 hrs ). Presently our ionic load is lower by 40% than design. We have increased the output to 3500 m3 per regeneration by increasing the run length to 26 hours instead of the design 20 hours. This is being done for one month. The output water quality has not changed. Please let us know will there be any adverse effect by this prolonged run length on the resin. Also please tell us how to calculate the optimum output from a DM plant.

DEVU PARVATEESWARA PRASAD
petroleum refinery engineer - DIGBOI, ASSAM, INDIA

Acronyms for readers new to the lingo:
DM = dimineralization
OBR = output between regenerations


March 19, 2009

A. Dear DEVU,
By Doing the above you will not have any problem as you have already reduced the ionic load then you will not have any problem.
Regarding the optimum OBR you can contact your supplier, as while designing the which resin he has taken we do not know.

Hemang Parimal Mehta
- Vadodara, India

Water Treatment: Principles and Design



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Q. WE HAVE STARTED A BUSINESS FOR WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS. WE WANT TO KNOW THE STANDARD AND METHODS FOR CALCULATION OF D. M. PLANT. 1] HOW CAN WE SUGGEST THE SIZE OF THE D. M. PLANT? 2] HOW CAN WE CALCULATE THE RESIN QNTY. ? 3] HOW CAN WE CALCULATE THE REGENERATION PERIOD ? ONE OF OUR CLIENTS HAS GIVEN US THE FOLLOWING DATA TO CALCULATE THE D. M. PLANT . 1] T.D.S. : 2500 PPM 2] HARDNESS : 1500 PPM NOW, WE HAVE TO SUGGEST THEM D. M. PLANT. WE REQUEST YOU TO HELP US FOR THE ABOVE STATED PROBLEMS ? WE WOULD APPRECIATE YOUR HELP.

THANKS,

HITESH RATHOD
- BARODA, GUJARAT, INDIA

Advances in Water & Wastewater Treatment


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A. To calculate the ionic load of water, first check the total dissolved solids, and then calculate resin proportionally.

If your ionic load is less then the time of design , then you can take more water for demineralisation but you can not change the rate of input or rate of output. Because proper time should be given to exchange ions , for that you have to change the height of column , then you can increase the feed rate with same quantity of resin if your ionic load is less then design.suppose at the time of design , ionic load was 50.0 kg then you need 1000 ltrs anion resin. Now your load is about 25 kgs then you can get double production with same resin with design feed rate. For that you can not change the feed rate, but you can produce double water with same feed rate of design.

Rakeshdeleted
- Baroda, Gujarat, India



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Pretreatment of resin to increase exchange capacity in dm plant & exchange capacity calculation.

sudip das
- kanpur, India

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Ed. note: Please write several sentences, Sudip. We can't figure out if you are answering a previous question or trying to ask a new one. Thanks.



++++++

Q. WE HAVE STARTED A BUSINESS FOR WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS. WE WANT TO KNOW THE STANDARD AND METHODS FOR CALCULATION OF D. M. PLANT. 1] HOW CAN WE SUGGEST THE SIZE OF THE D. M. PLANT? 2] HOW CAN WE CALCULATE THE RESIN QNTY. ? 3] HOW CAN WE CALCULATE THE REGENERATION PERIOD ? ONE OF OUR CLIENTS HAS GIVEN US THE FOLLOWING DATA TO CALCULATE THE D. M. PLANT . 1] T.D.S. : 2500 PPM 2] HARDNESS : 1500 PPM NOW, WE HAVE TO SUGGEST THEM D. M. PLANT. WE REQUEST YOU TO HELP US FOR THE ABOVE STATED PROBLEMS ? WE WOULD APPRECIATE YOUR HELP.

S.Ananthbabu
- Chennai, India



+++++++

Q. We are having a Ion Exchange make DM plant of rated OBR 600 m3 but plant is delivering a maximum of 350-400 m3 DM water in one stretch after regeneration. Either this SBA Unit SiO2 goes high or the conductivity crosses the limit.

Please give your comment or suggestions for improving the OBR

VISHAL KUMAR
captive power generation - Renukoot, (U.P), India

March 19, 2009

A. Dear VISHAL KUMAR
Please check the following
1) Feed Water quality previous and present
2) If regeneration is properly done or not
If you find above both point are ok, Then
3) Take the sample of the resin and do the Exchange capacity test at outside from reputed Lab.

Hemang Parimal Mehta
- Vadodara, India



+++++++

Q. HOW TO CALCULATE EXCHANGE CAPACITY AND IONIC LOAD FOR INCREASING OBR

RAKESH SARAN
- RENUSAGAR DISTT SONEBHADRA (UP). INDIA

September 8, 2009

A. Rakesh,

As you ask about DM design & resin volume... It will depend upon the resin exchange capacity. What resin you are using for the ion exchange process? There is method of the calculation of resin volume, waste water calculation, regenerant chemical required everything but for all things you have to fix the resin type & exchange capacity.

Anuja Badheka
- indore, India



March 16, 2009

Q. 1) We want the calculation of DM plant OBR.
2) If the resin quantity of cation is 1600 little and anion is 940 little, the feed water TDS is 300 ppm and Hardness is 150 ppm, what is the output in one regeneration?
3) We required 600 M3 OBR, how quantity required of resin?

sukhadeo Jagadale
buyer - Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India


March 19, 2009

A. Dear sukhadeo Jagadale
The data given is insufficient, and also hardness of water would never be half of the TDS. Please check properly or send it to outside lab.

Hemang Parimal Mehta
- Vadodara, India

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Ed. note: Thank you so much for generously answering 6 questions, Hemang. Yeoman work!



May 10, 2010

Q. Can you tell me when WAC and WBA needs to be used (WAC-SAC-WBA-SBA-MB) versus when SAC-SBA-MB will be sufficient?

RAMAN M
- CHENNAI, India

ACRONYMS:
WAC = weak acid cation
WBA = weak base anion
SAC = strong acid cation
SBA = strong base anion
MB = mixed bed


October 28, 2011

Q. I want to know how can we calculate the amount of acid or caustic is needed to regenerate the resin.

Suresh

Suresh Jawalkar
regulator - Bellary, Karnataka, India


December 20, 2011

Q. How to calculate OBR for mixed bed?
How to calculate resin exchange capacity?
I just want to know how to calculate the valance for compound.

Srinivasan Subash
- Thanjore, Tamilnadu, India


December 31, 2011

Q. WE WANT TO KNOW HOW TO DESIGN DM PLANT AS OBR, RESIN QUANTITY, REGENERATION ACID & BASE QUALITY & QUANTITY.

NEERAJ KUMAR
- NEW DELHI, India


February 23, 2012

A. To get the OBR of D.M. Plant, use the formula:

resin quantity * ion exchange capacity/ionic load

example: - 100*33/200 = 16.5 m3

T.D.Joshi
- Kathmandu, Nepal



February 14, 2012

Q. We are having semiautomatic DM plant of 3 streams of 80 m3/hr.capacity; our lba and lbc design is 278 & 135 ionic loads with 22 hrs, run with output 1760 m3 OBR. Problem is we are getting more output than designed as the ionic loads are 50 % less than designed -- shall we continue this? One more thing is for every regeneration we are backwashing lbc with lbc water and lba with lba water, getting excellent results. Can we continue this? Is there any adverse effect on resins?

PGKRAJU
PAPER - RAJAHMUNDRY, AP, INDIA


March 3, 2012

Q. Hello Sir !
I am doing a project on increasing the efficiency of D.M. Plant. So how can I do the work and what should I do for the solution for increasing the efficiency?
And should I go for the design analysis of the mixed beds and resins or any other part?
Please suggest for me the best way for my final year project ...
How can I work for D.M. Plant in design way?

Thank you,

Nirav Varia
- Vadodara, Gujarat, India



Hi cousin Nirav. I am not an expert in that topic -- but still it is easy to spot the basic problem with your project: you want to "increase the efficiency" without a clear definition of what that means to you. You'll have to think that through as your first step :-)

Do you want to get a greater OBR, or to replace worn-out resin less frequently, or use less acid & caustic for the regeneration, or reduce the backwash volume, or what? Please tell us exactly how you will judge whether the efficiency has been improved? Then someone may be able to guide you how to achieve that requirement. Good luck.

Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney Teds signature
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
finishing.com
Pine Beach, New Jersey

March 20, 2012

Q. Can I know how cation and anion reaction will be there in mixed bed exchanger in DM plant?
I want to know about chemical formula of cation and anion resins exchanging their free positive and negative charged ion, please guide me.
Can you tell me about water chemistry of DM water, raw water (unblended water) and blended water?

KETAN MISTRY
- Dubai, UAE


July 26, 2012

Q. Dear sir,
We have two DM plants of capacity 60 m3 and 40 m3. My question is how can we calculate the ionic load/ion exchange capacity?

regards
rahul

RAHUL GUPTA
- kanpur, up, india


July 30, 2012

Q. Design Anion Load FMA = 190 ppm as caCO3 and Silica 80 ppm as Sio2 Co2 is 5 ppm as CO2.

When silica is in high level normally we do the design with WBA+SBA Throughfare regeneration.

But one of my client is asking to do the design with SBA type - II resin followed by Type I Resin with the Throughfare regeneration.

It is possible to do the design as above said. The system will work and give the rated capacity and guaranteed parameters.

If possible kindly suggest the design guidelines ASAP.

KarthigaLakshmi
- Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India


November 2, 2012

Q. sir,
We have DM Plant, it's cation & anion resin capacity is 400 lit. So I want to know Quantity of HCl & Caustic for regeneration?

Venkatesh Bhalekar
- Aurangabad, Maharastra, India


January 13, 2013

Q. What are the steps to reduce sodium and silica slippage from SAC in DM plant

Sreedhar Goturu
- Andharpradesh

April 26, 2013appended

Q. My Question
We have 2 DM water plants of capacity 6 m3/hr at 200 m3 OBR and 10 m3/hr at 400 m3 OBR. Both plants have sac-De gas tower-sba-mb, as per design mb OBR is less.
And coming to the point air is entrapped during operation in mb column. Due to this, OBR is fluctuating. So can you help me the reasons to air entrapment (air pockets)
D.N.S MURALIKUMAR

D.N.S MURALIKUMAR
pharma company - Andhra Pradesh, Visakhapatnam


May 6, 2013appended

Q. Kindly let me know how to calculate or estimate the quantity of regenerant required.
Please advise which is the preferred method of regeneration? How does CPU (condensate polishing unit) differ from DM plants?

Thank you.

coimbatore vedavyasan coimbatore
- Chennai, Indiav

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Ed note: C'mon folks! :-(

apply for free subscription to
Water & Wastewater International . . .


For an on-line forum to have continuing value requires that you ANSWER questions, as well as ask them -- a long string of unanswered questions just wastes everyone's time. If you know enough to frame a question, you know enough to answer one of the previous ones. Please try your best to do so when posing your question, rather than looking selfish and lazy :-)
Thanks.


September 28, 2013

Q. Hi
Please tell me how to size a MB unit for RO based DM plant, when you we only know TDS of of the outlet permeate. How can we arrive at the resin volumes required?

Thank you,

Tajuddin Shaik
- Chennai, India
  ^- Privately contact this inquirer -^


October 1, 2013

A. One- I do not know what a "MB" is. If it is ion exchange used with an RO unit, I would assume that you would use the RO unit first as it is more cost effective than resin. The resin becomes a polishing unit.

James Watts
- Navarre, Florida

ACRONYMS:

MB = mixed bed
RO = reverse osmosis
DM = demineralization
TDS = total dissolved solids


October 2, 2013

A. The volume of resin is determined by the maximum flow rate, total water usage per day and also by how often you want to exchange the resin.

Typical flow rates are less than or equal to 3-8 gallons per minute per cubic foot of resin, often much lower.

You can estimate the volume of DI water the resin will produce between regenerations or replacement if you know the conductivity of the permeate.

Lyle Kirman
consultant - Cleveland, Ohio


October 15, 2013

Q. DOES THE OBR OF MIXED BED GET INCREASED AFTER ACID WASH?

S.A.GOWTHAM JAIN
- Chennai, TN, India


October 15, 2013

A. Hi Jain. Hopefully another reader will understand your question but, sorry, I don't. I suggest that invest more words into it.

Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney Teds signature
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
finishing.com
Pine Beach, New Jersey

October 5, 2013

Q. Dear Sir / Madam,

DM plant OBR is calculated by knowing the following things.

1.Total ionic load; this can be found in raw water quality.
2.Total exchange capacity of resins
3.Quantity of resin in ion exchange vessel vessel
4.Flow of water

Please suggest to me how to calculate item 1,
"Total ionic load; this can be found in raw water quality".

Toufiq .M. Hattarakihal
- Satara, Maharastra, India


October 25, 2013

Q. DEAR SIR / MADAM ,

FIRST, THANKS FOR ADVISING REQUIREMENT FOR OBR.

NOW, PLEASE, ADVISE ME HOW TO CALCULATE IONIC LOAD OF THE RAW WATER, OR ANY PROCEDURE TO CALCULATE THE IONIC LOAD .

WAITING FOR YOUR RESPECTED REPLY. I HOPE YOU DO THIS FOR ME.

TOUFIQ .M. HATTARAKIHAL
- SATARA, MAHARASTRA, INDIA


October 30, 2013

A. The usual method is to sum all of the cations and all of the anions separately in units of either equivalents per liter, or in mg/L as calcium carbonate.

The main cations are Na+, Ca++, and Mg++, and there may be traces of metals and ammonia. The main anions are SO4=, Cl-, HCO3-, CO3=, and silica.

If the two sums are unequal, use the higher number in your calculations.

Alternatively, for a rough estimate of the total mg/L as calcium carbonate, simply divide the conductivity in microsiemens by 1.6.

Lyle Kirman
- Cleveland, Ohio USA



November 26, 2013

Q. Dear Sir or Madam,

My raw water parameters are as follows :

pH : 8.3
tds : 306
ca - hardness : 40.48 ppm as CaCO3
mg - hardness : 7.48 ppm as CaCO3
total hardness : 132 ppm
collidal silica : 8.62
reactive silica : 0.924
Anoin Exchange Capacity : 1.91 milliequivalent /g
Cation Exchange Capacity : 3.22 milliequivalent /g
resin make : doshion
RESIN - CATIONIC (TYPE:CSA 9H+) : 1538 ltrs
RESIN - ANIONIC (TYPE:ASB 108 OH-): 1692 ltrs
MB Flow : 24 m3
Please, provide me OBR of MB as per mentioned above parameters.

TOUFIQ .M. HATTARAKIHAL
- SATARA, MAHARASTRA


November 30, 2013

Q. DEAR SIR / MADAM,

PLEASE GIVE SOME PRACTICAL INFORMATION ON JAR TEST FOR RAW WATER AND ITS CALCULATION. PLEASE SUGGEST THE HANDBOOKS TO REFER TO RELATED TO WATER TREATMENT.

WAITING FOR YOUR REPLY.

TOUFIQ .M. HATTARAKIHAL
- SATARA, MAHARASTRA, INDIA


December 13, 2013

Q. HOW TO INCREASE MB OBR?

AJAY PATEL
- SURAT, GUJARAT, INDIA


December 17, 3

A. Hi Ajay. T.D. Joshi has posted on this page that OBR = "resin quantity * ion exchange capacity/ionic load". So you have to increase one of those two factors.

Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney Teds signature
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
finishing.com
Pine Beach, New Jersey

December 18, 2013

A. The resin capacities that you list appear to be catalog data of capacity at complete exhaustion.

Operating capacity is usually much lower than the capacities listed on the resin specification sheets for several reasons. One reason is that, in service, the resin is regenerated at initial breakthrough, not at complete exhaustion. Another reason is that after a typical regeneration there are still some ions remaining on the resin, so it is not 100% regenerated.

Also, if you are running until there is a silica breakthrough, then the high concentration of colloidal silica will be a problem. Colloidal silica can be removed by ultrafiltration before the MB resin.

Lyle Kirman
- Cleveland, Ohio USA



December 26, 2013

Q. Good Evening Sir,
In our softening plant we regenerate resin with 16% Sodium Chloride, same as how much qty of Sodium Hydroxide, Hydrochloric acid want to regenerate for Cation and anion resin. Kindly share with me.

Regards,
Yuvaraj.

Yuva Raj
- Komarapalayam, Namakkal District, Tamilnadu, India


December 26, 2013

A. Hi Yuva. I can't understand your question ... can you re-word it with a little more length?

I am probably misunderstanding you, but although you can use sodium chloride for removing water hardness (the sodium replaces calcium and magnesium), you can't regenerate dual bed (cation and anion), or mixed bed ion exchangers with sodium chloride. You must use a hydroxide (like the sodium hydroxide you mentioned) to provide OH- ions, and an acid (like the hydrochloric acid you mentioned) to provide the H+ ions. Good luck.

Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney Teds signature
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
finishing.com
Pine Beach, New Jersey

December 29, 2013

Q. Good morning sir,
For cationic and anionic resin we regenerate with Sodium hydroxide and Hydrochloric acid. My question is how much quantity of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid is needed for regeneration of each resin. For example, in softening plant of 100 liters resin we should regenerate 16 kg sodium chloride.

Regards,
Yuvaraj.

Yuva Raj [returning]
- Komarapalayam, Tamilnadu, India


December 30, 2013

A. For on-site regenerated systems, 4% HCl and 4% NaOH are typically used at a dosage of approximately 4 pounds (100% basis) of chemical per cubic foot (for counter-current systems).

For off-site regenerated cation and anion resins or co-currently regenerated systems, the strength is the same but the dosage is higher, typically about 6 pounds of chemical per cubic foot of resin.

One other note about softeners. 16% brine is more concentrated than needed. 8-10% brine at the correct dosage would be more efficient and save some salt. The dosage required depends upon whether the softener is regenerated in a co-current or counter-current manner.

Lyle Kirman
- Cleveland, Ohio USA



December 29, 2013

Q. Please tell me --

How to determine the concentration of acid or alkali as a regenerant of cation and anion resin respectively. Is there any formula in general to calculate the Baume or concentration of acid/alkali?

SACHIN VAIDYA
- Chandrapur,Maharashtra,INDIA


December 2013

Hi Sachin. Lyle Kirman's answer to Yuva Raj has been placed immediately before your question. If Lyle's response is not what you were looking for, please phrase your question in terms of what you have done and are trying to do, and write a few paragraphs describing it. I can't tell from your abstract question if you are looking for an analysis method for acid and alkali, or for conversions from one scale to another, or if you are asking what is the standard concentration of acid and alkali to use for regeneration, or if someone has sold you regeneration chemicals that you are reluctant to use without testing, or if you are trying to judge the endpoint for the regeneration based on analysis of the remains or what ... PLEASE .... YOUR SITUATION, not abstract questions. Thanks!

Regards,

pic of Ted Mooney Teds signature
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
finishing.com
Pine Beach, New Jersey


December 30, 2013

Q. I have values as follows:-
Flow - 6 m3/ day
TDS - 1000mg/lit
COD - 57 mg/lit
SO, HOW TO CALCULATE RESIN FOR VESSEL?
I think I provided insufficient data, but still anyone know any way to calculate?

RASHMI Shaha
- PUNE, Maharashtra, India


March 10, 2014

Q. Our DM plant scheme is SAC-DG-SBA-MB
After SBA-O/l 8.5 Ph,After MB-O/l 5.7 Ph is coming
Output Ph is low; I want to raise the pH up to 6.5
What do I want to do to improve the outlet pH?

K Mathiazhahan
- Bellary,Karnataka


March 12, 2014

A. It is extremely difficult to get accurate pH measurements on high purity water. Resistivity is the best assurance that the pH is within a narrow range close to 7.0. If the resistivity of your water is > 10 Meg-Ohm, then the pH is probably > 6.5.

Lyle Kirman
- Cleveland, Ohio USA



March 26, 2014

Q. Respected sir,
I'm "jitu". I want to know about colloidal and reactive silica?
What is the use of DM water for GCV ("gross calorific value" of coal)?
When we are analysing GCV by bomb calorimeter, why do we use distilled water for QCV analysis?

jitendra tripathi
textile industries - kota, Rajasthan, India


April 8, 2014

Q. What will be the service flow in Bed volume per hour considered when I design or calculate Resin Exchange Capacity of Softener Unit?

Is it 15 BV/Hr??

DEBDAS KAR
- Kolkata,West Bengal,India


May 20, 2014

A. Hi Debdas,

15 BV/Hr looks a bit high to me. Usually my experience is 2 to 6BV/Hr (0.25 to 0.75 gpm/ft3). You may consult your resin supplier a suitable flow rate.

Regards,
David


David Shiu
- Singapore


May 22, 2014

A. It depends upon several factors. In residential applications, where there is a brief, but relatively high peak flow and long periods of no flow, rates of 40 BV per hour are common. This rate would not be suitable for a continuous flow. For a continuous flow rates of 5-15 BV/hour are not uncommon.

Lyle Kirman
consultant - Cleveland, Ohio



September 26, 2014

Q. Dear sir,
Our raw water parameters
pH - 7- 7.5
COND- 70 µs/cm
TDS - 40 PPM
T H - 28 PPM
Ca H- 12 PPM
Cl as CaCO3- 11.56 ppm
M-alkalinity 28 ppm
Turbidity- 4-6 ntu
Resin cation - 225H doshion
Resin Anion - FFIP

Please tell me how to calculate the ionic load, resin quantity & resin exchange capacity.

Anand Latti
Warana Power Plant - Hidkal, Karnataka, India


October 3, 2014

A. Hello Anand,

Your IX resin supplier should be happy to do this for you. For the quantity of resin needed, you will also need to tell them the flow rate that you want to operate at.

Lyle Kirman
consultant - Cleveland, Ohio

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