How to Anneal Stainless Steel to Soften It
Q. I have some stainless steel blanks that I use for POW/MIA bracelets; they are about 2 mm thick X 7" X .5". The stainless is extremely hard -- is there a way to anneal the stainless to soften it up? I have a ceramic kiln I can heat it in if this is possible? Can anyone help?
silversmithing - Tacoma, Washington
A. Hello John!
The stainless you have is likely in the cold rolled condition. Annealing is commonly done at 1900 °F or so, for roughly an hour. You want to cool it fairly fast, especially through the 1500 °F to 800 °F temperature range, to avoid 'sensitization'. In that temp range, the chromium and the carbon in the stainless tend to combine, which depletes your stainless steel of chromium, the magic element that makes it stainless. Water quenching is fine metallurgically, but it may give you additional distortion, causing your sheet to warp or bow.
If you do it in air you WILL get an ugly scale- will you be able to grind it off? I'd recommend trying a small piece to see if you can live with the discoloration. Alternatives include using small stainless steel bags offered by heat treat supply houses, or getting it done commercially in an inert atmosphere.
March 17, 2011
Q. You mentioned something about stainless bags or annealing bags. Could you please extrapolate as I have some silversmithing students who are working in stainless and I'd love to improve our annealing process. Currently we are just using a gas/air torch (silversmithing style) and heating up to orange and holding temperature for say 10 seconds. I really wonder whether this has any benefit?
- Sydney, NSW, Australia
March 18, 2011
A. Hello Chris!
What I was talking about are small bags, or envelopes, made of stainless steel. You put your parts inside, fold the metal as tightly as you can to keep out air, and anneal the package. Nabertherm in Germany makes them, as does Sentry in the US under their Sen/Pak trade name. Google "annealing envelopes" or something similar and you'll see pictures of what I'm describing. They give reasonable protection at the high temperatures used for thorough annealing of 18-8 stainless steel grades. We use something similar when aging beryllium copper- I'll wrap parts in aluminum foil and flow nitrogen gas through the package, and it works like a charm. The parts go in shiny and come out shiny. Aluminum melts at too low a temperature for wrapping stainless steel, however.
Regarding your current practice, and looking at Uddeholm's temperature chart (www.uddeholm.com/files/Temperature_guide.pdf ) I see that orange is about 1700 °F, and that's pretty high. Ten minutes won't fully anneal stainless grades, as you won't get any carbide dissolution, but you will get a great reduction of the residual stress you put in from bending or cutting or other working. So it's worthwhile, and may be all you need, but if you want to heat higher for longer, try the annealing bags.
May 20, 2011
Q. Is it possible to do annealing on Stainless Steel 316 (ASTM A 213 TP 316) tube size 1/4" OD, 20 SWG or 16 SWG? Can you suggest how to do this?
Is it possible to do the same for a 3/8" OD tube of similar thickness?
These tubes are usually cold drawn tubes, and annealing is required for relieving stresses developed due to work hardening
Manufacturing - Pune, Maharashtra, India
March 27, 2012
Q. I NEED TO ROLL 1" S/S ROUND BAR 304 INTO THE SHAPE OF AN S BUT IT WANTS TO SPRING BACK WOULD ANNEALING HELP? OR WHAT WOULD YOU SUGGEST?ROWLAND STANTON
- PENSACOLA, FLORIDA, USA
April 1, 2012
A. Hi Rowland!
You could bend it part way, then anneal, then bend it some more. Maybe take more than two steps, if you have the luxury. That would certainly reduce the amount of residual stress in the bar, and allow it to retain the S shape.
April 9, 2012
Q. Is it possible to anneal 441 Stainless Steel Tubing?
How do you anneal 441 SS tubing?
- Jackson, Michigan, USA
April 12, 2012
A. Yes it is possible to anneal Type 441 stainless steel tubing. Full annealing is performed by heating to a temperature between 760 and 830 C for 90 minutes per 25 mm of thickness, followed by air quenching. Stress relieving, e.g., after welding, can be performed in the range of 200-300 °C.Toby Padfield
Automotive component & module supplier - Michigan, USA
July 28, 2012
Q. Hi. I would like to make jewelry and other decorative items from old stainless steel flatware. Although it's possible to hammer it flat and bend it into desired shapes, it's hardness makes it quite difficult. Years ago I worked in a jewelry store and used a gas torch to repair jewelry. Because of that, I am thinking that if I annealed the flatware before trying to bend it, it's malleability would be increased. Unfortunately, I don't remember what we used for annealing...seems like it was some sort of pickling solution, then, of course, flux for effecting the solder joint. I'd appreciate any suggestions for making these items easier to work with as well as suggestions for where to obtain the annealing material. Thanks so much for your help! DeborahDeborah Galloway
- Roanoke, Virginia, USA
June 18, 2014
Q. Deborah, did you get any response to your question? I would really like to know the answer too.Mary Morrison
Student of metal jewelry - Rock Hill, South Carolina
A. Hi Mary. Annealing for softening can be done, but it's by no means simple to understand, let alone do :-)
For example you harden copper by cooling it slowly, and soften it by cooling it rapidly -- whereas with steel you do the exact opposite. And with stainless steel, you also have to be conscious of cooling at the right rate through critical temperature zones as explained by Lee Gearhart. And then you have the issue of oxidation (blackening) unless you are able to exclude air with a special furnace or the stainless steel bags that he talks about.
I would not want to discourage you at all, but annealing stainless steel is a challenge you'll really have to work at, not a quick trick. And if you read jewelry-making forums they'll all tell you to find sterling silver flatware, not stainless, for your designs :-)
Luck and Regards,
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
Pine Beach, New Jersey
September 15, 2012
Q. What would be the procedure for annealing stainless rod for threading?Paul Marshall
- Anchorage, Alaska
September 26, 2012
Q. What grade of stainless steel should be used for a mold to be used in a glass kiln? The temperature will not exceed 1700 degrees.Fran King
- Fort Myers, Florida, USA
November 8, 2012
Q. We have a continuous annealing and pickling line for stainless steel. Can someone tell me the annealing cycle for 200 and 300 Series and low nickel of stainless steel with chemical composition.R.K.Kushwah
- Angul, Orissa, India
May 8, 2013
Q. I need to drill an SS304 M8 stud. The material is very hard. Can any one tell me how can I soften the material?NAZIR KHAN
Heavy Equipment - Mumbai , INDIA
January 21, 2014
Q. How can 202 Austenitic stainless steel be softened or annealed? Please advise for above grade annealing temp., soaking and cooling process. etc.
individual - Faridabad, Haryana, India
August 18, 2014
I want to bend a ss pipe of dia 1 inch and thickness of 0.95 mm. Can annealing help me to bend that pipe easily without getting wrinkles?
Engineering Works - Ahmednagar, Mahrashtra, INDIA
Hello Gentle Readers ...
There is a pattern to this page: QA QA QQA QA QQA QQQQQQ -- Q's almost balanced by A's at the beginning, but devolving to a long string of Q's.
This seems to offer insight into how societies of mutual give-and-take devolve into dysfunctional societies if a critical mass turn to taking without giving, so even the traditional givers stop giving :-)
So please answer a question before asking your own; otherwise, readers will probably not even finish reading 7 unanswered questions in a row, let alone take the time to answer yours. Good luck.
Ted Mooney, P.E. RET
Pine Beach, New Jersey
Bending 1-3/4"OD x .120" wall 304/304L TubingFebruary 6, 2015
Q. I am building a roadster replica. I have a 304 stainless roll bar, 1-3/4" OD x .120" wall tubing. The roll bar consists of a 180 degree hoop and a third leg which is fishmouth-welded to the top of the hoop. The third leg must be "bent" slightly to align with a chassis stub to which the other end attaches. Can I heat the fishmouth weld area and pull/bend the leg into the proper position?
Car Restorer/Builder - Prescott, Arizona USA
February 8, 2015
A. Well, today we heated an area of ~ 3" all the way around below the fishmouth weld to cherry red while rigorously nudging the leg with a ratchet, 22 mm socket and a 4' length of 1-1/2" pipe. It took a lot of force, but it worked fine, with no pitting or visible deformation; should clean-up fine with a Scotch-Brite pad and lots of elbow grease.
- Prescott, Arizona USA